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 Discourse analysis and grammar study 
familiar terms like :clause , pronoun, 
adverbial and conjunction and attempt to 
...
 Spoken and written discourses display 
grammatical connexions between 
individual clauses and utterances. 
 These gramm...
 The term reference is traditionally used in 
semantics to define the relationship between a 
word and what it points to ...
 (Looking outward- outside the text). 
The referent is not in the immediate 
context but is assumed by the 
speaker/write...
 E.g., 
 For he's a jolly good fellow and so say 
all of us. 
 As outsiders, we don’t know who the he 
is, but, most li...
References to elements in the text are 
called Endophoric references. 
 Endophoric referencing can be divided 
into two ...
 refers to any reference that “points 
backwards” to previously mentioned 
information in text. Usually items such : as 
...
Refers to any reference that “points 
forward” to information that will be 
presented later in the text. 
 For example: ...
 Functionally speaking, there are three 
main types of cohesive references: 
 Personal 
 Demonstrative 
Comparative.
 Personal reference keeps track of function 
through the speech situation using noun, 
pronouns like “he, him, she, her”,...
 Demonstrative reference keeps track of 
information through location using 
proximity references like “this, these, 
tha...
 Comparative reference keeps track of identity 
and similarity through indirect references 
using adjectives like “same, ...
 Whereas referencing functions to link 
semantic meanings within text, substitution 
and ellipsis differ in that they ope...
Substitution: 
 substitution is the replacement of a 
word or phrase with a "filler" word (such 
as one, so, or do) to av...
substitution 
Nominal 
One /ones 
Verbal 
Do/so 
Clausal 
So / not
 In nominal substitution , the most 
typical substitution words are: 
 “one and ones” . 
 e.g., Let's go and see the be...
 In verbal substitution, the most common 
substitute is the verb “do” which is sometimes 
used in conjunction with “so” a...
 In clausal substitution, an entire clause is 
substituted by "So, not" 
 E.g., I believe so. 
 Everyone thinks he’s gu...
 Ellipsis (zero substitution) is the omission of 
elements normally required by the grammar which 
the speaker/writer ass...
Ellipsis 
nominal 
verbal 
clausal
 Ellipsis within the nominal group or the 
common noun that may be omitted and 
the function of head taken on by one of 
...
 An elliptical verbal group presupposes one 
or more words from a previous verbal 
group. Technically, it is defined as a...
 A Clause in English, considered as the expression of the 
various speech functions, such as statement, question, 
respon...
Conjunction acts as a cohesive tie 
between clauses or sections of text in 
such a way as to demonstrate a 
meaningful pa...
Conjunctions are not a way of simply 
joining sentences. Their role in the text 
is wider than that, because they provide...
Hallday ( 1985) offers a scheme for the 
classification of conjunctive relations 
and includes over forty conjunctive 
it...
Activity : 
 What type of cohesive devices have these 
sentences : 
 She studied match hardly as a result she passed 
th...
 Halliday, M.A.K. and Ruqaiya Hasan Language, 
context, and text: aspects of language in a social-semiotic 
perspective. ...
Discourse analysis and grammar
Discourse analysis and grammar
Discourse analysis and grammar
Discourse analysis and grammar
Discourse analysis and grammar
Discourse analysis and grammar
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Discourse analysis and grammar

Discourse analysis and grammar

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Discourse analysis and grammar

  1. 1.  Discourse analysis and grammar study familiar terms like :clause , pronoun, adverbial and conjunction and attempt to relate them to a less familiar set of terms : theme, rheme , reference and anaphoric , in order to make link between grammar and discourse.
  2. 2.  Spoken and written discourses display grammatical connexions between individual clauses and utterances.  These grammatical links can be classified under three broad types : Reference or co- reference  Ellipsis/ substitution  Conjunction
  3. 3.  The term reference is traditionally used in semantics to define the relationship between a word and what it points to in the real world, but in Halliday and Hasan’s (1976) model it simply refers to the relationship between two linguistic expressions.  Reference as an act by which a speaker (or writer) uses language to enable a listener (or reader) to identify something.
  4. 4.  (Looking outward- outside the text). The referent is not in the immediate context but is assumed by the speaker/writer to be part of a shared world, in terms of knowledge and experience.
  5. 5.  E.g.,  For he's a jolly good fellow and so say all of us.  As outsiders, we don’t know who the he is, but, most likely, the people involved in the celebration are aware of the he that is being referred to, and therefore, can find texture in the sentences.
  6. 6. References to elements in the text are called Endophoric references.  Endophoric referencing can be divided into two areas:  Anaphoric  Cataphoric
  7. 7.  refers to any reference that “points backwards” to previously mentioned information in text. Usually items such : as he/she or them ,it, this , can be decoded without major difficulty.  e.g.,  Tom likes ice cream but Bill can’t eat it.  The teacher asked Ahmad to read so he read.
  8. 8. Refers to any reference that “points forward” to information that will be presented later in the text.  For example: When I met her, Mary looked ill. Here is the news. The Prime Minister . . ….
  9. 9.  Functionally speaking, there are three main types of cohesive references:  Personal  Demonstrative Comparative.
  10. 10.  Personal reference keeps track of function through the speech situation using noun, pronouns like “he, him, she, her”, etc. and possessive determiners like “mine, yours, his, hers”, etc.  E.g.,  The prime minister has resigned. He announced his decision this morning.
  11. 11.  Demonstrative reference keeps track of information through location using proximity references like “this, these, that, those, here, there, then, and the”.  E.g.,  I always buy a lot of books when I am in England. There are many lovely bookshops there.
  12. 12.  Comparative reference keeps track of identity and similarity through indirect references using adjectives like “same, equal, similar, different, else, better, more”, etc.  Adverbs like “so, such, similarly, otherwise, so, more”, etc.  E.g.,  A similar view is not acceptable.  We did the same.  So they said.
  13. 13.  Whereas referencing functions to link semantic meanings within text, substitution and ellipsis differ in that they operate as a linguistic link at the lexicogrammatical level.  Substitution and ellipsis are used when “a speaker or writer wishes to avoid the repetition of a lexical item and draw on one of the grammatical resources of the language to replace the item”.
  14. 14. Substitution:  substitution is the replacement of a word or phrase with a "filler" word (such as one, so, or do) to avoid repetition.  There are three general ways of substituting in a sentence:
  15. 15. substitution Nominal One /ones Verbal Do/so Clausal So / not
  16. 16.  In nominal substitution , the most typical substitution words are:  “one and ones” .  e.g., Let's go and see the bears. The polar ones are over on that rock.  This car is mine, but that one is yours.
  17. 17.  In verbal substitution, the most common substitute is the verb “do” which is sometimes used in conjunction with “so” as in “do so”.  e.g., Did Mary take that letter? She might have done.  Do/do not and auxiliaries. She can drive the car, but I cannot. She wrote the homework , but I did not
  18. 18.  In clausal substitution, an entire clause is substituted by "So, not"  E.g., I believe so.  Everyone thinks he’s guilty. If so, no doubt he’ll resign. We should recognise him when we see him. Yes, but supposing not: what do we do?
  19. 19.  Ellipsis (zero substitution) is the omission of elements normally required by the grammar which the speaker/writer assumes are obvious from the context and therefore need not be raised.  E.g., Do you want to hear another song? I know twelve more [songs]  Sue brought roses and Jackie [brought] lilies.  I ran 5 miles on the first day and 8 [miles] on the second
  20. 20. Ellipsis nominal verbal clausal
  21. 21.  Ellipsis within the nominal group or the common noun that may be omitted and the function of head taken on by one of other elements.  E.g.,  Nelly liked the green tiles; I preferred the blue.
  22. 22.  An elliptical verbal group presupposes one or more words from a previous verbal group. Technically, it is defined as a verbal group whose structure does not fully express its systematic feature. Example:  a) Have you been swimming? – Yes, I have.  b) What have you been doing? – Swimming
  23. 23.  A Clause in English, considered as the expression of the various speech functions, such as statement, question, response and so on, has a two-part structure consisting of modal element plus propositional element. For example:  E.g., The Duke was going to plant a row of poplars in the park.  Halliday and Hasan also say that the principle of clausal ellipsis is general to all types of questions (1976: 211).
  24. 24. Conjunction acts as a cohesive tie between clauses or sections of text in such a way as to demonstrate a meaningful pattern between them.
  25. 25. Conjunctions are not a way of simply joining sentences. Their role in the text is wider than that, because they provide the listener/reader with information for the interpretation of the utterance; that is why some linguists prefer to describe them as discourse markers.
  26. 26. Hallday ( 1985) offers a scheme for the classification of conjunctive relations and includes over forty conjunctive items . Here is a simplified list based on Halliday’s category headings:
  27. 27. Activity :  What type of cohesive devices have these sentences :  She studied match hardly as a result she passed the exam.  Are you laughing? Yes, I am  Are you eating dinner? No, washing up  My reasons are as follows: One, I don’t . . ….  The government are supposed to solve the problems of the people  The blankets needed to be cleaned. Yes they did
  28. 28.  Halliday, M.A.K. and Ruqaiya Hasan Language, context, and text: aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (1985).  Cohesion and Coherence: Linguistic Approaches 591. Halliday M A K & IHasan R (1976). Cohesion in English. London: Longman. Havilland S E 86 Clark H ..  McCarthy, M. 1991. Discourse Analysis and Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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