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Nir Eyal!
Hooked: How to Build Habit-
Forming Products
April 2014!
@DanielMcgaw #KISSwebinar
Join us on Twi er!
@nireyal #KISSwebinar
Join us on Twi er!
Nir Eyal
Author
@nireyal!
Presenter!
Nir Eyal writes, consults, and teaches about the
intersection of psychology, technolo...
WATCH THIS WEBINAR RECORDING NOW
Hooked
@nireyal!
Products!can!profoundly!!
CHANGE'OUR'BEHAVIORS.!
100 s!of!millions!of!
users…!
…and!100 s!of!!
millions!of!dollars.!
P!A!
A'BEHAVIOR'DONE'WITH!
CONSCIOUS'!
THOUGHT!
LITTLE'OR'NO''!
hab·it!
HEALTHTAP!
REV!
POCKET!
BIA!
LUMO!
7CUPS!
EMODT!
PANTRYLABS!
Habitscanbeusedforgood.!
REFRESH.IO!
HABITS'ARE''
BUILT'UPON''
like!the!layers!of!a!
pearl.!
Triggers!come!in!two!flavors:!
EXTERNAL'&''
INTERNAL!
EXTERNAL'TRIGGERS'
The!informa@on!for!what!to!do!next!!
is!within!the!trigger.!
Billboards! SODA!
INTERNAL'TRIGGERS'
The!informa@on!for!what!to!do!next!is!informed!!
through!an!associa@on!in!the!user s!memory.!
Nega@ve!emo@ons!are!POWERFUL'INTERNAL'TRIGGERS.!
lost!
indecisive!
tense!
faDgued!inferior!
bored!
confused!
fear!of!loss!...
People!who!are!DEPRESSED'CHECK'EMAIL'MORE'OFTEN.!
!!Source:(Ko*kalapudi(et(al(2012!
When!we!feel!LONELY!we!use!
When!we!feel!UNSURE!we!!use!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
When!we!are!BORED!we!use!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Do you know your customer s !
INTERNAL TRIGGER?!
What!triggers!make!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!so!habitIforming?!
!external!triggers!
of!losing!the!moment.!
solves!the!pain!
But!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!is!also!
a!social!network.!
Urgeto
preserve!
Stressed!
Lonely!
Curious!
Insecurity!
Bored!
The!
SIMPLEST'BEHAVIOR!
in!an@cipa@on!of!a!reward.!
Scroll!
Search!
Play!
According!to!BJ!Fogg,!for!any!behavior!to!occur,!
we!need!MOTIVATION,'ABILITY,'and!a!TRIGGER!
b=m+a+t!
THE'ENERGY'FOR'ACTION !
mo·ti·va·tion!
5Edward(Deci!
THERE'ARE'SIX'FACTORS'
THAT'CAN'INCREASE'
MOTIVATION.!
SeekingPleasure
AvoidingPain
SeekingHope
AvoidingFear
SeekingAccept...
ABILITY!
the capacity to do
a particular action!
Fogg!Behavior!Model!
MOTIVATION!
ABILITY!
Level'of'moDvaDon'and'ability'
determines'if'acDon'will'occur.!
Source:!Dr.!BJ!F...
through'the'years!
2009!
2010! 2011! 2012! 2014!
2009!
2010!
2011! 2012!
through'the'years!
2014!
2009! 2010! 2011! 2012!
2014!
through'the'years!
LOG IN WITH GOOGLE
studied!by!Olds!&!Milner.!
NUCLEUS'!
It!all!starts!with!the!
ACCUMBENS!
!!Source:!Olds!and!Milner,!1945!
The!nucleus!accumbens!!
is!ac@vated!when!!
we!crave.!
Olds & Milner!
Notexactly.!
stimulating!
pleasure?!
Were!
They!were!s@mula@ng!the!!
STRESS'OF'DESIRE.!
Our!reward!system!ac@vates!!
with!an@cipa@on!
Source:!Knutson!et!al!2001!!!
…!and!calms!when!!
we!get!what!we!want.!
Source:!Knutson!et!al!2001!
That s!the!ITCH!
we!seek!to!SCRATCH.!
There!is!a!way!to!supercharge!the!stress!of!desire.!
IS'FASCINATING.!
THE'UNKNOWN!
Variability!causes!us!to!!
focus!and!engagement!
…and!increases!behavior.!
The!nucleus!accumbens!is!s@mulated!
by!variability.!
3'types'of'VARIABLE'REWARDS!
TRIBE! HUNT! SELF!
HabitIforming!tech!uses!1'OR'MORE!
TRIBE!
SEARCH'FOR!
SOCIAL'REWARDS!
partnership!empatheticjoy! competition!
We!Like!social!rewards.!
We!value!recogni@on!and!coopera@on!
HUNT!
SEARCH'FOR!
RESOURCES!
Stems!from!the!hunt!for!food!and!resources!
Hunt!for!variable!material!rewards!
Hunt!!
for!variable!
informa@on!!
rewards.!
SELF!
SELFVACHIEVEMENT!
SEARCH'FOR!
LevelingIup!reflects!MASTERY'and'COMPETENCY.!
Inbox!or!task!management!reflects!!
CONSISTENCY'and'COMPLETION.!
WARNING!
Variable!rewards!are!not!a!free!pass.!!
Your!product!s@ll!must!address!the!itch.!
Build!variable!rewards!that!scratch!the!users!itch,!
but!leave!them!wan@ng!more.!
Users! invest !for!future!benefits.!
Social
Capital!
Money!
Time!
Effort!
Emotional
Commitment!
Personal
Data!
Investments increase the
likelihood of the next pass
through the Hook in
TWO
ways.!
1.!
INVESTMENTS'
LOAD'THE'!
NEXT'TRIGGER''''!
'''OF'THE'HOOK.!
Each!new!message!posted!on!
is!an!open!
invita@on!for!an!
external!trigger!to!
be!returned.!
Loading!the!next!trigger!with!Pin!It!bu^on!!
INVESTMENTS'STORE'VALUE,''
improving!the!product!with!use.!2.!
CONTENT!
DATA!
FOLLOWERS!
REPUTATION!
30!
Each!pass!through!the!Hook!helps!!
SHAPE'USER'PREFERENCES'AND'ATTITUDES.!
That!was!a!lot!!
…!more!at:!
NirAndFar.com!
The'HOOK'Canvas!
1.!What!internal!trigger!is!!!!!!!
the!product!addressing?!
2.!What!external!trigger!!!!!!!!
gets!the!use...
THE'MORALITY!
OF'MANIPULATION!
Designing!!
habitIforming!!
products!is!a!form!
of!manipula@on.!
Users!take!our!technologies!to!bed.!
They!check!our!devices!before!saying! good!
morning !to!loved!ones.!
Quite!possibly,!the!!!
CIGARETTE'OF''
THIS'CENTURY. '
5(Ian(Bogust!
What!!
RESPONSIBILITY!!
do!we!have!when!!
changing!user!behavior?!
THE'WORLD'IS'FULL'OF'PROBLEMS'TO'FIX.!
Help!others!find!meaning.!Engage!them!in!
something!important.!
Build!the!!
THE'WORLD.!
you!want!to!see!in!
CHANGE!
THANK YOU!
Nir Eyal
@nireyal!
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
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Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products

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Products can profoundly CHANGE OUR BEHAVIORS.
100’s of millions of users and 100’s of millions of dollars.
Habit: A BEHAVIOR DONE WITH CONSCIOUS THOUGHT LITTLE OR NO
HABITS ARE BUILT UPON like the layers of a pearl.
Triggers come in two favors: EXTERNAL & INTERNAL
EXTERNAL TRIGGERS: The information for what to do next is within the trigger. Billboards SODA
INTERNAL TRIGGERS: The information for what to do next is informed through an association in the users Billboards SODA
People who are depressed check email more often
When we feel LONELY we use
When we feel UNSURE we use
When we are BORED we use
Do you know your customer’s INTERNAL TRIGGER?
What triggers make so habit-forming?
Fear of losing the moment. Solves the pain but it is also a social network.
The SIMPLEST BEHAVIOR in anticipation of a reward.
According to BJ Fogg, for any behavior to occur, we need MOTIVATION, ABILITY, and a TRIGGER
THE ENERGY FOR ACTION
THERE ARE SIX FACTORS THAT CAN INCREASE MOTIVATION. Seeking Pleasure, Avoiding Pain, Seeking Hope, Avoiding Fear, Seeking Acceptance, Avoiding Rejection
ABILITY: the capacity to do a particular action
Level of motivation and ability determines if action will occur. Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University TRIGGER SUCCEEDS TRIGGER FAILS
It all starts with the ACCUMBENS
Not exactly stimulating pleasure?
They were stimulating the STRESS OF DESIRE.
Our reward system activates with anticipation … and calms when we get what we want.
That’s the ITCH we seek to SCRATCH.
There is a way to supercharge the stress of desire.
Variability causes us to focus and engagement …and increases behavior.
The nucleus accumbens is stimulated by variability.
3 types of VARIABLE REWARDS: TRIBE, HUNT, SELF
TRIBE SEARCH FOR SOCIAL REWARDS
We like social rewards
We value recognition and cooperation
HUNT SEARCH FOR RESOURCES
Stems from the hunt for food and resources
Hunt for variable material rewards
Hunt for variable information rewards
WARNING! Variable rewards are not a free pass. Your products must address the itch
Build variable rewards that scratch the users itch but leave them wanting more
Users invest for future benefits: Social Capital, Money, Time, Effort, Emotional Commitment, and Personal Data
Investments increase the likelihood of the next pass through the Hook in TWO ways
INVESTMENTS LOAD THE NEXT TRIGGER OF THE HOOK
Each pass through the Hook helps
THE MORALITY OF MANIPULATION
Users take our technologies to bed
They check our devices before saying good morning to loved ones.
Quite possibly the CIGARETTE OF THIS CENTURY.
What do we have when changing user behavior? RESPONSIBILITY
THE WORLD IS FULL OF PROBLEMS TO FIX
Build the world you want to see

Published in: Marketing, Technology, Education
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Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products

  1. 1. Nir Eyal! Hooked: How to Build Habit- Forming Products April 2014!
  2. 2. @DanielMcgaw #KISSwebinar Join us on Twi er!
  3. 3. @nireyal #KISSwebinar Join us on Twi er!
  4. 4. Nir Eyal Author @nireyal! Presenter! Nir Eyal writes, consults, and teaches about the intersection of psychology, technology, and business. Nir founded and sold two companies since 2003 and has taught the "Using Neuroscience to Influence Human Behavior" course as a lecturer at the Stanford Graduate School of Business.
  5. 5. WATCH THIS WEBINAR RECORDING NOW
  6. 6. Hooked @nireyal!
  7. 7. Products!can!profoundly!! CHANGE'OUR'BEHAVIORS.!
  8. 8. 100 s!of!millions!of! users…! …and!100 s!of!! millions!of!dollars.!
  9. 9. P!A!
  10. 10. A'BEHAVIOR'DONE'WITH! CONSCIOUS'! THOUGHT! LITTLE'OR'NO''! hab·it!
  11. 11. HEALTHTAP! REV! POCKET! BIA! LUMO! 7CUPS! EMODT! PANTRYLABS! Habitscanbeusedforgood.! REFRESH.IO!
  12. 12. HABITS'ARE'' BUILT'UPON'' like!the!layers!of!a! pearl.!
  13. 13. Triggers!come!in!two!flavors:! EXTERNAL'&'' INTERNAL!
  14. 14. EXTERNAL'TRIGGERS' The!informa@on!for!what!to!do!next!! is!within!the!trigger.! Billboards! SODA!
  15. 15. INTERNAL'TRIGGERS' The!informa@on!for!what!to!do!next!is!informed!! through!an!associa@on!in!the!user s!memory.!
  16. 16. Nega@ve!emo@ons!are!POWERFUL'INTERNAL'TRIGGERS.! lost! indecisive! tense! faDgued!inferior! bored! confused! fear!of!loss! dissaDsfied! powerless! discouraged! lonesome!
  17. 17. People!who!are!DEPRESSED'CHECK'EMAIL'MORE'OFTEN.! !!Source:(Ko*kalapudi(et(al(2012!
  18. 18. When!we!feel!LONELY!we!use!
  19. 19. When!we!feel!UNSURE!we!!use!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  20. 20. When!we!are!BORED!we!use!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  21. 21. Do you know your customer s ! INTERNAL TRIGGER?!
  22. 22. What!triggers!make!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!so!habitIforming?!
  23. 23. !external!triggers!
  24. 24. of!losing!the!moment.! solves!the!pain!
  25. 25. But!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!is!also! a!social!network.! Urgeto preserve! Stressed! Lonely! Curious! Insecurity! Bored!
  26. 26. The! SIMPLEST'BEHAVIOR! in!an@cipa@on!of!a!reward.!
  27. 27. Scroll!
  28. 28. Search!
  29. 29. Play!
  30. 30. According!to!BJ!Fogg,!for!any!behavior!to!occur,! we!need!MOTIVATION,'ABILITY,'and!a!TRIGGER! b=m+a+t!
  31. 31. THE'ENERGY'FOR'ACTION ! mo·ti·va·tion! 5Edward(Deci!
  32. 32. THERE'ARE'SIX'FACTORS' THAT'CAN'INCREASE' MOTIVATION.! SeekingPleasure AvoidingPain SeekingHope AvoidingFear SeekingAcceptance AvoidingRejection! Source:!Dr.!BJ!Fogg,!Stanford!University!!!
  33. 33. ABILITY! the capacity to do a particular action!
  34. 34. Fogg!Behavior!Model! MOTIVATION! ABILITY! Level'of'moDvaDon'and'ability' determines'if'acDon'will'occur.! Source:!Dr.!BJ!Fogg,!Stanford!University! TRIGGER'! SUCCEEDS! TRIGGER'! FAILS!
  35. 35. through'the'years! 2009! 2010! 2011! 2012! 2014!
  36. 36. 2009! 2010! 2011! 2012! through'the'years! 2014!
  37. 37. 2009! 2010! 2011! 2012! 2014! through'the'years!
  38. 38. LOG IN WITH GOOGLE
  39. 39. studied!by!Olds!&!Milner.! NUCLEUS'! It!all!starts!with!the! ACCUMBENS! !!Source:!Olds!and!Milner,!1945!
  40. 40. The!nucleus!accumbens!! is!ac@vated!when!! we!crave.!
  41. 41. Olds & Milner! Notexactly.! stimulating! pleasure?! Were!
  42. 42. They!were!s@mula@ng!the!! STRESS'OF'DESIRE.!
  43. 43. Our!reward!system!ac@vates!! with!an@cipa@on! Source:!Knutson!et!al!2001!!!
  44. 44. …!and!calms!when!! we!get!what!we!want.! Source:!Knutson!et!al!2001!
  45. 45. That s!the!ITCH! we!seek!to!SCRATCH.!
  46. 46. There!is!a!way!to!supercharge!the!stress!of!desire.!
  47. 47. IS'FASCINATING.! THE'UNKNOWN! Variability!causes!us!to!! focus!and!engagement!
  48. 48. …and!increases!behavior.!
  49. 49. The!nucleus!accumbens!is!s@mulated! by!variability.!
  50. 50. 3'types'of'VARIABLE'REWARDS! TRIBE! HUNT! SELF! HabitIforming!tech!uses!1'OR'MORE!
  51. 51. TRIBE! SEARCH'FOR! SOCIAL'REWARDS!
  52. 52. partnership!empatheticjoy! competition!
  53. 53. We!Like!social!rewards.!
  54. 54. We!value!recogni@on!and!coopera@on!
  55. 55. HUNT! SEARCH'FOR! RESOURCES!
  56. 56. Stems!from!the!hunt!for!food!and!resources!
  57. 57. Hunt!for!variable!material!rewards!
  58. 58. Hunt!! for!variable! informa@on!! rewards.!
  59. 59. SELF! SELFVACHIEVEMENT! SEARCH'FOR!
  60. 60. LevelingIup!reflects!MASTERY'and'COMPETENCY.!
  61. 61. Inbox!or!task!management!reflects!! CONSISTENCY'and'COMPLETION.!
  62. 62. WARNING! Variable!rewards!are!not!a!free!pass.!! Your!product!s@ll!must!address!the!itch.!
  63. 63. Build!variable!rewards!that!scratch!the!users!itch,! but!leave!them!wan@ng!more.!
  64. 64. Users! invest !for!future!benefits.! Social Capital! Money! Time! Effort! Emotional Commitment! Personal Data!
  65. 65. Investments increase the likelihood of the next pass through the Hook in TWO ways.!
  66. 66. 1.! INVESTMENTS' LOAD'THE'! NEXT'TRIGGER''''! '''OF'THE'HOOK.!
  67. 67. Each!new!message!posted!on!
  68. 68. is!an!open! invita@on!for!an! external!trigger!to! be!returned.!
  69. 69. Loading!the!next!trigger!with!Pin!It!bu^on!!
  70. 70. INVESTMENTS'STORE'VALUE,'' improving!the!product!with!use.!2.!
  71. 71. CONTENT!
  72. 72. DATA!
  73. 73. FOLLOWERS!
  74. 74. REPUTATION! 30!
  75. 75. Each!pass!through!the!Hook!helps!! SHAPE'USER'PREFERENCES'AND'ATTITUDES.!
  76. 76. That!was!a!lot!! …!more!at:! NirAndFar.com!
  77. 77. The'HOOK'Canvas! 1.!What!internal!trigger!is!!!!!!! the!product!addressing?! 2.!What!external!trigger!!!!!!!! gets!the!user!to!the!product?! 4.!Is!the!reward! fulfilling,!yet!leaves!the! user!wan@ng!more?! 3.!What!is!the!simplest! behavior!in!an@cipa@on! of!reward?! 5.!What! bit!of!work !is!done! to!increase!the!likelihood!of! returning?!
  78. 78. THE'MORALITY! OF'MANIPULATION!
  79. 79. Designing!! habitIforming!! products!is!a!form! of!manipula@on.!
  80. 80. Users!take!our!technologies!to!bed.!
  81. 81. They!check!our!devices!before!saying! good! morning !to!loved!ones.!
  82. 82. Quite!possibly,!the!!! CIGARETTE'OF'' THIS'CENTURY. ' 5(Ian(Bogust!
  83. 83. What!! RESPONSIBILITY!! do!we!have!when!! changing!user!behavior?!
  84. 84. THE'WORLD'IS'FULL'OF'PROBLEMS'TO'FIX.! Help!others!find!meaning.!Engage!them!in! something!important.!
  85. 85. Build!the!! THE'WORLD.! you!want!to!see!in! CHANGE!
  86. 86. THANK YOU! Nir Eyal @nireyal!

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