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Think for yourself
 

Think for yourself

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Kompilasi presentasi tentang Lateral Thinking dari Edward de Bono.

Kompilasi presentasi tentang Lateral Thinking dari Edward de Bono.

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    Think for yourself Think for yourself Presentation Transcript

    • for Yourself
    • Can We Improve Our Thinking Ability? • Dr. Edward de Bono says that thinking CAN be improved just like any skill because thinking according to him is a skill. He has developed many useful techniques for training thinking skills.
    • How to Think for Yourself 1. Ask questions, particularly the question "why?“ or “why not?”. 2. Look for selfish motives. 3. Stop being a people pleaser. 4. Do the research. 5. Be humble. 6. Live outside your comfort zone. 7. Beware paralysis by analysis.
    • Errors in ThinkingIt is necessary that we should be aware of the errors in thinking. There are five such errors in thinking: 1. Partialism 2. Adversary Thinking 3. Time Scale Error 4. Initial Judgement and 5.Arrogance and Conceit.• Partialism This error occurs when the thinker observes the problem through one perspective only. That is, the thinker examines only one or two factors of the problem and arrives at a premature solution.• Adversary Thinking This is a "you are wrong. So, I should be right." type of reasoning. Politicians are the masters in this type of thinking and they use it to their advantage.• Time Scale Error This is a kind of partialism in thinking in which the thinker sees the problem from a limited time-frame. It can be likened to short-sightedness.• Initial Judgement Here, the thinker becomes very subjective. Instead of considering the issue or problem objectively, the thinker approaches it with prejudice or bias.• Arrogance and Conceit This error is sometimes called the "Village Venus Effect" because like the villagers who think that the most beautiful girl in the world is the most beautiful girl in their village, the thinker believes that there is no better solution other than that he has already found. This blocks creativity. Not only individuals but societies and even the whole mankind sometimes fall prey to this error. For example, before Einstein, the whole scientific community (and thus the whole mankind) believed that time was absolute.
    • Six Hat ThinkingEdward De Bono and Six Hat Thinking
    • What is Six Hat Thinking?• Six Thinking Hats is a strategy devised by Edward de Bono which requires students (and teachers), to extend their way of thinking about a topic by wearing a range of different ’thinking‘ hats:• White hat thinking identifies the facts and details of a topic• Black hat thinking examines the negative aspects of a topic• Yellow hat thinking focuses on the positive aspects of a topic• Red hat thinking looks at a topic from the point of view of emotions and feelings• Green hat thinking requires imagination and lateral thinking about a topic• Blue hat thinking focuses on reflection, metacognition (thinking about the thinking that is required), and the need to understand the big picture
    • De Bono’s ‘Six Hats’White Objective info (facts and What facts do I need ? How figures) do I get them?Red Feelings, emotions, non- How do I rational feelingsBlack Why ideas will not work What are downsides ?Yellow Opportunities, Advantages? Best possible possibilities outcome ?Green Creative new ideas Fresh innovative approaches, creativeBlue Control of the thinking Review thoughts, think of next process – ‘Cool’ logical step 10
    • De Bono’s 5 stages of thinking• TO Where are we going to• LO ‘Lo and behold’ – what can we see/need• PO Lets generate possibilities• SO So what is the outcome?• GO Go to it – put plans into action 11
    • Lateral ThinkingA book by: Edward De Bono
    • Vertical Thinkingvs. Lateral ThinkingVertical Thinking• Traditional LOGICAL thinking process of Plato, Aristotle and Socrates.• Reductive. Designated to eliminate all but the truthLateral Thinking• Ability to escape from patterns and logic.• Promotes Creativity and Innovativeness.
    • Vertical Thinking(how our mind processes information)The behavior of patterning system.Our mind is an efficient self-organizing informationsystem. To be efficient, it uses patterns.
    • Disadvantage of Patterns1. Expectancy2. Familiarity3. Lack of Choice. H D C B A G H F
    • Teknik dasar• Mengembangkan alternatif• Menantang Asumsi
    • Tips for Challenging Assumptions• Understand the Problem: recognize that you and everyone else have ingrained assumptions about every situation• Play a Child: Ask plenty of basic Why? and Why Not? questions in order to discover and challenge those assumptions• Play an External Observer: pretend you are a complete outsider and ask questions like Why do you do it this way at all?• Unpackage the Problem: reduce a situation to its simplest components in order to take it out of your environment• Reframe: consider an issue from many different angles; restate a problem in different terms• Imagine the Opposite: consider what the experts and professionals advise and then consider doing the opposite.
    • Tools• Menunda Keputusan• Gagasan dominan dan faktor penting• Metode pembalikan• Brainstorming• Analogi
    • Thinking Formula• PMI = Plus, Minus, Interesting• CAF = Consider All Factors• OPV = Other People’s Views• FIP = First Important Priorities• C&S = Consequences & Sequels• AGO = Aims, Goals, Objectives• APC = Alternatives, Possibilities, Choices
    • PMI PLUS MINUSINTERESTING
    • PMI - A Strategy for Improving Thinking• PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting) is a simple strategy which can be used in the classroom by students to encourage them to look at problems from all sides.• When using a PMI strategy, students are asked to look at a problem, or question, in terms of: – "plus" elements or ideas – "negative" elements or ideas – "interesting" or "unusual" elements or ideas• Plus / Minus / Interesting (PMI) is an effective strategy to use with students: – to generate ideas about a question or problem – to encourage them to reflect on creative and broader aspects of a topic – to help them to see, and value, both sides of an argument – to help them make informed decisions
    • PMI: THE TREATMENT OF IDEAS • P = Plus The good things about an idea - why you like it. M = Minus The bad things about an idea - why you dont like it I = Interesting What you find interesting about an idea • Instead of just saying that you like an idea, or dont like an idea, you can use a PMI. When you use a PMI you give the good points first, then the bad points and then the points than are neither good nor bad but are interesting. You can use a PMI as a way of treating ideas, suggestions and proposals.
    • PMI• Normally when presented with an idea, people support it or are against it• Once they have decided to take a position they will use all of their logic and emotion to defend that position• Using the PMI says “Let’s be fair to an idea and look at it from a few different sides before making up our minds”• Like Pros-and-Cons or SWOT analysis
    • PMI• P = Plus – The good things about an idea – Why you like it – What are the benefits of it
    • PMI• M = Minus – The bad things about an idea – why you dont like it – What are the potential problems
    • PMI• I = Interesting – What you find interesting about an idea – What are the future implications of the idea – What does it tell us about the status quo
    • PMI: How to do it P M IFaskmdf wkmfwef Salkmvskfvmaslfkv SadfmewpmfeowRfa qrrtyj tu eyw Fvkl’amfapwwrvm Wefwe;lfmsdomweewtwrtjwryjyj We weew;vws;vwp Efw[p,pwefwewwj3446j46j46j46je Fsvwmwwefwe;l, Wef;ewsefsd[eeSad.f/mr kiwmr r Efwe,fwopropmgrt Weflwef,we;,efl
    • PMI• Order is significant, most people find “M” easy, so putting “P” first forces new directions• “directed thinking” only considering one direction at a time• Short timescales to encourage quickthinking creativity
    • PMI: Example• Scenario: “Windows should be made of transparent plastic instead of glass”
    • PMI: Example• PLUS – They wouldn’t break as easily – They would not be as dangerous when broken – Easier to transport in bulk because of resilience
    • PMI: Example• MINUS – Plastic would be more expensive than glass – Plastic would get scratched very easily – Plastic could be melted easily
    • PMI: Example• INTERESTING – Perhaps windows could be of all colours if plastic – Perhaps we take it for granted that glass is best since we are used to it – Maybe the windows could be coated with anti- scratch coating
    • PMI: Exercise• Scenario: “All seats should be taken out of buses”
    • PMI: Exercise• POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS• PLUS – More people would be able to get into buses – It would be easier to get in and out – Buses would be cheaper to make and to repair• MINUS – Passengers would fall over if sudden stops – Old people and the disabled might not be able to use buses – It would be harder to carry shopping bags and babies• INTERESTING – Might be two types of bus; one with seats, one without – The same bus might do more work – Comfort is less important on a bus ??
    • CAFCONSIDER ALL FACTORS
    • CAF = Consider All Factors • When you have to choose or make a decision or just think about something, there are always many factors that you have to consider. If you leave out some of these factors, your choice may seem right at the time but will later turn out to be wrong. When you are looking at other peoples thinking, you can try and see what factors they have left out.
    • CAF• Unlike the PMI this is not a timed exercise, it takes as long as it takes• Decide on a specific number of factors, e.g. 10 factors• Continue working on list until that number of factors are achieved• May uncover hitherto unconsidered factors
    • CAF• Related to – Action – Decision – Planning – Judgement – Conclusion
    • CAFConsider All Factors1. sfakwpaefmwaop2. sdfrva;,r;rropawe3. lawooeridmcwnw4. lskedjedosmwapc5. xoowwmkfkovms6. xwspaweofmefm7. zkdoekrirjwwopac8. lslwiwirjfkcmqas9. cdale;aefiemfefm10. kmxppaowedope
    • CAF: Exercise• Scenario “A husband and wife go to buy a used car for their family” –10 factors
    • CAF: Example1. The person selling it actually owns it2. The price of the car3. The type of car and colour4. The engine power and speed of the car5. All the mechanical parts are working well6. The car is big enough for a family7. Has the car been in a crash?8. It will be easy to get replacement parts9. It has tax and NCT certificates10. What is the potential resell value?
    • CAF: Exercise• Scenario “Factors involved in choosing your hairstyle” –10 factors
    • OPV OTHERPEOPLE’S VIEWS
    • OPV = Other Peoples Views .Other people may have a very different viewpoint. Although they arein the same situation, they may look at things very differently.
    • OPV• The process of looking at other people’s viewpoints so that the process can be used consciously and deliberately• Consider the views of all stakeholders• Can be employed in conjunction with other techniques
    • OPV
    • OPV: Example• A salesperson is trying to sell you a second-hand sports car• Salesperson: – Show how sharp car is, – how powerful the engine, – the new tires, – how it suits you, – what a good buy it is.• You: – see whether or not it has been in a crash, – how much spare tires cost, – how worn the parts are, – how it compares with other cars you have seen
    • OPV: Exercise• A boy refuses to obey his teacher in class. The teacher sends the boy to the principal who suspends him. The boy’s parents object.• What is the view of; – The boy – The teacher – The principal – The parents – The classmates
    • FIP FIRSTIMPORTANT PRIORITIES
    • FIP• The process of picking out the most important ideas, factors, objectives, consequences• To be used in conjunction with other techniques (e.g. CAF, APC )• Purpose is to restore the balance in a deliberate manner.• FIP is a judgement situation and there are no absolute answers.
    • FIP: Example• FIP on scenario “A husband and wife go to buy a used car for their family”
    • FIP: Example1. The person selling it actually owns it2. The price of the car3. The type of car and colour4. The engine power and speed of the car5. All the mechanical parts are working well6. The car is big enough for a family7. Has the car been in a crash?8. It will be easy to get replacement parts9. It has tax and NCT certificates10. What is the potential resell value?
    • FIP: Example1. The person selling it actually owns it2. The price of the car3. The type of car and colour4. The engine power and speed of the car5. All the mechanical parts are working well6. The car is big enough for a family7. Has the car been in a crash?8. It will be easy to get replacement parts9. It has tax and NCT certificates10. What is the potential resell value?
    • FIP: Example1. The person selling it actually owns it2. The price of the car3. The type of car and colour4. The engine power and speed of the car5. All the mechanical parts are working well6. The car is big enough for a family7. Has the car been in a crash?8. It will be easy to get replacement parts9. It has tax and NCT certificates10. What is the potential resell value?
    • FIP: Exercise• FIP on choosing hairstyle.
    • C&SCONSEQUENCES & SEQUELS
    • C&S = Consequence and Sequel • A new invention (e.g. the petrol engine), a plan, a rule or a decision all have consequences that go on for a long time. Consequences should always be considered: Immediate consequences Short-term consequences (1 - 5 years) Medium - term consequences (5 - 25 year) Long-term consequences (over 25 years)
    • C&S• The process of looking ahead to see the consequences of some action, plan, decision, rule, invention.• C&S deals with what may happen after the decision has been made. – Short-term (1-2 years) – Medium-term (2-5 years) – Long-term consequences (over 5 years).
    • C&S: How to do it ST MT LTFaskmdf wkmfwef Salkmvskfvmaslfkv SadfmewpmfeowRfa qrrtyj tu eyw Fvkl’amfapwwrvm Wefwe;lfmsdomweewtwrtjwryjyj We weew;vws;vwp Efw[p,pwefwewwj3446j46j46j46je Fsvwmwwefwe;l, Wef;ewsefsd[eeSad.f/mr kiwmr r Efwe,fwopropmgrt Weflwef,we;,efl
    • C&S: Example• An Australian man introduces rabbits into the country to provide hunting for his friends.
    • C&S: Example• Short-Term consequences – friends have plenty to shoot at, – rabbit is alternative source of food, – lots of fun had, – lots of guns sold
    • C&S: Example• Medium-Term consequences – rabbits have multiplied, – they have become a pest
    • C&S: Example• Long-Term consequences – rabbits have spread all over Australia – do a lot of damage to crops
    • C&S: Exercise• “A new device has been created to immediately tell if someone is telling lies”
    • AGOAIMS, GOALS& OBJECTIVES
    • AGO• To introduce and emphasise the idea of purpose• Focus directly and deliberately on the intention behind actions. – Aim is the general direction – Goal is an ultimate destination – Objectives are recognisable points of achievement along the way
    • AGO: Example• “A developer is building a new shopping centre”
    • AGO: Example• Aim – Make all arrangements for building• Goal – Complete the shopping centre• Objectives – to make a profit, – build a successful shopping centre, – pleasing potential shoppers, – fitting in with planning authorities, – work well in time and in budget
    • AGO: Exercise• Develop an AGO for the police and put them in order of priority
    • APCALTERNATIVES, POSSIBILITIES & CHOICES
    • APC = Alternatives, Possibilities, ChoicesWhen you have to make adecision or take action, you mayat first think that you do not haveall the choices at you disposal.But if you look for them, you mayfind that there are morealternatives than you thought.Similarly in looking at a situationthere are always obviousexplanations. But if you look forthem, you may find that there arepossible explanations that youhad not thought of.
    • APC• The process of deliberately trying to find alternatives.• An attempt to focus attention directly on exploring all the alternatives or choices or possibilities - beyond the obvious ones• Applies not only to action but also to explanations.
    • APC: Example• You arrive at school on Monday morning and see the goal posts have been removed. What could have happened?
    • APC: Example• Vandals cut them down• A car backed into a post badly splintering it and for safety sake it had to be removed.• The PE teacher had taken them down because they were not regulation size• The local football team borrowed them for a match• A pole vaulter needed to some quick practice• A Jousting contest had been held over the weekend and no one wanted to use real lances• A new school building is going to be built on the field
    • APC: Exercise• The brightest girl in class starts making mistakes in her work on purpose, what are the possible explanations ?