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Research proposal (Students' Knowledge of Adverb and Adjectives)


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Research proposal (Students' Knowledge of Adverb and Adjectives)

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO THESIS WRITING Lecturer: Aunurrahman, M.Pd Class: A Morning Semester: V Created By: Ria Dwi Pratiwi (521100005) SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN (STKIP-PGRI PONTIANAK) 2014
  2. 2. Students' Knowledge of Adverb and Adjectives Ria Dwi Pratiwi (521100005) STKIP-PGRI PONTIANAK Abstract This paper highlights the findings that students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives. The aim of the study was to know the extent to which students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives in STKIP PGRI Pontianak. The sample consisted of 10 students of English department, especially class A Morning, grade fifth. The research data were collected using test with some questions for compare between which adverb and which adjective in sentences. Adverb and adjective is one of the most important parts in learning part of speech. An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. Some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix. An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. Adjectives and adverbs are describing words; describes a noun or pronoun; the latter, a verb, adjective, or other adverb. In this paper writer tries to identify students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives Keyword: Adverb, knowledge, adjective.
  3. 3. A. INTRODUCTION 1. Background English year by year has been known in Indonesia. But to learn English is actually very complex. It covers skills that must be mastered if someone wants to more success in mastering English, there are four skills in English learning such listening, speaking, reading and writing skill. We can increase our speaking by conversation, debate, speech, role-play and retell the story. While in listening, we can also listening English song and converse with other people. We can write our short story and unforgettable experience or diary to increase our writing skill. Meanwhile, we can read and understand the contents of the texts to increase our reading skill. We must understand the function of each word of sentence to increase our English knowledge. To improve our vocabularies, we can also learn kinds of word, for example noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. We can analyze the function and kind of the word that is in the text. We often consider that it is a simple thing and it is not important to be learned. I just look at the meaning of the text and ignore or neglect the function and kind of the words. Whereas, kinds of word are important components in English learning because those are very useful for us when we will express our utterances or write English sentences. The simple example is the differences between adjective and adverb. Some students still confused to distinguish between adjective and adverb. This is due to the similarities, because some of the adverb can be formed from adjective by adding -ly at the end. Besides, Sri Sugiharti quote Nunan (1998:101) mastering second language is some students have difficulties, therefore, in mastering a language skills, some of students have difficulties, such as grammar in general and adverb in particular. To master adverb students mostly get bit problem how to distinguish adjective and adverb. 2. Research Questions 1. What characteristics of the adjective and adverbs?
  4. 4. 2. What the extent to which students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives? 3. Research purposes The purpose of this research is expected useful for learning English. So, this studies to know the extent to which students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives, as well as facilitate comparison between the two in learning. B. LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Definition Adjective Adjective is a kind of word (a part of speech) that modifies (describes) a noun. Nouns are words that name a place, a person, a thing, or an idea. An adjective is a word that gives more information about the noun that goes with it (accompanies). (Wikipedia) a. Characteristic Adjective Adjectives are known to possess certain characteristics which include the following: A. We can form adjectives from nouns and verbs by adding suffixes. Examples: a. Wood (n) + en = wooden; laugh (v) + able = laughable b. Fear (n) + less = fearless; differ (v) + ent = different B. We can modify most adjectives by 'very'. Example very well, very pretty, very useful, very important. C. All adjectives (apart form the proper ones) can take “-ly” ending to form an adverb, e.g., a. Peaceful + ly = peacefully b. Effective + ly = effectively c. Loud + ly = loudly
  5. 5. D. We can compare adjectives in comparative and superlative degree. Examples: Positive comparative superlative Big bigger biggest Young younger youngest Many more most Beautiful more beautiful most beautiful, etc Note: However, that some adjectives do not have degrees of comparison' e.g. Unique, round. 2. Definition Adverb Adverb is a word or phrase that modifies the meaning of an adjective, verb, or other adverb, expressing manner, place, time, or degree (e.g. gently, here, now, very). Adverbs can also modify prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses, and complete sentences. Some adverbs, for example sentence adverbs, can also be used to modify whole sentences. (Oxford dictionary online) Adverb is a word that changes or qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb, clause, sentence or any other word or phrase, except that it does not include the adjectives and determiners that directly modify nouns. Adverbs are traditionally regarded as one of the parts of speech, although the wide variety of the functions performed by words classed as adverbs means that it is hard to treat them as a single uniform category. (Wikipedia) Etymology: From the Latin, "in relation to" + "word"
  6. 6. a. Characteristic Adverb Adverbs have certain characteristics by which they can be identified and distinguished from other parts of speech such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. The characteristics include the following: 1. Most adverbs in English end with suffix „-ly‟ e.g. quickly, hurriedly, gently, wisely, quietly, etc. Wiredu (1998:5), however, observes that some other words end with „-ly‟ yet they are not adverbs e.g. friendly, brotherly, homely, likely, lively, lovely, manly, etc. All these are adjectives; not adverbs. Examples: a. He has a manly posture. b. My teacher gave me brotherly pieces of advice. c. Homely youth homely experience. Some other adverbs do not have the suffix „-ly‟ attachment at all. Some examples are too, far, so, very, quite etc. These are adverbs of degree otherwise known as intensifiers. 2. Adverbs can be formed by adding the suffixes' - ward' and' wise' to some words in English. Examples: a. back + ward = backward b. down + ward = downward c. home + ward = homeward d. like + wise = likewise e. street + wise = streetwise 3. Adverbs form their comparative and superlative degrees exactly like adjective.
  7. 7. Examples: Word Comparative form Superlative form Perfectly more perfectly most perfectly Happily more happily most happily Early earlier earliest 4. Some adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms. Examples: a. well better best b. little less least c. much more most 3. Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs Sometimes the same word can be both an adjective and an adverb. In order to distinguish between them, it is important to look at the context of the word and its function in a sentence. 1. The fast train from London to Cardiff leaves at three o'clock. 2. The sprinter took the bend fast. 3. The bed was hard and gave me a bad night's sleep. 4. After faltering, the horses hit the fence hard. In the first and third sentences, the words fast and hard modify nouns. The first is an attributive adjective, coming before the noun it modifies; the second is a predicative adjective, coming after the verb to be. In the second and fourth sentences, the words fast and hard modify verbs. These are both circumstance adverbs which are in the end position." (Sara Thorne, Mastering Advanced Language, 2nd ed. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)
  8. 8. "The comparative and superlative inflections, -er and -est, combine with adverbs as well as with adjectives, although in a much more limited way. The comparative form of -ly adverbs, usually formed by adding more rather than -er, is fairly common. The superlative degree--most suddenly, most favorably--is rare enough in both speech and writing to have impact when used; it invariably calls attention to itself, and in most cases will have the main focus and main stress of the sentence: The committee was most favorably impressed with the proposal." (Martha Kolln and Robert Funk, Understanding English Grammar, 5th ed. Allyn and Bacon, 1998) Simple distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs: 1. Adjective can be used in two ways, namely (1) before the noun (a beautiful song / beautiful singing, a tired expression / speech is boring, a typical writer / author is typical). This position is called attributively. And (2) After be / is, seems and some other verbs. This is called predicative position. (She's beautiful / she is beautiful, she looked tired / she looks tired). 2. Adverb gives information about actions. (she sings beautifully / she sing good, I am coming soon / I will come soon, you always misunderstand me / you misjudged me) C. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. Research design This study compare between an adverbs and adjectives. The writer is using the survey because in this study, the writer is going to find out the extent to which students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives. The writer using the pre-test, where the writer give some question to know the extent to which students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives.
  9. 9. 2. Population and sample a. Population Population is a generalization area consisting of: objects / subjects that have certain qualities and characteristics are determined by the investigator to be studied and then drawn conclusions (According Sugiyono, 2009: 61). So, the population in this study is all students of English department, class A Morning, fifth grade. This amounts to 42 students, with details of 27 female students and 15 male students remaining. Characteristics in this study are: (a) class A morning fifth semester, (b) not a transfer student. Distribution of Class A morning (Attachment) b. Sample The sample is part of the number and characteristics possessed by the population. When large populations and researchers may not learn all that there is in the population, because this samples taken from the population to rigorously Representative (According Sugiyono, 2009: 62). The writer takes the samples in A Morning class, fifth semester English Education at STKIP PGRI Pontianak. The number of student is 10. (Attachment) 3. Technique of Data Collection Collection data in the form of a statement about the nature, circumstances, certain activities and they like. Collection data was conducted to obtain the information needed in order to achieve the research objectives (Gulo, 2002: 110). These data collection methods including self-report category (personal report) / description (self descriptive). Individual reports on the situation himself by inquiries or orders given to him.
  10. 10. In this study the writer used a test to find out the extent to which students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives. The type of test that is given is: (attachment) 4. Technique of Data Analysis According Ardhana 12 quote Lexy J. Moleong 2009:103) explains that data analysis is the process of arranging the order of the data, organizing into a pattern, category, and description of the basic unit. According to Taylor, (1975:79) defines data analysis as the process of detailing a formal effort to find a theme and formulate hypotheses (ideas) as suggested and as an effort to provide assistance and theme of the hypothesis. In this study, the writer provided a test to the student to determine students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives.
  11. 11. Attachment 1 Population NO Name of students Class 1 Abang M.Rizkan A MORNING 2 Afriani krisnawati 3 Aristi wedasari 4 Astri jesika sari 5 Daw munanda 6 Desma lestari 7 Dian nurfita 8 Felisianus 9 Firmansyah 10 Gerda lidia sidabutar 11 Gunang simatupang 12 Hengki pranata 13 Herni fitriana 14 Irna arisna 15 Kaisar zulfikar 16 Kholifudin roma 17 Konstantin bramandita 18 Kosmas edi kurniawan 19 Marcella agustina yesi 20 Meli ricardo 21 Mikawati 22 Moses natalis 23 M.Zainudin 24 Nanda puspitasari 25 Normayanti astuti 26 Osela bucka ginting 27 Paskalis suharyo
  12. 12. 28 Paula damayana 29 Rahmawati risana 30 Rain lesmiati 31 Resty fisky febrianty 32 Ria dwi pratiwi 33 Rizal erwijaya 34 Rizki putri utami 35 Sartika 36 Sisilina koya 37 Sri wahyuni 38 Sulastri 39 Triyani 40 Wahyuna safitri 41 Wahyuni anggerianti 42 Vidia apriani Total 42
  13. 13. Attachment 2 Sample NO Name of students Class 1 Afriani krisnawati A MORNING 2 Dian nurfita 3 Firmansyah 4 Irna arisna 5 Nanda puspitasari 6 Normayanti astuti 7 Paskalis suharyo 8 Paula damayana 9 Sartika 10 Triyani Total 10
  14. 14. Attachment 3 Research instrument Find out by taking this little quiz. Identify the underlined word or words in each of the following sentences. Hint: The answer will be either “adjective” or “adverb.” ____ 1. My school colors were “clear.” ____ 2. Question: How many surrealists does it take to screw in a light bulb? Answer: Two. One to hold the giraffe firmly and the other to fill the bathtub with brightly colored machine tools. ____ 3. If the cops arrest a mime, do they tell her that she has the right to remain silent? ____ 4. Maybe you're right. Maybe I should have been insulted when the mind reader charged me half price. ____ 5. For three days after death, hair and fingernails continue to grow slowly, but phone calls taper off. ____ 6. Diplomacy is the art of saying “nice doggy” until you can find a big rock. ____ 7. Is it true that cannibals don't eat clowns because they taste funny? ____ 8. Murphy's Oil Soap is the chemical most commonly used to clean elephants. ____ 9. Giraffes have no vocal cords. ____ 10. A man ordered a taco. He asked the server for “minimal lettuce.” The server said he was sorry, but they only had iceberg.
  15. 15. Attachment 4 Blue print No Indicator Number 1 Adjective 1, 4, 6, 9, 10 2 Adverb 2, 3, 5, 7, 8
  16. 16. REFERENCES Sri sugiharti (2013), The adverb mastery of the first semester students of English department of UNRIKA. UNRIKA. Batam. URL: english-department-of-unrika/ Kwasi Wiredu (1998:5). Toward Decolonizing African Philosophy and Religion. African Studies quarterly: The online journal for African Studies (I(4): 3. Online URL: and tml. Sara Thorne (2008), Mastering Advanced Language, 2nd ed. Palgrave Macmillan. Martha Kolln and Robert Funk, Understanding English Grammar, 5th ed. Allyn and Bacon, 1998. URL: Sugiyono (2009). Statistika Untuk Penelitian. Bandung: Alfabet Gulo, W. 2002. Metode Penelitian. Jakarta: PT. Grasindo. Lexy J. Moleong 2009. Metode penelitian kuantitatif. Taylor, S.J and Bogdan, R. (1975). Introduction to Qualitative Research Methode. New York : John Willey and Sons, 1975. Other recourse: .html
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