Linguistic 1&2
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  • 2. INTRODUCTIONSemantics is a language to interpret the meaning of words, phrases and sentences. Insense of linguistic function, semantics is a study of meaning of words. It also a study ofthe systematic ways of the structures of the language in words and sentences( Finegan 2008: 173 )REFLECTIONBy reading this unit from the module given, I really attracted to highlight unit 4 that isSemantics which is very useful to all the English Language teachers including me, toimplement it in teaching English as a Second Language at schools.Based on what I have read, there are three types of meaning. There are linguistic,social and affective.i- Linguistic meaning can be categorized into two that is referential and sense.Referential meaning happens when the meaning of words or sentences is referred tothe actual person or objects, situation or events too.For example : Maya is drawing in the living room. This sentence is showing that aperson or a girl named Maya, is drawing ( action that took place at that time ), and in theliving room is showing the place where the girls ( Maya ) is doing her action ( drawing ).Some more example is : The women are talking each other at the bus stop.The women ( the actual person ) who have been doing the action ( talking ) to eachother ( to whom that they are talking ), and the place where do they are talking to ( atthe bus stop ).Based on the two examples given, it is showing that referential meaning is clear as thereferents are real objects/person and the events they refer to.
  • 3. But, in certain cases or situation, the referential meaning can be insufficient becausethey cannot explain how the sentences represent what they mean.For example : Anuar Zain is a singer……..Anuar Zain is Anuar Zain…This is insufficient because both of the sentences may not identical and may not refer tothe same person. It could be the other people with the same name as mentioned above.ii- Social meaningSentences which are produced or uttered also showing who are the speakers. Forexample , the use of this sentence : We leave now lah, Come on, ma..Hey, bro!.By listening to the first and the second sentence, we know that it is uttered by somepeople with the specific ethnicity such as Malays, Chinese or even though Indians ( inMalaysia ).For the third sentence, it is commonly used and uttered by youngsters to communicatewith their colleagues among themselves with the same range of age.I used to have this kind of experience when I was teaching in an urban school in SK StXavier, Pulau Tikus, Penang. 90% of the pupils come from educated and modernfamilies and they always uttered some sort of sentences such as…..Relax, bro…What’sup dude and so on…They use these kind of sentences in their daily communicationamong themselves which are accepted as the sentences carry their meaning.Iii – Affective meaningSentences can also give or lead to affective meaning which give the different impact.For example : i- Sharifah who teaches the lower class gives a good teaching toher pupils….ii- Sharifah who teaches the lower class makes her pupils failed inthe exam.
  • 4. The two sentences convey the different meaning. The first and the second sentencesare telling to us about the same teacher, Sharifah. However, the first sentence carries agood and effective teacher rather compare to the second sentence which carries anineffective teacher.Another example is : Sara is a soft spoken woman….Sara is a fierce woman….These two sentences are telling about the same person, that is Sara. But, the differentis, the first sentence is conveying a positive character that is soft spoken but in contrast,the second sentence is telling the negative character of Sara that is fierce woman.Rather than linguistic, social and affective meaning, the meaning of sentences can beconveyed by denotative and connotative. Denotative carries the meaning as presentedin the dictionary but on the other hand, connotative carries refers to association of theother words to get the meaning.For example : the word blind in two types of sentences.i- I’m going to Kuala Lumpur to have a blind dateii- The blind man is crossing the road.The first sentence is describing that the person is going to Kuala Lumpur to meetsomebody for the first time meeting. However, the second sentence is telling that a blindman ( a man who cannot see ) is crossing the road. The use of word blind itself isshowing where the connotative meaning take place.Next is, Lexical Semantics. It can be conveyed when the words are analyzed by itsrelationship to the other words. Sometimes, we can identify the words by looking at thesame characterization of the words.For example : i- jump, sleep, throw, sick
  • 5. By referring to the above samples, the word jump, sleep and throw are showing thatthey are under the same category that is verbs, but not the word sick as it is anadjective.Another sub topic that attracted me is Ambiguity. It is refers to a knowledge where thethe users use their semantic knowledge to convey the meaning. It also informs theusers whether the words or phrases have more than one meaning.For example :The man hit the burglar with a sharp object.The sentence above carries two meaning. The first one is telling that the man hit theburglar by using a sharp object ( action ). However, it can be understood on the otherway. The second meaning is telling that the man hit a burglar who is carrying a sharpobject with him. ( noun )By referring to the above example, it shows where the ambiguity occurs. The sentenceis considered as ambiguous as it has two different meaning. In fact, ambiguity should beavoided to be done as to avoid any misinterpretation or miscommunication towards themeaning of the sentences or phrases uttered by the language users.CONCLUSIONThere are many types of meaning of words or sentences. There are linguistic, social,affective, denotative, connotative, ambiguity and so on. Each of the meaning carriestheir own characters of definition. The most important thing is, we have to know theactual meaning conveyed by the sentences or phrases uttered by the users by lookingat all aspects such as the socialization, characterization, regional, races, ethnicity aswell as the background of the language users.REFERENCEIntan Safinas Mohd Ariff Albakri, Nor Azmi Mostafa, 2013: LINGUISTICS FOR ESLTEACHERS. FAKULTI BAHASA DAN KOMUNIKASI. UPSI.
  • 7. ARTICLERules for PrepositionsPrepositions are relationship words. They give clues and guidance regarding how theremainder of the sentence fits together. There are several important rules when usingprepositions in the context of a sentence. These rules relate to how prepositions can beused, which prepositions can be used when, and where prepositions have to go in thesentence.Ads by GoogleFree Lesson Plans Browse Lesson Plan ideas for K-12 classrooms. Join ePals for free! is a Preposition?A preposition is a word that explains the time, space or logical relationship between theother parts of the sentence. In other words, it links all the other words together, so thereader can understand how the pieces of the sentence fit.There are hundreds of prepositions in the English language. One easy way to rememberprepositions is that they are words that tell you everywhere a bunny can run; for example,a bunny can run• up• down• near• far• by
  • 8. • at• around• close• alwaysAll of these words, and many more, are prepositions.Preposition RulesThere are 2 major rules when it comes to the use of prepositions.1. The first major rule deals with preposition choice. Certain prepositions mustfollow certain words, and the correct preposition must be used to make relationshipsbetween words in the sentences clear.2. The second major rule deals with the prepositions place in the sentence.Prepositions must be followed by nouns, and prepositions can only go on the end of thesentence in certain situations.Preposition ChoiceDetermining the correct preposition to use can be a tricky proposition. This can beespecially difficult when dealing with idioms- expressions in the English language thatrequire the use of a certain word, simply because that is the word we have chosen to use.Idiomatic expressions are expressions you just have to memorize, and when errors aremade, they are almost always preposition errors.Here are some examples of idioms, along with the correct prepositions:• Able to
  • 9. • Capable of• Preoccupied with• Concerned by• Prohibited fromEach of the italicized words are the only acceptable prepositions to follow these words. Itwould not be grammatically correct to say "able with" or "capable to"Prepositions In the Context of SentencesPrepositions must always be followed by a noun or pronoun. That noun is calledthe object of the preposition. A verb cant be the object of a preposition.• The bone was for the dog. This is correct- the preposition for is followed by thenoun "dog."• The bone was for walked. This is not correct. The preposition for is followed by averb "walked." Walked cant be the object of a preposition.This rule may seem confusing at first, because you may have seen words that look likeverbs following the preposition to in sentences; for example:• I like to ski or These boots are for skiing.However, in these examples, the ski and skiing are not actually acting as verbs.• In the first example, to ski is part of the infinitive. An infinitive is NOT a verb. Aninfinitive occurs when a verb is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Here, "to ski" is aTHING that the person likes doing, not an action that they are doing. It is a verbal noun.• In the second example, skiing is a gerund. Like an infinitive, a gerund is NOT averb, but is instead a noun, adjective or adverb. Here, "skiing" is a thing that the bootsare for. No one in this sentence is doing the action of skiing.Ads by Google
  • 10. English Grammar Lessons The Secrets To Speaking English with Confidence. Free EmailCourse. LearnRealEnglish.comSobha Meritta OMR Chennai 2/3 BHK Luxury Apartments. Great InvestmentOpportunity. Prepositions at the End of SentencesBecause prepositions must be followed by a noun and have an object, they usually cantbe used at the end of a sentence. For example, it is not correct to say:• The table is where I put my books on.However, there are certain circumstances where it is acceptable to end a sentence with apreposition. These exceptions exist where the preposition is not extraneous. In otherwords, the preposition needs to be there, and if it wasnt, the meaning of the sentencewould change.In the above example, "The table is where I put my books on." the use of the preposition"on" isnt necessary. We could take the "on" out of the sentence and the meaning wouldbe the same. So, the use of the preposition was extraneous or unnecessary and we dontneed it.However, here is an example where it is perfectly acceptable to use a preposition to end asentence:• "I turned the TV on."If you removed the "on" from the end of this sentence, it would change the meaning.Instead of switching on the set, you would be saying that you turned the TV itself.Retrieved from :
  • 11. This article is telling about the definition and rules of prepositions. Prepositions arerelationship of words which is giving clues of the sentence to fit together. To have agood sentence structure, several rules need to be followed such as :how prepositionscan be used, which prepositions can be used and where prepositions are going to beused. According to this article, a preposition is a word that explains time, space, orlogical relationship between the other sentences. The key word here is, it links all thewords together so that the sentences can be understood clearly. In order to rememberthe examples of prepositions, one formula has been created, that is words that can tellyou where a bunny can run. There are : up, down, near, far, by, at, around, close andalways. And, the use of these words depend on the contexts or sentences especiallythe rules of prepositions itself.There are two main rules of prepositions. The first one is choice of the prepositions. Thecorrect choice of prepositions is needed to get the correct sentences. It must befollowed by certain correct words.For example : the choice of the word over ( preposition ) . He jumped over the fence.In this sentence or context, the use of the word fence is mostly related to the suitablepreposition such as over in order to tell the place where the person jumped.The second major rule is the place of the prepositions which is must be followed bynouns and can be go on at the end of the sentence in certain situations.For example : The table is where I put my books on…In this sentence, it is showingthat the use of the word on ( preposition ) is used at the end of the sentence. On is anexample of preposition to indicate the location of the books ( referring to the abovesentence / context ).Second example is : The bone was for the dog… This sentence is telling that thepreposition ( for ) is followed by the noun ( dog ). It is not similar with the other situationor sentence like : The bone was for walked…This is incorrect because preposition
  • 12. ( for ) cannot be followed by a verb as the verb ( walked ) cannot be the object of apreposition.Based on my experience, most of the pupils are able to cover the basic prepositionssuch as on, in, under, at, across, over, through, near, next to and between. Most ofthem are referring to prepositions of location.Generally, there are many types of prepositions. There are prepositions of location,prepositions of place, prepositions of time, and prepositions of movement .Prepositions of location describes or indicates the actual or specific location of placessuch as : The market is opposite the school.In this context, the word opposite is followed by a noun ( school ).Prepositions of place describes the specific place depending on the use of theprepositions itself. For example : We use the word at for specific address ( The girl livesat No. 22, Jalan Garuda, Johor Bahru ).But, we use on to designate names of streets or roads such as : Her house is onPetaling Street.It is different with the other preposition, we use in for the names of land areas such asThey are staying in a rural area.:The next one is prepositions of time which is referring to time or duration. There arethree samples of prepositions of time such as at, on and in.For example : The train is due at 12.30pm – to designate the specific time.The bus arrived at 10am – to designate specific timeMy sister will be coming on next Monday. – to designate days and dates.He likes to jog in the evening. – to designate the nonspecific times.
  • 13. As for prepositions of place, we use between with two or more people or things that wesee as individual or separate, and we use among when we see the people or things aspart of a group or mass. But, among is only used with three or more people or things.Examples :Aina is standing between Ahmad and Razak.Ahmad Aina RazakNext is, prepositions of movement which describes the positions or movement of theobjects or people.For example :to – is used to express movement toward a place.They are driving to the office together.She’s going to the clinic to get some treatment.For example : toward – to express movement too.We are walking toward the big house.
  • 14. To indicate the positions of the objects or people, we use some words such as acrossand over.Examples : Mak Bedah lives in the house across the river.Once she was over the border, she knew that she would be safe.Graphic Organizer of Prepositions ( Summary )CPREPOSITIONSPREPOSITIONSRULESChoice ofprepositionsPlace of theprepositionsRULESChoice ofprepositionsPlace of theprepositionsTYPES OFPREPOSITIONSPrepositions of locationPrepostions of place /movementPrepositions of timeTYPES OFPREPOSITIONSPrepositions of locationPrepostions of place /movementPrepositions of time
  • 15. CONCLUSIONPrepositions are important to link the nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words inconstructing sentences. This is to make sure that the sentences are well organized andconstructed to avoid the ambiguity or confusion when the readers read the sentences.ReferencesH. Martin: Advanced Grammar in Use. Cambridge University Press.UK.