h

Hooked



@nireyal

k
Products  can  profoundly  


CHANGE  OUR  BEHAVIORS.
100’s  of  millions  of  
users…

…and  100’s  of    
millions  of  dollars.
?
NS

T
AT

P

R
E
I  wrote  this  …

…  more  at:  
NirAndFar.com
Vitamins OR
Pain Killers?
PAIN  KILLERS  address  a  
burning  need.
VITAMINS  are    
“nice  to  have.”
Vitamins OR
Pain Killers?
With  habit-­‐forming  technology

PLEASURE  SEEKING
behavior

becomes

PAIN  ALLEVIATING
behavior
What  do  we  mean  by  PAIN?  
Close  your  eyes.
HOW DID YOU FEEL?
Images  of  chocolate  bring  both  
pleasure  and  stress  to  “cravers.”

    Source:  Rodriguez  et  al  2005
The  brain  associates  behaviors  that  

PROVIDE  A  SOLUTION

to  whatever  problem  it  encounters.
THE  USER  INITIALLY  
COMES  TO  SEEK  
PLEASURE.
The  product  soon  becomes  an  
important  part  of  her  life.
When  we  FEEL  AN  ITCH
we  seek  to  SCRATCH  IT.
The  SOLUTION  TO  


OUR  DISCOMFORT  

is  found  in  the  product’s  use.
STRESS  is  a  precondition  
for  addiction.

    Source:  Heilig  and  Koob  2007
We  are  not  designing  for  addiction  
Do  not  design  for  addiction.
NOT  must  be  in  graphic  
hab·it

A  BEHAVIOR  DONE  WITH

LITTLE  OR  NO  

CONSCIOUS  
THOUGHT
HEALTHTAP

LUMO

POCKET
REFRESH.IO

EMODT

Habits can be used for good.
REV

7 CUPS

BIA

PANTRY LABS
1.  FREQUENCY

    Source:  Judah,  G;  Gardner,  B;  Aunger,  R;  2013
2.  ATTITUDE  CHANGE
    Source:  Judah,  G;  Gardner,  B;  Aunger,  R;  2013
Harnessing  

HABITS  
can  be  

VERY  GOOD
FOR  BUSINESS.
Creating  consumer  habits  drives  


HIGHER  CUSTOMER
LIFETIME  VALUE  (CLTV).
Creating  consumer  habits  gives  companies  

GREATER  FLEXIBILITY
TO  INCREASE  PRICES.
Creating  consumer  habits  


SUPERCHARGES
GROWTH.
Creating  consumer  habits

INCREASES  DEFENSIBILITY.
HARD  WORK

However,  forming  new  habits  is  
AND  EXCEPTIONALLY  RARE.
But  if  your  business  requires    
“unprompted  user  engagement,”
A  design  pattern  to  help

FORM  BETTER  PRODUCT  
HYPOTHESES.
BUILDING  IS
EXPENSIVE      
INCREASE  YOUR  ODDS  OF  SUCCESS.
h

k

The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$
connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
h

with%enough%%

FREQUENCY%%

to%%

FORM+A+HABIT.+

k
NOW IT IS
YOUR TURN
❑ Get  into  groups  of  2  or  3.  
!

❑ Describe  your  businesses.  
!

❑ Why  does  your  business  
require  habits?
...
!

❑ What  problem  are  users    
coming  to  solve?  
!

❑ How  do  they  currently  
solve  the  problem  and  
why  do...
k

h
A"Hook"has"4"parts:"
A  -­‐  A  hook  has  4  parts:  
T   -­‐  Trigger  
A  -­‐  Action  
R   -­‐  Reward  
I -­‐  Investment
h

k
HABITS  ARE  

BUILT  UPON  

like  the  layers  of  a  
pearl.
Triggers  come  in  two  flavors:


EXTERNAL  &  

INTERNAL
EXTERNAL  TRIGGERS

The  information  for  what  to  do  next    
is  within  the  trigger.

Billboards

SO
DA
Optimizing  external  triggers  =    
Growth  Hacking
INTERNAL  TRIGGERS

The  information  for  what  to  do  next  is  informed  

through  an  association  in  the  user’s  ...
Negative  emotions  are  POWERFUL  INTERNAL  TRIGGERS.

lonesome
indecisive powerless
tense
dissatisfied
confused inferior...
People  who  are  DEPRESSED  CHECK  EMAIL  MORE  OFTEN.
    Source:  Kotikalapudi  et  al  2012
When  we  feel  LONELY  we  use
When  we  feel  UNSURE  we    use                                                
When  we  are  BORED  we  use                                      
Do you know your customer’s
INTERNAL TRIGGER?
Jack  Dorsey  on  Narratives
IT#ALL#STARTS#WITH#A#
NARRATIVE.!
“(If)!you!want!to!build!a!product!
that!is!relevant!to!folks,!you!need!
to!put!yourself!...
INSTANT  CAKE  MIX  WAS  
A  MARKETING  FAILURE.  
Betty  Crocker  assumed  that  
customers  wanted  
convenience  but  “...


WHY  DO  WE  MAKE  CAKE?  

to  give  and  receive  love  from  people  we  care  about.  
DEPRECATED  A  FEATURE
What  triggers  make                                                  so  habit-­‐forming?
 external  triggers
solves  the  pain
of  losing  the  moment.
But                                                is  
also  a  social  network.

Lonely

Stressed
Curious

Urge to
prese...
YOUR
TURN
TO

BUILD A
NARRATIVE
BUILD  YOUR  NARRATIVE  
!

❑ Who  is  the  user?  
!

❑ What  are  they  doing  right  
before  your  intended  
habit?

...
INTERNAL  TRIGGERS  
!

❑ Come  up  with  3  internal  
trigger  hypotheses  
(emotions,  routines,  
situations…)  
!

5 ...
EXTERNAL  TRIGGERS  
!

❑ Where  and  when  can  you  
insert  your  external  
triggers?  
!

❑ How  can  you  be  in  fr...
HYPOTHESIS  HOMEWORK  
!

❑ Are  your  assumptions  
correct?  
!

❑ Is  your  narrative  really  
happening?  
!

❑ “Get ...
Take 10 Min
“Hook”  by  Blues  Traveler
h

k
The

SIMPLEST  ACTION
in  anticipation  of  a  reward.
Scroll
Search
Play
According  to  BJ  Fogg,  for  any  behavior  to  occur,  we  
need  MOTIVATION,  ABILITY,  and  a  TRIGGER

b=m+a+t
mo·ti·va·tion

“THE  ENERGY  FOR  ACTION”

-­‐Edward  Deci
THERE  ARE  SIX  FACTORS  
THAT  CAN  INCREASE  
MOTIVATION.

Seeking Pleasure

Avoiding Pain

Seeking Hope

Avoiding Fear...
Seeking  HOPE
Seeking  PLEASURE
Avoiding  FEAR


Seeking  ACCEPTANCE
ABILITY
the capacity to do
a particular action
Time%

$
Money%

Physical%effort%
%

Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability.
Brain%cycles%

Social%deviance%

Non8rou...
NOVELTY  IS  A  LIABILITY.
LOOK  FOR  OLD  HABITS
Level  of  of  motivation  and  ability  
determines  if  action  will  occur.

MOTIVATION

TRIGGER  	

SUCCEEDS

TRIGGER ...
Simplicity is a
function of your
scarcest resource at
that moment.
-­‐BJ  Fogg
Should  designers  MOVE  MOTIVATION  OR  ABILITY  FIRST?
You  can  try  to  increase  motivation…
…but  you’ll  often    
get  the  same  results.
Move  ability

before  motivation.

Focus  on  simplicity.
through  the  years

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013
through  the  years

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013
through  the  years

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013
YOUR
TURN
TO

SIMPLIFY
THE ACTION
Users  are  on  a  path  to  solving  a  problem.

Product  Interface

Internal  Trigger

Reward/Pain  Alleviation
users  take  action  to  alleviate  pain.

Product  Interface  
1. Open  App  
2. Log-­‐in  (sometimes)  
3. Scroll  &  Re...
10  min

Map  the  path  
users  take  to  
scratch  their  itch.
Find  the  “scarcest  resource”  
!

❑ Review  your  flow.  Where  is  
the  action  most  difficult?  
!

❑ Which  resour...
h

k
   Source:  Olds  and  Milner,  1945

It  all  starts  with  the

NUCLEUS  
ACCUMBENS
studied  by  Olds  &  Milner.
The  nucleus  accumbens  

is  activated  when  

we  crave.
Were
Olds & Milner
stimulating
pleasure?
Not exactly.
They  were  stimulating  the  

STRESS  OF  DESIRE.
Our  reward  system  activates  

with  anticipation

Source:  Knutson  et  al  2001    
…  and  calms  when  

we  get  what  we  want.

Source:  Knutson  et  al  2001
That’s  the  ITCH
we  seek  to  SCRATCH.
There  is  a  way  to  supercharge  the  stress  of  desire.
THE  UNKNOWN
IS  FASCINATING.
Variability  causes  us  to    
focus  and  engagement
…and  increases  behavior.
The  nucleus  accumbens  is  
stimulated  by  variability.
3  types  of  VARIABLE  REWARDS

TRIBE

HUNT

SELF

Habit-­‐forming  tech  uses  1  OR  MORE
SEARCH  FOR
SOCIAL  REWARDS
TRIBE
empathetic joy

partnership

competition
We  Like  social  rewards.
We  LOVE  our  tribes.
We  value  recognition  and  cooperation
But  social  rewards  must  come  
from  people,  not  machines.
SEARCH  FOR
RESOURCES
HUNT
Stems  from  the  hunt  for  food  and  resources
Hunt  for  variable  material  rewards
Hunt  for  variable  material  rewards
Hunters  at
Hunt  

for  variable  
information  

rewards.
Hunters  on
scroll  pages.
SEARCH  FOR
SELF-­‐ACHIEVEMENT
SELF
Leveling-­‐up  reflects  MASTERY  and  COMPETENCY.
Inbox  or  task  management  reflects  


CONSISTENCY  and  COMPLETION.
WARNING

Variable  rewards  are  not  a  free  pass.  

Your  product  still  must  address  the  itch.
AUTONOMY  IS    
A  PRE-­‐REQUISITE.
Do  your  users  feel  in  control?

Source:    Deci  and  Ryan  on  Self-­‐Determina...
Beware  of  FINITE  VARIABILITY.
INFINITE  VARIABILITY  sustains  interest  longer.
Build  variable  rewards  that  satiate  the  users  itch,  
but  leave  them  wanting  more.
YOUR
TURN
TO

REWARD
YOUR USERS
❑ Review  your  flow.  Is  the  
reward  fulfilling,  yet  leaves  
the  user  wanting  more?  
!

❑ Brainstorm  3  ways  ...
h

k
Users  “invest”  for  future  benefits.
Money

Social
Capital

Personal
Data

Time

Emotional
Commitment

Effort
Investments increase the
likelihood of the next pass
through the Hook in 


TWO

ways.
1.

INVESTMENTS  
LOAD  THE  
NEXT  TRIGGER          
      OF  THE  HOOK.
Each  new  message  posted  on
is  an  open  
invitation  for  an  
external  trigger  to  
be  returned.
Loading  the  next  trigger  with  Pin  It  button  
The                                  Hook

External  Trigger:    
Facebook,  Twitter,  WOM

Interesting  objects  (Hunt)

...
The                                  Hook

External  Trigger:    
Emails  and  notifications  
Internal  Trigger:  
Fear  ...
2.

INVESTMENTS  STORE  VALUE,  

improving  the  product  with  use.
CONTENT
DATA
FOLLOWERS
REPUTATION

30
!
INVESTMENTS!
CREATES !
PREFERENCE.
We  value  things  more  when
we  put  work  into  them.

Expert Origami

$0.27

    Source:  Ariely,  Mochon,  and  Norto...
Please

DRIVE
CAREFULLY
As  we  invest,  we  seek  to  be    
consistent  with  our  past  behaviors.

Group 1
Group 2

    Source:  Freedman  &  ...
Changing  attitude  
and  perception  to  
avoid  COGNITIVE  
DISSONANCE.

    Source:  Jon  Esler,  1983
We  change  
our  tastes  and  
preferences.
Rationalization  &  Commitment

Dr.  Jesse  Schell,  Professor  of  Game  Design,    
Carnegie  Mellon  University
YOUR
TURN
TO

GET USERS
TO INVEST
❑ Review  your  flow.  What  
“bit  of  work”  are  your  users  
doing  to  increase  the  
likelihood  of  returning?  
...
h

k

The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$
connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
Each  pass  through  the  Hook  helps  

SHAPE  USER  PREFERENCES  AND  ATTITUDES.
h

With%enough%frequency,%

A"HABIT"IS"FORMED."

k
A  -­‐  A  hook  has  4  parts:  
T   -­‐  Trigger  
A  -­‐  Action  
R   -­‐  Reward  
I -­‐  Investment
The  HOOK  Canvas

1.  What  internal  trigger  is              
the  product  addressing?  
2.  What  external  trigger  ...
THE  MORALITY
OF  MANIPULATION
Designing  

habit-­‐forming    
products  is  a  form  
of  manipulation.
Users  take  our  technologies  to  bed.
They  check  our  devices  before  saying  “good  
morning”  to  loved  ones.
Quite  possibly,  the    


“CIGARETTE  OF  

THIS  CENTURY.”

-­‐  Ian  Bogust
What  
RESPONSIBILITY  
do  we  have  when  
changing  user  behavior?
THE  WORLD  IS  FULL  OF  PROBLEMS  TO  FIX.

Help  others  find  meaning.  Engage  them  in  
something  important.
Build  the  

CHANGE
you  want  to  see  in
THE  WORLD.
h

1.  Take  the  survey.  

k

www.OpinionTo.Us  
!

2.  Get  the  slides.

nir@nirandfar.com  
www.nirandfar.com
Hooked Workshop
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Hooked Workshop

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  • You probably have the best course on Udemy which are full of worthless junks now. Keep it up!
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  • Hi Nir,
    Just in time. This presentation is really relevant to my new startup. Thanks.
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  • I went to the workshop at DocuSign last night -- so very helpful. The 'your turn' slides are key, and give a very easy framework to quickly pinpoint what you need your developers to build.

    As many thumbs up as possible!
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  • Such insightful presentation. I can't wait to see how we can incorporate some engagement enhancing features based on your presentation for our mobile health tech service www.verago.com. thanks
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  • Fantastic!
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Hooked Workshop

  1. 1. h Hooked
 
 @nireyal k
  2. 2. Products  can  profoundly  
 CHANGE  OUR  BEHAVIORS.
  3. 3. 100’s  of  millions  of   users… …and  100’s  of     millions  of  dollars.
  4. 4. ? NS T AT P R E
  5. 5. I  wrote  this  … …  more  at:   NirAndFar.com
  6. 6. Vitamins OR Pain Killers?
  7. 7. PAIN  KILLERS  address  a   burning  need.
  8. 8. VITAMINS  are     “nice  to  have.”
  9. 9. Vitamins OR Pain Killers?
  10. 10. With  habit-­‐forming  technology PLEASURE  SEEKING behavior becomes PAIN  ALLEVIATING behavior
  11. 11. What  do  we  mean  by  PAIN?  
  12. 12. Close  your  eyes.
  13. 13. HOW DID YOU FEEL?
  14. 14. Images  of  chocolate  bring  both   pleasure  and  stress  to  “cravers.”    Source:  Rodriguez  et  al  2005
  15. 15. The  brain  associates  behaviors  that  
 PROVIDE  A  SOLUTION
 to  whatever  problem  it  encounters.
  16. 16. THE  USER  INITIALLY   COMES  TO  SEEK   PLEASURE. The  product  soon  becomes  an   important  part  of  her  life.
  17. 17. When  we  FEEL  AN  ITCH we  seek  to  SCRATCH  IT.
  18. 18. The  SOLUTION  TO  
 OUR  DISCOMFORT  
 is  found  in  the  product’s  use.
  19. 19. STRESS  is  a  precondition   for  addiction.    Source:  Heilig  and  Koob  2007
  20. 20. We  are  not  designing  for  addiction   Do  not  design  for  addiction. NOT  must  be  in  graphic  
  21. 21. hab·it A  BEHAVIOR  DONE  WITH LITTLE  OR  NO  
 CONSCIOUS   THOUGHT
  22. 22. HEALTHTAP LUMO POCKET REFRESH.IO EMODT Habits can be used for good. REV 7 CUPS BIA PANTRY LABS
  23. 23. 1.  FREQUENCY    Source:  Judah,  G;  Gardner,  B;  Aunger,  R;  2013
  24. 24. 2.  ATTITUDE  CHANGE    Source:  Judah,  G;  Gardner,  B;  Aunger,  R;  2013
  25. 25. Harnessing   HABITS   can  be   VERY  GOOD FOR  BUSINESS.
  26. 26. Creating  consumer  habits  drives  
 HIGHER  CUSTOMER LIFETIME  VALUE  (CLTV).
  27. 27. Creating  consumer  habits  gives  companies   GREATER  FLEXIBILITY TO  INCREASE  PRICES.
  28. 28. Creating  consumer  habits  
 SUPERCHARGES GROWTH.
  29. 29. Creating  consumer  habits INCREASES  DEFENSIBILITY.
  30. 30. HARD  WORK However,  forming  new  habits  is  
  31. 31. AND  EXCEPTIONALLY  RARE.
  32. 32. But  if  your  business  requires     “unprompted  user  engagement,”
  33. 33. A  design  pattern  to  help
 FORM  BETTER  PRODUCT   HYPOTHESES.
  34. 34. BUILDING  IS EXPENSIVE      
  35. 35. INCREASE  YOUR  ODDS  OF  SUCCESS.
  36. 36. h k The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$ connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
  37. 37. h with%enough%% FREQUENCY%% to%% FORM+A+HABIT.+ k
  38. 38. NOW IT IS YOUR TURN
  39. 39. ❑ Get  into  groups  of  2  or  3.   ! ❑ Describe  your  businesses.   ! ❑ Why  does  your  business   require  habits? 5  min
  40. 40. ! ❑ What  problem  are  users     coming  to  solve?   ! ❑ How  do  they  currently   solve  the  problem  and   why  does  it  need  a   solution?   ! 10  min ❑ How  frequently  do  you   expect  users  to  engage?   ! ❑ What  action  do  you  want   to  make  into  a  habit?
  41. 41. k h A"Hook"has"4"parts:"
  42. 42. A  -­‐  A  hook  has  4  parts:   T   -­‐  Trigger   A  -­‐  Action   R   -­‐  Reward   I -­‐  Investment
  43. 43. h k
  44. 44. HABITS  ARE  
 BUILT  UPON  
 like  the  layers  of  a   pearl.
  45. 45. Triggers  come  in  two  flavors:
 EXTERNAL  &  
 INTERNAL
  46. 46. EXTERNAL  TRIGGERS
 The  information  for  what  to  do  next     is  within  the  trigger. Billboards SO DA
  47. 47. Optimizing  external  triggers  =     Growth  Hacking
  48. 48. INTERNAL  TRIGGERS
 The  information  for  what  to  do  next  is  informed  
 through  an  association  in  the  user’s  memory.
  49. 49. Negative  emotions  are  POWERFUL  INTERNAL  TRIGGERS. lonesome indecisive powerless tense dissatisfied confused inferior fatigued discouraged fear  of  loss bored lost
  50. 50. People  who  are  DEPRESSED  CHECK  EMAIL  MORE  OFTEN.    Source:  Kotikalapudi  et  al  2012
  51. 51. When  we  feel  LONELY  we  use
  52. 52. When  we  feel  UNSURE  we    use                                                
  53. 53. When  we  are  BORED  we  use                                      
  54. 54. Do you know your customer’s INTERNAL TRIGGER?
  55. 55. Jack  Dorsey  on  Narratives
  56. 56. IT#ALL#STARTS#WITH#A# NARRATIVE.! “(If)!you!want!to!build!a!product! that!is!relevant!to!folks,!you!need! to!put!yourself!in!their!shoes!and! you!need!to!write!a!story!from! their!side.”! .#Jack#Dorsey#
  57. 57. INSTANT  CAKE  MIX  WAS   A  MARKETING  FAILURE.   Betty  Crocker  assumed  that   customers  wanted   convenience  but  “Just  add   water”  did  not  sell. 1952 Source:  “Finding  Betty  Crocker”,  Susan  Marks    
  58. 58. 
 WHY  DO  WE  MAKE  CAKE?  
 to  give  and  receive  love  from  people  we  care  about.  
  59. 59. DEPRECATED  A  FEATURE
  60. 60. What  triggers  make                                                  so  habit-­‐forming?
  61. 61.  external  triggers
  62. 62. solves  the  pain of  losing  the  moment.
  63. 63. But                                                is   also  a  social  network. Lonely Stressed Curious Urge to preserve Bored Insecurity
  64. 64. YOUR TURN TO BUILD A NARRATIVE
  65. 65. BUILD  YOUR  NARRATIVE   ! ❑ Who  is  the  user?   ! ❑ What  are  they  doing  right   before  your  intended   habit? 5  min
  66. 66. INTERNAL  TRIGGERS   ! ❑ Come  up  with  3  internal   trigger  hypotheses   (emotions,  routines,   situations…)   ! 5  min ❑ Which  internal  trigger   occurs  most  often?   ! ❑ Every  time  _______  ,           the  user  ________.  
  67. 67. EXTERNAL  TRIGGERS   ! ❑ Where  and  when  can  you   insert  your  external   triggers?   ! ❑ How  can  you  be  in  front   of  the  user  when  her   internal  trigger  fires?   ! 5  min ❑ What’s  the  right  place,   right  time?   ! ❑ Think  of  3  “rational  ideas”   and  3  “crazy  ideas.”
  68. 68. HYPOTHESIS  HOMEWORK   ! ❑ Are  your  assumptions   correct?   ! ❑ Is  your  narrative  really   happening?   ! ❑ “Get  out  of  the  building.”   –  Steve  Blank   ! ❑ Test  your  biggest   assumptions  first  and   cheaply.
  69. 69. Take 10 Min “Hook”  by  Blues  Traveler
  70. 70. h k
  71. 71. The SIMPLEST  ACTION in  anticipation  of  a  reward.
  72. 72. Scroll
  73. 73. Search
  74. 74. Play
  75. 75. According  to  BJ  Fogg,  for  any  behavior  to  occur,  we   need  MOTIVATION,  ABILITY,  and  a  TRIGGER b=m+a+t
  76. 76. mo·ti·va·tion “THE  ENERGY  FOR  ACTION” -­‐Edward  Deci
  77. 77. THERE  ARE  SIX  FACTORS   THAT  CAN  INCREASE   MOTIVATION. Seeking Pleasure
 Avoiding Pain
 Seeking Hope
 Avoiding Fear
 Seeking Acceptance
 Avoiding Rejection Source:  Dr.  BJ  Fogg,  Stanford  University    
  78. 78. Seeking  HOPE
  79. 79. Seeking  PLEASURE
  80. 80. Avoiding  FEAR
  81. 81. 
 Seeking  ACCEPTANCE
  82. 82. ABILITY the capacity to do a particular action
  83. 83. Time% $ Money% Physical%effort% % Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability. Brain%cycles% Social%deviance% Non8rou:ne% Source:%Dr.%BJ%Fogg,%Stanford%University%
  84. 84. NOVELTY  IS  A  LIABILITY.
  85. 85. LOOK  FOR  OLD  HABITS
  86. 86. Level  of  of  motivation  and  ability   determines  if  action  will  occur. MOTIVATION TRIGGER   SUCCEEDS TRIGGER   FAILS Fogg  Behavior  Model ABILITY Source:  Dr.  BJ  Fogg,  Stanford  University
  87. 87. Simplicity is a function of your scarcest resource at that moment. -­‐BJ  Fogg
  88. 88. Should  designers  MOVE  MOTIVATION  OR  ABILITY  FIRST?
  89. 89. You  can  try  to  increase  motivation…
  90. 90. …but  you’ll  often     get  the  same  results.
  91. 91. Move  ability
 before  motivation. Focus  on  simplicity.
  92. 92. through  the  years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  93. 93. through  the  years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  94. 94. through  the  years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  95. 95. YOUR TURN TO SIMPLIFY THE ACTION
  96. 96. Users  are  on  a  path  to  solving  a  problem. Product  Interface Internal  Trigger Reward/Pain  Alleviation
  97. 97. users  take  action  to  alleviate  pain. Product  Interface   1. Open  App   2. Log-­‐in  (sometimes)   3. Scroll  &  Read Internal  Trigger Reward/Pain  Alleviation
  98. 98. 10  min Map  the  path   users  take  to   scratch  their  itch.
  99. 99. Find  the  “scarcest  resource”   ! ❑ Review  your  flow.  Where  is   the  action  most  difficult?   ! ❑ Which  resource  is  lacking?         • Time   5  min ! • Money   ! • Physical  effort   ! • Brain  cycles  (too  confusing)   ! • Social  deviance  (outside  norm)   ! • Non-­‐routine  (too  new) ❑ What  are  3  testable  ways  to   make  the  action  easier?
  100. 100. h k
  101. 101.    Source:  Olds  and  Milner,  1945 It  all  starts  with  the NUCLEUS   ACCUMBENS studied  by  Olds  &  Milner.
  102. 102. The  nucleus  accumbens  
 is  activated  when  
 we  crave.
  103. 103. Were Olds & Milner stimulating pleasure? Not exactly.
  104. 104. They  were  stimulating  the  
 STRESS  OF  DESIRE.
  105. 105. Our  reward  system  activates  
 with  anticipation Source:  Knutson  et  al  2001    
  106. 106. …  and  calms  when  
 we  get  what  we  want. Source:  Knutson  et  al  2001
  107. 107. That’s  the  ITCH we  seek  to  SCRATCH.
  108. 108. There  is  a  way  to  supercharge  the  stress  of  desire.
  109. 109. THE  UNKNOWN IS  FASCINATING. Variability  causes  us  to     focus  and  engagement
  110. 110. …and  increases  behavior.
  111. 111. The  nucleus  accumbens  is   stimulated  by  variability.
  112. 112. 3  types  of  VARIABLE  REWARDS TRIBE HUNT SELF Habit-­‐forming  tech  uses  1  OR  MORE
  113. 113. SEARCH  FOR SOCIAL  REWARDS TRIBE
  114. 114. empathetic joy partnership competition
  115. 115. We  Like  social  rewards.
  116. 116. We  LOVE  our  tribes.
  117. 117. We  value  recognition  and  cooperation
  118. 118. But  social  rewards  must  come   from  people,  not  machines.
  119. 119. SEARCH  FOR RESOURCES HUNT
  120. 120. Stems  from  the  hunt  for  food  and  resources
  121. 121. Hunt  for  variable  material  rewards
  122. 122. Hunt  for  variable  material  rewards
  123. 123. Hunters  at
  124. 124. Hunt  
 for  variable   information  
 rewards.
  125. 125. Hunters  on scroll  pages.
  126. 126. SEARCH  FOR SELF-­‐ACHIEVEMENT SELF
  127. 127. Leveling-­‐up  reflects  MASTERY  and  COMPETENCY.
  128. 128. Inbox  or  task  management  reflects  
 CONSISTENCY  and  COMPLETION.
  129. 129. WARNING Variable  rewards  are  not  a  free  pass.  
 Your  product  still  must  address  the  itch.
  130. 130. AUTONOMY  IS     A  PRE-­‐REQUISITE. Do  your  users  feel  in  control? Source:    Deci  and  Ryan  on  Self-­‐Determination  Theory
  131. 131. Beware  of  FINITE  VARIABILITY.
  132. 132. INFINITE  VARIABILITY  sustains  interest  longer.
  133. 133. Build  variable  rewards  that  satiate  the  users  itch,   but  leave  them  wanting  more.
  134. 134. YOUR TURN TO REWARD YOUR USERS
  135. 135. ❑ Review  your  flow.  Is  the   reward  fulfilling,  yet  leaves   the  user  wanting  more?   ! ❑ Brainstorm  3  ways  users   search  for  variable  reward.   10  min • Rewards  of  the  Tribe  -­‐  gratification   from  others.   • Rewards  of  the  Hunt  -­‐  things,   money  or  information.   • Rewards  of  the  Self  -­‐  mastery,   completion,  competency,   consistency.
  136. 136. h k
  137. 137. Users  “invest”  for  future  benefits. Money Social Capital Personal Data Time Emotional Commitment Effort
  138. 138. Investments increase the likelihood of the next pass through the Hook in 
 TWO
 ways.
  139. 139. 1. INVESTMENTS   LOAD  THE   NEXT  TRIGGER                OF  THE  HOOK.
  140. 140. Each  new  message  posted  on
  141. 141. is  an  open   invitation  for  an   external  trigger  to   be  returned.
  142. 142. Loading  the  next  trigger  with  Pin  It  button  
  143. 143. The                                  Hook External  Trigger:     Facebook,  Twitter,  WOM Interesting  objects  (Hunt) Re-­‐pin,  follow,     comment Scroll (Early  User  –  “Consumer”  )
  144. 144. The                                  Hook External  Trigger:     Emails  and  notifications   Internal  Trigger:   Fear  of  losing  content,  boredom What  did  friend  post?  (Tribe)   Interesting  objects  (Hunt) Install  Pin  It  button,  Pin,     Re-­‐pin,  follow,     comment (Experienced  User  –  “Curators”) Log-­‐in
  145. 145. 2. INVESTMENTS  STORE  VALUE,  
 improving  the  product  with  use.
  146. 146. CONTENT
  147. 147. DATA
  148. 148. FOLLOWERS
  149. 149. REPUTATION 30
  150. 150. ! INVESTMENTS! CREATES ! PREFERENCE.
  151. 151. We  value  things  more  when we  put  work  into  them. Expert Origami $0.27    Source:  Ariely,  Mochon,  and  Norton,  2012 3rd Party Bids $0.05 Self-made Origami $0.23
  152. 152. Please DRIVE CAREFULLY
  153. 153. As  we  invest,  we  seek  to  be     consistent  with  our  past  behaviors. Group 1 Group 2    Source:  Freedman  &  Fraser,  1966 76% 17%
  154. 154. Changing  attitude   and  perception  to   avoid  COGNITIVE   DISSONANCE.    Source:  Jon  Esler,  1983
  155. 155. We  change   our  tastes  and   preferences.
  156. 156. Rationalization  &  Commitment Dr.  Jesse  Schell,  Professor  of  Game  Design,     Carnegie  Mellon  University
  157. 157. YOUR TURN TO GET USERS TO INVEST
  158. 158. ❑ Review  your  flow.  What   “bit  of  work”  are  your  users   doing  to  increase  the   likelihood  of  returning?   ! 10  min ❑ Brainstorm  3  ways  to  add   small  investments  into  your   user  experience  to:   • Load  the  Next  Trigger   • Store  Value
  159. 159. h k The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$ connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
  160. 160. Each  pass  through  the  Hook  helps  
 SHAPE  USER  PREFERENCES  AND  ATTITUDES.
  161. 161. h With%enough%frequency,% A"HABIT"IS"FORMED." k
  162. 162. A  -­‐  A  hook  has  4  parts:   T   -­‐  Trigger   A  -­‐  Action   R   -­‐  Reward   I -­‐  Investment
  163. 163. The  HOOK  Canvas 1.  What  internal  trigger  is               the  product  addressing?   2.  What  external  trigger                 gets  the  user  to  the  product? 4.  Is  the  reward   fulfilling,  yet  leaves  the   user  wanting  more? 5.  What  “bit  of  work”  is  done   to  increase  the  likelihood  of   returning? 3.  What  is  the  simplest   behavior  in  anticipation   of  reward?
  164. 164. THE  MORALITY OF  MANIPULATION
  165. 165. Designing  
 habit-­‐forming     products  is  a  form   of  manipulation.
  166. 166. Users  take  our  technologies  to  bed.
  167. 167. They  check  our  devices  before  saying  “good   morning”  to  loved  ones.
  168. 168. Quite  possibly,  the    
 “CIGARETTE  OF  
 THIS  CENTURY.”
 -­‐  Ian  Bogust
  169. 169. What   RESPONSIBILITY   do  we  have  when   changing  user  behavior?
  170. 170. THE  WORLD  IS  FULL  OF  PROBLEMS  TO  FIX. Help  others  find  meaning.  Engage  them  in   something  important.
  171. 171. Build  the   CHANGE you  want  to  see  in THE  WORLD.
  172. 172. h 1.  Take  the  survey.   k www.OpinionTo.Us   ! 2.  Get  the  slides. nir@nirandfar.com   www.nirandfar.com
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