Research proposal (Students' Knowledge of Adverb and Adjectives)
INTRODUCTION TO THESIS WRITING
Lecturer: Aunurrahman, M.Pd
Class: A Morning
Created By: Ria Dwi Pratiwi
SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU
Students' Knowledge of Adverb and Adjectives
Ria Dwi Pratiwi (521100005)
This paper highlights the findings that students' knowledge of adverb and
adjectives. The aim of the study was to know the extent to which students'
knowledge of adverb and adjectives in STKIP PGRI Pontianak. The sample
consisted of 10 students of English department, especially class A Morning,
grade fifth. The research data were collected using test with some questions for
compare between which adverb and which adjective in sentences. Adverb and
adjective is one of the most important parts in learning part of speech. An adverb
can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. Some
adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix. An adjective modifies
a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An
adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. Adjectives
and adverbs are describing words; describes a noun or pronoun; the latter, a verb,
adjective, or other adverb. In this paper writer tries to identify students'
knowledge of adverb and adjectives
Keyword: Adverb, knowledge, adjective.
English year by year has been known in Indonesia. But to learn English is
actually very complex. It covers skills that must be mastered if someone wants to
more success in mastering English, there are four skills in English learning such
listening, speaking, reading and writing skill. We can increase our speaking by
conversation, debate, speech, role-play and retell the story. While in listening, we
can also listening English song and converse with other people. We can write our
short story and unforgettable experience or diary to increase our writing skill.
Meanwhile, we can read and understand the contents of the texts to increase our
reading skill. We must understand the function of each word of sentence to
increase our English knowledge.
To improve our vocabularies, we can also learn kinds of word, for
example noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. We can analyze the function and kind
of the word that is in the text. We often consider that it is a simple thing and it is
not important to be learned. I just look at the meaning of the text and ignore or
neglect the function and kind of the words. Whereas, kinds of word are important
components in English learning because those are very useful for us when we will
express our utterances or write English sentences. The simple example is the
differences between adjective and adverb. Some students still confused to
distinguish between adjective and adverb. This is due to the similarities, because
some of the adverb can be formed from adjective by adding -ly at the end.
Besides, Sri Sugiharti quote Nunan (1998:101) mastering second language is
some students have difficulties, therefore, in mastering a language skills, some of
students have difficulties, such as grammar in general and adverb in particular. To
master adverb students mostly get bit problem how to distinguish adjective and
2. Research Questions
1. What characteristics of the adjective and adverbs?
2. What the extent to which students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives?
3. Research purposes
The purpose of this research is expected useful for learning English. So,
this studies to know the extent to which students' knowledge of adverb and
adjectives, as well as facilitate comparison between the two in learning.
B. LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Definition Adjective
Adjective is a kind of word (a part of speech) that modifies (describes) a
noun. Nouns are words that name a place, a person, a thing, or an idea. An
adjective is a word that gives more information about the noun that goes with
it (accompanies). (Wikipedia)
a. Characteristic Adjective
Adjectives are known to possess certain characteristics which include the
A. We can form adjectives from nouns and verbs by adding suffixes.
a. Wood (n) + en = wooden; laugh (v) + able = laughable
b. Fear (n) + less = fearless; differ (v) + ent = different
B. We can modify most adjectives by 'very'. Example very well, very pretty,
very useful, very important.
C. All adjectives (apart form the proper ones) can take “-ly” ending to form
an adverb, e.g.,
a. Peaceful + ly = peacefully
b. Effective + ly = effectively
c. Loud + ly = loudly
D. We can compare adjectives in comparative and superlative degree.
Positive comparative superlative
Big bigger biggest
Young younger youngest
Many more most
Beautiful more beautiful most beautiful, etc
Note: However, that some adjectives do not have degrees of comparison'
e.g. Unique, round.
2. Definition Adverb
Adverb is a word or phrase that modifies the meaning of an adjective,
verb, or other adverb, expressing manner, place, time, or degree (e.g. gently, here,
now, very). Adverbs can also modify prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses,
and complete sentences. Some adverbs, for example sentence adverbs, can also
be used to modify whole sentences. (Oxford dictionary online)
Adverb is a word that changes or qualifies the meaning of a verb,
adjective, other adverb, clause, sentence or any other word or phrase, except that it
does not include the adjectives and determiners that directly modify nouns.
Adverbs are traditionally regarded as one of the parts of speech, although the wide
variety of the functions performed by words classed as adverbs means that it is
hard to treat them as a single uniform category. (Wikipedia)
Etymology: From the Latin, "in relation to" + "word"
a. Characteristic Adverb
Adverbs have certain characteristics by which they can be identified and
distinguished from other parts of speech such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. The
characteristics include the following:
1. Most adverbs in English end with suffix „-ly‟ e.g. quickly, hurriedly, gently,
wisely, quietly, etc. Wiredu (1998:5), however, observes that some other
words end with „-ly‟ yet they are not adverbs e.g. friendly, brotherly, homely,
likely, lively, lovely, manly, etc. All these are adjectives; not adverbs.
a. He has a manly posture.
b. My teacher gave me brotherly pieces of advice.
c. Homely youth homely experience.
Some other adverbs do not have the suffix „-ly‟ attachment at all. Some examples
are too, far, so, very, quite etc. These are adverbs of degree otherwise known as
2. Adverbs can be formed by adding the suffixes' - ward' and' wise' to some
words in English.
a. back + ward = backward
b. down + ward = downward
c. home + ward = homeward
d. like + wise = likewise
e. street + wise = streetwise
3. Adverbs form their comparative and superlative degrees exactly like adjective.
Word Comparative form Superlative form
Perfectly more perfectly most perfectly
Happily more happily most happily
Early earlier earliest
4. Some adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms.
a. well better best
b. little less least
c. much more most
3. Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs
Sometimes the same word can be both an adjective and an adverb. In order
to distinguish between them, it is important to look at the context of the word and
its function in a sentence.
1. The fast train from London to Cardiff leaves at three o'clock.
2. The sprinter took the bend fast.
3. The bed was hard and gave me a bad night's sleep.
4. After faltering, the horses hit the fence hard.
In the first and third sentences, the words fast and hard modify nouns. The
first is an attributive adjective, coming before the noun it modifies; the second is a
predicative adjective, coming after the verb to be. In the second and fourth
sentences, the words fast and hard modify verbs. These are both circumstance
adverbs which are in the end position."
(Sara Thorne, Mastering Advanced Language, 2nd ed. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)
"The comparative and superlative inflections, -er and -est, combine with
adverbs as well as with adjectives, although in a much more limited way. The
comparative form of -ly adverbs, usually formed by adding more rather than -er, is
fairly common. The superlative degree--most suddenly, most favorably--is rare
enough in both speech and writing to have impact when used; it invariably calls
attention to itself, and in most cases will have the main focus and main stress of
the sentence: The committee was most favorably impressed with the proposal."
(Martha Kolln and Robert Funk, Understanding English Grammar, 5th ed. Allyn
and Bacon, 1998)
Simple distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs:
1. Adjective can be used in two ways, namely (1) before the noun (a
beautiful song / beautiful singing, a tired expression / speech is boring, a
typical writer / author is typical). This position is called attributively. And
(2) After be / is, seems and some other verbs. This is called predicative
position. (She's beautiful / she is beautiful, she looked tired / she looks
2. Adverb gives information about actions. (she sings beautifully / she sing
good, I am coming soon / I will come soon, you always misunderstand me
/ you misjudged me)
C. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1. Research design
This study compare between an adverbs and adjectives. The writer
is using the survey because in this study, the writer is going to find out the
extent to which students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives. The writer
using the pre-test, where the writer give some question to know the extent
to which students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives.
2. Population and sample
Population is a generalization area consisting of: objects / subjects
that have certain qualities and characteristics are determined by the
investigator to be studied and then drawn conclusions (According
Sugiyono, 2009: 61). So, the population in this study is all students of
English department, class A Morning, fifth grade. This amounts to 42
students, with details of 27 female students and 15 male students
remaining. Characteristics in this study are: (a) class A morning fifth
semester, (b) not a transfer student.
Distribution of Class A morning (Attachment)
The sample is part of the number and characteristics possessed by the
population. When large populations and researchers may not learn all that
there is in the population, because this samples taken from the population
to rigorously Representative (According Sugiyono, 2009: 62). The writer
takes the samples in A Morning class, fifth semester English Education at
STKIP PGRI Pontianak. The number of student is 10. (Attachment)
3. Technique of Data Collection
Collection data in the form of a statement about the nature,
circumstances, certain activities and they like. Collection data was
conducted to obtain the information needed in order to achieve the
research objectives (Gulo, 2002: 110). These data collection methods
including self-report category (personal report) / description (self
descriptive). Individual reports on the situation himself by inquiries or
orders given to him.
In this study the writer used a test to find out the extent to which students'
knowledge of adverb and adjectives. The type of test that is given is:
4. Technique of Data Analysis
According Ardhana 12 quote Lexy J. Moleong 2009:103) explains
that data analysis is the process of arranging the order of the data,
organizing into a pattern, category, and description of the basic unit.
According to Taylor, (1975:79) defines data analysis as the process of
detailing a formal effort to find a theme and formulate hypotheses (ideas)
as suggested and as an effort to provide assistance and theme of the
In this study, the writer provided a test to the student to determine
students' knowledge of adverb and adjectives.
NO Name of students Class
1 Abang M.Rizkan
2 Afriani krisnawati
3 Aristi wedasari
4 Astri jesika sari
5 Daw munanda
6 Desma lestari
7 Dian nurfita
10 Gerda lidia sidabutar
11 Gunang simatupang
12 Hengki pranata
13 Herni fitriana
14 Irna arisna
15 Kaisar zulfikar
16 Kholifudin roma
17 Konstantin bramandita
18 Kosmas edi kurniawan
19 Marcella agustina yesi
20 Meli ricardo
22 Moses natalis
24 Nanda puspitasari
25 Normayanti astuti
26 Osela bucka ginting
27 Paskalis suharyo
NO Name of students Class
1 Afriani krisnawati
2 Dian nurfita
4 Irna arisna
5 Nanda puspitasari
6 Normayanti astuti
7 Paskalis suharyo
8 Paula damayana
Find out by taking this little quiz. Identify the underlined word or words in
each of the following sentences. Hint: The answer will be either “adjective”
____ 1. My school colors were “clear.”
____ 2. Question: How many surrealists does it take to screw in a light bulb?
Answer: Two. One to hold the giraffe firmly and the other to fill the bathtub with
brightly colored machine tools.
____ 3. If the cops arrest a mime, do they tell her that she has the right to remain
____ 4. Maybe you're right. Maybe I should have been insulted when the mind
reader charged me half price.
____ 5. For three days after death, hair and fingernails continue to grow slowly,
but phone calls taper off.
____ 6. Diplomacy is the art of saying “nice doggy” until you can find a big rock.
____ 7. Is it true that cannibals don't eat clowns because they taste funny?
____ 8. Murphy's Oil Soap is the chemical most commonly used to clean
____ 9. Giraffes have no vocal cords.
____ 10. A man ordered a taco. He asked the server for “minimal lettuce.” The
server said he was sorry, but they only had iceberg.
No Indicator Number
1 Adjective 1, 4, 6, 9, 10
2 Adverb 2, 3, 5, 7, 8
Sri sugiharti (2013), The adverb mastery of the first semester students of English
department of UNRIKA. UNRIKA. Batam. URL:
Kwasi Wiredu (1998:5). Toward Decolonizing African Philosophy and Religion.
African Studies quarterly: The online journal for African Studies (I(4): 3. Online
URL: http://web.africa.ufl/edu/asq/v1/4/3/htm and
Sara Thorne (2008), Mastering Advanced Language, 2nd ed. Palgrave Macmillan.
Martha Kolln and Robert Funk, Understanding English Grammar, 5th ed. Allyn
and Bacon, 1998. URL: http://grammar.about.com/od/ab/g/adverbterm.htm
Sugiyono (2009). Statistika Untuk Penelitian. Bandung: Alfabet
Gulo, W. 2002. Metode Penelitian. Jakarta: PT. Grasindo.
Lexy J. Moleong 2009. Metode penelitian kuantitatif.
Taylor, S.J and Bogdan, R. (1975). Introduction to Qualitative Research Methode.
New York : John Willey and Sons, 1975.