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h kHooked


@nireyal
Products	can	profoundly	

CHANGE	OUR	BEHAVIORS.
100’s	of	millions	of	
users…
…and	100’s	of		
millions	of	dollars.
PA TT
E
SN
R
?
I	wrote	this	…
…	more	at:	
NirAndFar.com
Close	your	eyes.
HOWDIDYOUFEEL?
When	we	FEEL	AN	ITCH
we	seek	to	SCRATCH	IT.
The	brain	associates	behaviors	that	

PROVIDE	A	SOLUTION

to	whatever	problem	it	encounters.
The	SOLUTION	TO	

OUR	DISCOMFORT	

is	found	in	the	product’s	use.
Images	of	chocolate	bring	both	
pleasure	and	stress	to	“cravers.”
		Source:	Rodriguez	et	al	2005
STRESS	is	a	precondition	
for	addiction.
		Source:	Heilig	and	Koob	2007
We	are	not	designing	for	addiction	
NOT	must	be	in	graphic	
Do	not	design	for	addiction.
A	BEHAVIOR	DONE	WITH
CONSCIOUS	
THOUGHT
LITTLE	OR	NO	

hab·it
Habitscanbeusedforgood.
1.	FREQUENCY
		Source:	Judah,	G;	Gardner,	B;	Aunger,	R;	2013
2.	ATTITUDE	CHANGE
		Source:	Judah,	G;	Gardner,	B;	Aunger,	R;	2013
Harnessing	
VERY	GOOD
HABITS	
can	be	
FOR	BUSINESS.
Creating	consumer	habits	drives	

HIGHER	CUSTOMER
LIFETIME	VALUE	(CLTV).
Creating	consumer	habits	gives	companies	
GREATER	FLEXIBILITY
TO	INCREASE	PRICES.
Creating	consumer	habits	

SUPERCHARGES
GROWTH.
Creating	consumer	habits
INCREASES	DEFENSIBILITY.
However,	forming	new	habits	is	HARD	WORK
AND	EXCEPTIONALLY	RARE.
But	if	your	business	requires		
“unprompted	user	engagement,”
A	design	pattern	to	help

FORM	BETTER	PRODUCT	
HYPOTHESES.
BUILDING	IS
EXPENSIVE
INCREASE	YOUR	ODDS	OF	SUCCESS.
h kThe$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$
connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
h k
with%enough%%
FREQUENCY%%
to%%
FORM+A+HABIT.+
NOW IT IS
YOUR TURN
❑ Get	into	groups	of	2	or	3.	
❑ Describe	your	product	or	
service.	
❑ Pick	one	product	with	one	
user.
❑ Why	does	your	business	
require	a	habit?	
❑ What	problem	are	users		
coming	to	solve?	
❑ How	do	they	currently	
solve	th...
❑ What	action	do	you	want	
to	make	into	a	habit?	
❑ How	frequently	do	you	
expect	users	to	engage?
h kA"Hook"has"4"parts:"
h k
Triggers	come	in	two	flavors:

EXTERNAL	&	

INTERNAL
EXTERNAL	TRIGGERS

The	information	for	what	to	do	next		
is	within	the	trigger.
Billboards SO
DA
INTERNAL	TRIGGERS

The	information	for	what	to	do	next	is	informed	

through	an	association	in	the	user’s	memory.
Negative	emotions	are	POWERFUL	INTERNAL	TRIGGERS.
lost
indecisive
tense
fatiguedinferior
bored
confused
fear	of	loss
dissa...
People	who	are	DEPRESSED	CHECK	EMAIL	MORE	OFTEN.
		Source: Kotikalapudi et al 2012
When	we	feel	LONELY	we	use
When	we	feel	UNSURE	we		use
When	we	are	BORED	we	use
Do you know your customer’s
INTERNAL TRIGGER?
Jack	Dorsey	on	Narratives
IT#ALL#STARTS#WITH#A#
NARRATIVE.!
“(If)!you!want!to!build!a!product!
that!is!relevant!to!folks,!you!need!
to!put!yourself!...
1952
INSTANT	CAKE	MIX	WAS	
A	MARKETING	FAILURE.	
Betty	Crocker	assumed	that	
customers	wanted	
convenience	but	“Just	add	
...
WHY	DO	WE	MAKE	CAKE?	


to	give	and	receive	love	from	people	we	care	about.
DEPRECATED	A	FEATURE
What	triggers	make																									so	habit-forming?
external	triggers
of	losing	the	moment.
solves	the	pain
But																								is	
also	a	social	network.
Urgeto
preserve
Stressed
Lonely
Curious
Insecurity
Bored
YOUR
TURN
TO
BUILD A
NARRATIVE
BUILD	YOUR	NARRATIVE	
❑ Who	is	the	user?	
❑ What	are	they	doing	
immediately	before	your	
intended	habit?
INTERNAL	TRIGGERS	
❑ Come	up	with	3	internal	
trigger	hypotheses	
(emotions,	routines,	
situations…)	
❑ Which	internal	tri...
EXTERNAL	TRIGGERS	
❑ Where	and	when	can	you	
insert	your	external	
triggers?	
❑ How	can	you	be	in	front	
of	the	user	when	...
HYPOTHESIS	HOMEWORK	
❑ Are	your	assumptions	
correct?	
❑ Is	your	narrative	really	
happening?	
❑ “Get	out	of	the	building....
Take a break
“Hook”	by	Blues	Traveler
h k
The
SIMPLEST	BEHAVIOR
in	anticipation	of	a	reward.
Scroll
Search
Play
According	to	BJ	Fogg,	for	any	behavior	to	occur,	we	
need	MOTIVATION,	ABILITY,	and	a	TRIGGER
b=m+a+t
“THE	ENERGY	FOR	ACTION”
mo·ti·va·tion
-Edward Deci
THERE	ARE	SIX	FACTORS	
THAT	CAN	INCREASE	
MOTIVATION.
SeekingPleasure

AvoidingPain

SeekingHope

AvoidingFear

SeekingAcc...
Seeking	HOPE
Seeking	PLEASURE
Avoiding	FEAR


Seeking	ACCEPTANCE
ABILITY
the capacity to do
a particular action
Time%
$
Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability.
%
Money% Physical%effort%
Brain%cycles% Social%deviance% Non8rou:ne%
...
Fogg	Behavior	Model
MOTIVATION
ABILITY
Level	of	motivation	and	ability	
determines	if	action	will	occur.
Source:	Dr.	BJ	Fo...
Should	designers	MOVE	MOTIVATION	OR	ABILITY	FIRST?
You	can	try	to	increase	motivation…
…but	you’ll	often		
get	the	same	results.
through	the	years
2009 2010 2011 2012 TODAY
2009
2010 2011 2012
through	the	years
TODAY
2009 2010 2011 2012
TODAY
through	the	years
YOUR
TURN
TO
SIMPLIFY
THE ACTION
Users	are	on	a	path	to	solving	a	problem.
Internal	Trigger
Product	Interface
Reward/Pain	Alleviation
users	take	action	to	alleviate	pain.
Internal	Trigger
Product	Interface	
1. Open	App	
2. Log-in	(sometimes)	
3. Scroll	&	R...
Map	the	path	
users	take	to	
scratch	their	itch.
Find	the	“scarcest	resource”	
❑ Review	your	flow.	Where	is	
the	action	most	difficult?	
❑ Which	resource	is	lacking?		
		
...
h k
studied	by	Olds	&	Milner.
NUCLEUS	
It	all	starts	with	the
ACCUMBENS
		Source:	Olds	and	Milner,	1945
The	nucleus	accumbens	

is	activated	when	

we	crave.
Olds & Milner
Notexactly.
stimulating
pleasure?
Were
They	were	stimulating	the	

STRESS	OF	DESIRE.
Our	reward	system	activates	

with	anticipation
Source:	Knutson	et	al	2001
…	and	calms	when	

we	get	what	we	want.
Source:	Knutson	et	al	2001
That’s	the	ITCH
we	seek	to	SCRATCH.
There	is	a	way	to	supercharge	the	stress	of	desire.
IS	FASCINATING.
THE	UNKNOWN
Variability	causes	us	to		
focus	and	engage
…and	increases	behavior.
The	nucleus	accumbens	is	
stimulated	by	variability.
3	types	of	VARIABLE	REWARDS
TRIBE HUNT SELF
Habit-forming	tech	uses	1	OR	MORE
TRIBE
SEARCH	FOR
SOCIAL	REWARDS
partnershipempatheticjoy competition
We	Like	social	rewards.
Fast	variable	rewards
We	value	recognition	and	cooperation
HUNT
SEARCH	FOR
RESOURCES
Stems	from	the	hunt	for	food	and	resources
Hunt	for	variable	material	rewards
Hunt	for	variable	material	rewards
Hunt	

for	variable	
information	

rewards.
Hunters	on
scroll	pages.
SELF
SELF-ACHIEVEMENT
SEARCH	FOR
Leveling-up	reflects	MASTERY	and	COMPETENCY.
Inbox	or	task	management	reflects	

CONSISTENCY	and	COMPLETION.
WARNING
Variable	rewards	are	not	a	free	pass.	

Your	product	still	must	address	the	itch.
Do	your	users	feel	in	control?
AUTONOMY	IS		
A	PRE-REQUISITE.
Source:		Deci	and	Ryan	on	Self-Determination	Theory
Beware	of	FINITE	VARIABILITY.
INFINITE	VARIABILITY	sustains	interest	longer.
Build	variable	rewards	that	satiate	the	users	itch,	
but	leave	them	wanting	more.
YOUR
TURN
TO
REWARD
YOUR USERS
❑ Review	your	flow.	Is	the	
reward	fulfilling,	yet	leaves	
the	user	wanting	more?	
❑ Brainstorm	3	ways	users	
search	for	v...
h k
Users	“invest”	for	future	benefits.
Social
Capital
Money
Time
Effort
Emotional
CommitmentPersonal
Data
Investments increase the
likelihood of the next pass
through the Hook in 

TWO

ways.
1.INVESTMENTS	
LOAD	THE	
NEXT	TRIGGER					
			OF	THE	HOOK.
Each	new	message	posted	on
is	an	open	
invitation	for	an	
external	trigger	to	
be	returned.
INVESTMENTS	STORE	VALUE,	

improving	the	product	with	use.2.
CONTENT
DATA
FOLLOWERS
REPUTATION
YOUR
TURN
TO
GET USERS
TO INVEST
❑ Review	your	flow.	What	
“bit	of	work”	are	your	users	
doing	to	increase	the	
likelihood	of	returning?	
❑ Brainstorm	3	wa...
h kThe$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$
connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
Each	pass	through	the	Hook	helps	

SHAPE	USER	PREFERENCES	AND	ATTITUDES.
h k
With%enough%frequency,%
A"HABIT"IS"FORMED."
The	HOOK	Canvas
1.	What	internal	trigger	is							
the	product	addressing?	
2.	What	external	trigger								
gets	the	user...
THE	MORALITY
OF	MANIPULATION
Designing	

habit-forming		
products	is	a	form	
of	manipulation.
Users	take	our	technologies	to	bed.
They	check	our	devices	before	saying	“good	
morning”	to	loved	ones.
Quite	possibly,	the		

“CIGARETTE	OF	

THIS	CENTURY.”

- Ian Bogust
What	
RESPONSIBILITY	
do	we	have	when	
changing	user	behavior?
THE	WORLD	IS	FULL	OF	PROBLEMS	TO	FIX.
Help	others	find	meaning.	Engage	them	in	
something	important.
Build	the	
THE	WORLD.
you	want	to	see	in
CHANGE
Hooked Workshop
Hooked Workshop
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Hooked Workshop

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Hooked Workshop

  1. h kHooked
 
@nireyal
  2. Products can profoundly 
 CHANGE OUR BEHAVIORS.
  3. 100’s of millions of users… …and 100’s of millions of dollars.
  4. PA TT E SN R ?
  5. I wrote this … … more at: NirAndFar.com
  6. Close your eyes.
  7. HOWDIDYOUFEEL?
  8. When we FEEL AN ITCH we seek to SCRATCH IT.
  9. The brain associates behaviors that 
 PROVIDE A SOLUTION
 to whatever problem it encounters.
  10. The SOLUTION TO 
 OUR DISCOMFORT 
 is found in the product’s use.
  11. Images of chocolate bring both pleasure and stress to “cravers.” Source: Rodriguez et al 2005
  12. STRESS is a precondition for addiction. Source: Heilig and Koob 2007
  13. We are not designing for addiction NOT must be in graphic Do not design for addiction.
  14. A BEHAVIOR DONE WITH CONSCIOUS THOUGHT LITTLE OR NO 
 hab·it
  15. Habitscanbeusedforgood.
  16. 1. FREQUENCY Source: Judah, G; Gardner, B; Aunger, R; 2013
  17. 2. ATTITUDE CHANGE Source: Judah, G; Gardner, B; Aunger, R; 2013
  18. Harnessing VERY GOOD HABITS can be FOR BUSINESS.
  19. Creating consumer habits drives 
 HIGHER CUSTOMER LIFETIME VALUE (CLTV).
  20. Creating consumer habits gives companies GREATER FLEXIBILITY TO INCREASE PRICES.
  21. Creating consumer habits 
 SUPERCHARGES GROWTH.
  22. Creating consumer habits INCREASES DEFENSIBILITY.
  23. However, forming new habits is HARD WORK
  24. AND EXCEPTIONALLY RARE.
  25. But if your business requires “unprompted user engagement,”
  26. A design pattern to help
 FORM BETTER PRODUCT HYPOTHESES.
  27. BUILDING IS EXPENSIVE
  28. INCREASE YOUR ODDS OF SUCCESS.
  29. h kThe$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$ connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
  30. h k with%enough%% FREQUENCY%% to%% FORM+A+HABIT.+
  31. NOW IT IS YOUR TURN
  32. ❑ Get into groups of 2 or 3. ❑ Describe your product or service. ❑ Pick one product with one user.
  33. ❑ Why does your business require a habit? ❑ What problem are users coming to solve? ❑ How do they currently solve the problem and why does it need a new solution?
  34. ❑ What action do you want to make into a habit? ❑ How frequently do you expect users to engage?
  35. h kA"Hook"has"4"parts:"
  36. h k
  37. Triggers come in two flavors:
 EXTERNAL & 
 INTERNAL
  38. EXTERNAL TRIGGERS
 The information for what to do next is within the trigger. Billboards SO DA
  39. INTERNAL TRIGGERS
 The information for what to do next is informed 
 through an association in the user’s memory.
  40. Negative emotions are POWERFUL INTERNAL TRIGGERS. lost indecisive tense fatiguedinferior bored confused fear of loss dissatisfied powerless discouraged lonesome
  41. People who are DEPRESSED CHECK EMAIL MORE OFTEN. Source: Kotikalapudi et al 2012
  42. When we feel LONELY we use
  43. When we feel UNSURE we use
  44. When we are BORED we use
  45. Do you know your customer’s INTERNAL TRIGGER?
  46. Jack Dorsey on Narratives
  47. IT#ALL#STARTS#WITH#A# NARRATIVE.! “(If)!you!want!to!build!a!product! that!is!relevant!to!folks,!you!need! to!put!yourself!in!their!shoes!and! you!need!to!write!a!story!from! their!side.”! .#Jack#Dorsey#
  48. 1952 INSTANT CAKE MIX WAS A MARKETING FAILURE. Betty Crocker assumed that customers wanted convenience but “Just add water” did not sell. Source: “Finding Betty Crocker”, Susan Marks
  49. WHY DO WE MAKE CAKE? 

 to give and receive love from people we care about.
  50. DEPRECATED A FEATURE
  51. What triggers make so habit-forming?
  52. external triggers
  53. of losing the moment. solves the pain
  54. But is also a social network. Urgeto preserve Stressed Lonely Curious Insecurity Bored
  55. YOUR TURN TO BUILD A NARRATIVE
  56. BUILD YOUR NARRATIVE ❑ Who is the user? ❑ What are they doing immediately before your intended habit?
  57. INTERNAL TRIGGERS ❑ Come up with 3 internal trigger hypotheses (emotions, routines, situations…) ❑ Which internal trigger occurs most often? ❑ Every time _______ , the user ________.
  58. EXTERNAL TRIGGERS ❑ Where and when can you insert your external triggers? ❑ How can you be in front of the user when her internal trigger fires? ❑ Think of 3 “rational ideas” and 3 “crazy ideas.”
  59. HYPOTHESIS HOMEWORK ❑ Are your assumptions correct? ❑ Is your narrative really happening? ❑ “Get out of the building.” – Steve Blank ❑ Test your biggest assumptions first and cheaply.
  60. Take a break “Hook” by Blues Traveler
  61. h k
  62. The SIMPLEST BEHAVIOR in anticipation of a reward.
  63. Scroll
  64. Search
  65. Play
  66. According to BJ Fogg, for any behavior to occur, we need MOTIVATION, ABILITY, and a TRIGGER b=m+a+t
  67. “THE ENERGY FOR ACTION” mo·ti·va·tion -Edward Deci
  68. THERE ARE SIX FACTORS THAT CAN INCREASE MOTIVATION. SeekingPleasure
 AvoidingPain
 SeekingHope
 AvoidingFear
 SeekingAcceptance
 AvoidingRejection Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
  69. Seeking HOPE
  70. Seeking PLEASURE
  71. Avoiding FEAR
  72. 
 Seeking ACCEPTANCE
  73. ABILITY the capacity to do a particular action
  74. Time% $ Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability. % Money% Physical%effort% Brain%cycles% Social%deviance% Non8rou:ne% Source:%Dr.%BJ%Fogg,%Stanford%University%
  75. Fogg Behavior Model MOTIVATION ABILITY Level of motivation and ability determines if action will occur. Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University TRIGGER SUCCEEDS TRIGGER FAILS
  76. Should designers MOVE MOTIVATION OR ABILITY FIRST?
  77. You can try to increase motivation…
  78. …but you’ll often get the same results.
  79. through the years 2009 2010 2011 2012 TODAY
  80. 2009 2010 2011 2012 through the years TODAY
  81. 2009 2010 2011 2012 TODAY through the years
  82. YOUR TURN TO SIMPLIFY THE ACTION
  83. Users are on a path to solving a problem. Internal Trigger Product Interface Reward/Pain Alleviation
  84. users take action to alleviate pain. Internal Trigger Product Interface 1. Open App 2. Log-in (sometimes) 3. Scroll & Read Reward/Pain Alleviation
  85. Map the path users take to scratch their itch.
  86. Find the “scarcest resource” ❑ Review your flow. Where is the action most difficult? ❑ Which resource is lacking? ❑ What are 3 testable ways to make the action easier? •Time •Money •Physical effort •Brain cycles (too confusing) •Social deviance (outside norm) •Non-routine (too new)
  87. h k
  88. studied by Olds & Milner. NUCLEUS It all starts with the ACCUMBENS Source: Olds and Milner, 1945
  89. The nucleus accumbens 
 is activated when 
 we crave.
  90. Olds & Milner Notexactly. stimulating pleasure? Were
  91. They were stimulating the 
 STRESS OF DESIRE.
  92. Our reward system activates 
 with anticipation Source: Knutson et al 2001
  93. … and calms when 
 we get what we want. Source: Knutson et al 2001
  94. That’s the ITCH we seek to SCRATCH.
  95. There is a way to supercharge the stress of desire.
  96. IS FASCINATING. THE UNKNOWN Variability causes us to focus and engage
  97. …and increases behavior.
  98. The nucleus accumbens is stimulated by variability.
  99. 3 types of VARIABLE REWARDS TRIBE HUNT SELF Habit-forming tech uses 1 OR MORE
  100. TRIBE SEARCH FOR SOCIAL REWARDS
  101. partnershipempatheticjoy competition
  102. We Like social rewards.
  103. Fast variable rewards
  104. We value recognition and cooperation
  105. HUNT SEARCH FOR RESOURCES
  106. Stems from the hunt for food and resources
  107. Hunt for variable material rewards
  108. Hunt for variable material rewards
  109. Hunt 
 for variable information 
 rewards.
  110. Hunters on scroll pages.
  111. SELF SELF-ACHIEVEMENT SEARCH FOR
  112. Leveling-up reflects MASTERY and COMPETENCY.
  113. Inbox or task management reflects 
 CONSISTENCY and COMPLETION.
  114. WARNING Variable rewards are not a free pass. 
 Your product still must address the itch.
  115. Do your users feel in control? AUTONOMY IS A PRE-REQUISITE. Source: Deci and Ryan on Self-Determination Theory
  116. Beware of FINITE VARIABILITY.
  117. INFINITE VARIABILITY sustains interest longer.
  118. Build variable rewards that satiate the users itch, but leave them wanting more.
  119. YOUR TURN TO REWARD YOUR USERS
  120. ❑ Review your flow. Is the reward fulfilling, yet leaves the user wanting more? ❑ Brainstorm 3 ways users search for variable reward. •Rewards of the Tribe - gratification from others. •Rewards of the Hunt - things, money or information. •Rewards of the Self - mastery, completion, competency, consistency.
  121. h k
  122. Users “invest” for future benefits. Social Capital Money Time Effort Emotional CommitmentPersonal Data
  123. Investments increase the likelihood of the next pass through the Hook in 
 TWO
 ways.
  124. 1.INVESTMENTS LOAD THE NEXT TRIGGER OF THE HOOK.
  125. Each new message posted on
  126. is an open invitation for an external trigger to be returned.
  127. INVESTMENTS STORE VALUE, 
 improving the product with use.2.
  128. CONTENT
  129. DATA
  130. FOLLOWERS
  131. REPUTATION
  132. YOUR TURN TO GET USERS TO INVEST
  133. ❑ Review your flow. What “bit of work” are your users doing to increase the likelihood of returning? ❑ Brainstorm 3 ways to add small investments into your user experience to: •Load the Next Trigger •Store Value •Content, Data, Followers, Reputation 5 min
  134. h kThe$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$ connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$
  135. Each pass through the Hook helps 
 SHAPE USER PREFERENCES AND ATTITUDES.
  136. h k With%enough%frequency,% A"HABIT"IS"FORMED."
  137. The HOOK Canvas 1. What internal trigger is the product addressing? 2. What external trigger gets the user to the product? 4. Is the reward fulfilling, yet leaves the user wanting more? 3. What is the simplest behavior in anticipation of reward? 5. What “bit of work” is done to increase the likelihood of returning?
  138. THE MORALITY OF MANIPULATION
  139. Designing 
 habit-forming products is a form of manipulation.
  140. Users take our technologies to bed.
  141. They check our devices before saying “good morning” to loved ones.
  142. Quite possibly, the 
 “CIGARETTE OF 
 THIS CENTURY.”
 - Ian Bogust
  143. What RESPONSIBILITY do we have when changing user behavior?
  144. THE WORLD IS FULL OF PROBLEMS TO FIX. Help others find meaning. Engage them in something important.
  145. Build the THE WORLD. you want to see in CHANGE

×