INSTITUTE FOR EXCELLENCE IN
NAME :- SHIVAM SINGH
CLASS :- B.Sc. 3rd YEAR
SUBJECT :- ENGLISH
TOPIC :- ENGLISH GRAMMER
This is to certify that Shivam Singh
student of class B.Sc.chemistry(h)
maths(s)lll year has successfully
completed their English Assignment
I would like to express my special thanks of
gratitude to Our English teacher Dr. Veena Mam
for her able guidance and support in comple Our
Assignment . I would also like to extend gratitude
to the Director Sir Dr. Pragyesh Agrawal Sir and
the Head of Chemistry and English . Department
for providing able guidance for the completion of
Modals and Auxiliaries
• Modal verbs show possibility, intent, ability, or
necessity. Because they’re a type of auxiliary verb
(helper verb), they’re used together with the
main verb of the sentence. Common examples
include can, should, and must.
• MOST COMMON MODALS:- can , might , could ,
should , will , must .
There are nine modal auxiliary verbs: shall,
should, can, could, will, would, may, must, might.
There are also quasi-modal auxiliary verbs: ought
to, need to, has to. Why only quasi? Because the
nine modals sit before the base form: I shall go, I
could go, etc., but with ought/need/has we have to
insert a to: I ought to go, it needs to be done, it
has to be April (said at the onset of a shower,
A further distinction is to be made between
epistemic and deontic modals, which
distinguish between possibility one the one
hand and obligation on the other. Consider the
following: “the importance of time and patience
cannot be underestimated”. Cannot is used in
its deontic (obligation) sense, meaning that we
must not underestimate the importance of time
and patience. But consider “the importance of
time and patience cannot be overestimated”.
Here, cannot is used in its epistemic
(possibility) sense, meaning that it is not
possible to overestimate the importance of time
and patience, that importance being so great.
WHAT ARE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE
In the active voice, the sentence’s subject performs the
action on the action’s target. In the passive voice, the
target of the action is the main focus, and the verb acts
upon the subject. There are numerous differences
between the two grammatical voices, but the most
important is that the active voice is clearer and more
direct, while the passive voice is subtler and can feel
What is Direct & Indirect Speech?
When we want to describe what someone said, one
option is to use direct speech. We use direct speech
when we simply repeat what someone says, putting the
phrase between speech marks:
Paul came in and said, “I’m really hungry.”
When we want to report what someone said without
speech marks and without necessarily using exactly
the same words, we can use indirect speech (also called
The same words spoken are quoted indirect Speech. If
we use Direct Speech in writing, we bring the words
spoken between quotation marks (“ “) and leave them
alone. We may be reporting something that is being said
(for example, a phone conversation) or asking someone
about a previous conversation later.
Nirmal said, “There’s a dog outside the window.”
Mahima says, “What time will you be home?”
Supriya said, “I don’t know!”
When we use reported or Indirect Speech to speak about
the past, we generally change the tense of the words we
say. We use reporting verbs like ‘say,’ ‘tell,’ and ‘ask,’ and
we can introduce the reported words with the word
‘that.’ There are no inverted commas in this sentence.
Mahima said that she had seen him.
Nirmal said he was looking forward to playing in the
match on Saturday.
PHRASES , IDIOMS AND
An idiom is a phrase that has a meaning of its own
that cannot be understood from the meanings of its
A proverb is a short popular saying that gives advice
about how people should behave or that expresses a
belief that is generally thought to be true.
I hereby declare that I have Completed my assignment
with the help of lecture given by our subject teacher Dr.
Veena Man ‘ and also with the help of following google