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  • 1. “What You Talking About WILISS?”Ways to Integrate Literacy Into Social Studies Handouts for Literacy Integration Jody Holleman Kelly Holleman Anna Thompson Ashe County Middle School Warrensville, NC North Carolina Middle School Association Presentation March 5, 2012 1
  • 2. ContentsPre-Reading Strategy  Probable PassageSummarizing Activities  Somebody Wanted But So  3–2–1  Pyramid Summary  Cloze Activity  Bull’s Eye  Summary StatementWriting Activity  RAFTOther Literacy Strategies with Technology  Novel Study  Literature Circles  Webquests  Discussion Boards  Blogs 2
  • 3. PROBABLE PASSAGEWood, K. (1984). "Probable passage: A writing strategy." The Reading Teacher, 37, pp. 496–499.Beers, Kylene. (2003). When Kids Cant Read. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. pp. 87–94.Websites: http://www.allamericareadhs.org/lessonplan/strategies/before/probpassl.htm http://www.learningpt.org/literacy/adolescent/strategies/passage.phpOverview:This pre-reading strategy helps students activate prior knowledge, make predictions about the text, understandstory/narrative structure, interact with new vocabulary, and improve overall comprehension.Procedure:1.Choose 10-15 words and phrases from the text. The words should reflect the characters, setting, problem, andoutcomes. Include some words that will probably be unknown to the students. Your word choices can eitherguide students toward a correct prediction, or they may be somewhat misleading.2. Divide your class into groups of 3 or 4 and provide a Probable Passage template for students to record theirideas. The template should include the following sections: characters, setting, problem, outcomes, and unknownwords. Space should also be provided for a “gist,” or prediction statement, and a “to discover” section wherestudents can record what they hope to find out while reading.3. Students should work with their group to sort all of the words and phrases into the appropriate section ontheir templates.4. After words and phrases are sorted, students should write the “gist” statement and the “to discover”questions.5. Have each group share their gist statements and questions with the class. Discuss similarities and differencesamong various groups. Ask students to explain how they made the decision to put various phrases where theydid and how they arrived at their gist statements.6. Read the text.7. After reading, compare the Probable Passage templates with the actual text. Discuss how some words orphrases may have been misleading. Also, ask students what words and phrases might have made theirpredictions more accurate. Discuss context clues for unknown words. 3
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  • 5. SAMPLE ACTIVITY: “Where Home Used to Be” ArticleWords for students to sort:nursing the sickfeeding the hungryglorious revolution of 76patriots fighting for their hearthstoneswhole days in hidingYankeeshid everythingdesertioninfirmaryhospitalstruck him pretty badly with a bayonetburned and torn into stringsfiends incarnateimpudentShermans Hell-hounds 5
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  • 11. SOMEBODY-WANTED-BUT-SOThe Somebody-Wanted-But-So strategy, described by Macon, Bewell and Vogt in Responses to Literature, is astrategy that helps students understand the elements of conflict and resolution. During the reading process orafter reading a text, students complete a chart in which they identify a character, the character’s goal ormotivation, problems the character encounters, and how the character resolves those problems.Example:SOMEBODY WANTED BUT SO The Big To eat the Three He could not blow He planned to go Bad Wolf Little Pigs the brick house in down the chimneySOMEBODY WANTED BUT SOThe Three Little Pigs To stay alive and The Wolf tried to come The Pigs trapped the avoid the Big Bad down the chimney Wolf in a boiling pot Wolf of water and lived happily ever afterThe strategy also fits well in a study of historical events, especially those involving conflict between two peopleor groups. The following is an example of the strategy used in English colonization. Somebody Wanted But SoSir Walter Raleigh To establish an English Both attempts at They failed. Raleigh’s settlement in the New settlement arrived too late attempts were not World. in the year to plant crops; successful. therefore, both ran low on supplies. In addition, relations with Native Americans deteriorated due to Ralph Lane’s suspicions.Here is another example using a lesson on the Great Compromise of the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Somebody Wanted But SoLarge population states A two house Congress The small population They reached the Great with both the number of states objected and Compromise: Congress representatives in both wanted each state to have would have two houses, houses based on a single vote in the one with representation population. Congress. based on population and the other with each state having two votes. 11
  • 12. 3 – 2 – 1 ACTIVITYThe 3-2-1 strategy requires students to summarize key ideas from the text and encourages them to thinkindependently. First, students write about three things they discovered. Next, they write about two things theyfound interesting. Last, they write one question they still have. This strategy can be used while reading a varietyof texts to actively and meaningfully engage students with the textZygouris-Coe, V., Wiggins, M.B., & Smith, L.H. (2004). Engaging students with text: The 3-2-1 strategy. The Reading Teacher, 58(4), 381–384.Another way to use this strategy is a bit simpler. Teachers can identify the main bits of information they wanttheir students to remember. They can ask students to find the information in a 3 – 2 – 1 format. Students whoare reading about the Revolutionary War could complete the following activity. 3 – List and describe three important advantages that helped the Continental Army win the Revolutionary War. 2 – Important leaders who helped the American cause. 1 – Battle that helped decide the outcome of the war.Here is an example used in a reading about slavery. 3 – Things I learned about slavery from our reading 2 – Opposing viewpoints of slavery 1 – Event that had an impact on slaveryAnother example could be used during a discussion of the events that led the United States to the Civil War. 3 – Events in the nation’s history that moved the nation toward civil war. 2 – Compromises that prevented the nation from dipping into civil war earlier than it actually did. 1 – Leader who had a role in the nation’s plunging into civil war.The 3 – 2 – 1 activity is an effective tool to use as formative assessment. A teacher can have students completethe activity at the end of class and use the information to assess how well students understood the materialdiscussed during that day’s lesson. 12
  • 13. PYRAMID SUMMARYA pyramid summary is a versatile strategy that can be adapted to meet any need and can be used in anycurricular area. It has no determined size or format other than its pyramid shape. The teacher can also usedifferent prompts for each line.Construct a pyramid of lines on a sheet of paper. Five is a good minimum number of lines with which to begin.You can make adjustments depending on the level of students in your class and the difficulty and complexity ofthe material being covered. As students become more experienced with this activity, pyramids can becomemore complex. _______ _______________ _____________________________ __________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________For each line, choose prompts that produce one-word responses or short answers for the shortest lines. Chooseprompts that produce longer responses for the longer lines. If you desire a more lengthy response, allowstudents to use more than one line of the pyramid.Suggested prompts for students:  Synonym for the topic  An analogy between the topic and a more familiar subject  Three details or facts about the topic  Causes of the topic  Effects of the topic  Arguments for or against the topic  Three moments in the history of the topic  People involved in the topic  A timeline of the history of the topic  Actions (strong verbs) involved with the topic  A book title or news headline that would be written about the topic  Adjectives to describe the topic  Personal opinion on the topic  One question you have after studying the topic  An acrostic describing the topic*Information adapted from Summarization in Any Subject: 50 Techniques to Improve Student Learning by RickWormeli. 13
  • 14. (Topic) _______ (2 Words to describe the topic) __________________ (3 Actions involved with the topic) ___________________________ (An analogy to show a corresponding relationship) ________________________________________ (4 Historical figures involved with the topic) ____________________________________________________ (3 Supporting details found in our readings about the topic) ____________________________________________________________ (A one-sentence summary stating a main idea of the topic)_________________________________________________________________________ 14
  • 15. CLOZE ACTIVITYCloze procedure is a technique in which words are deleted from a passage according various criteria. It is mostoften used to determine the readability of a text passage but can be used to assess students’ knowledge ofimportant facts presented in a single lesson or a unit of study. The passage is presented to students, who insertwords as they read to complete and construct meaning from the text. It is used to assess the extent of a student’svocabulary and knowledge of a subject and to encourage students to think critically and analytically about textand content. An example of a Cloze activity used at the end of a unit of study is below.Constitution Clozeproportional representation New Jersey plan constitutionequal representation Virginia plan republicamendment ratification James MadisonBenjamin Franklin George Washington PhiladelphiaFederalist Antifederalist checks and balancesExecutive Legislative JudicialArticles of Confederation Rhode Island Alexander Hamilton The year was 1787 and the United States had just defeated the British Army to gain its independence.The new country was actually a group of states held together loosely by the _________________________.This document created a weak central government and left most of the power to the individual states. TheCongress asked each state to send delegates to _________________________ in the summer of 1787 in order tomake revisions to the document. In May, delegates from twelve of the thirteen states met at the site where theDeclaration of Independence was signed. Only _________________________ did not send delegates. Many famous Americans attended the meeting. _________________________ from Pennsylvania wasthe oldest delegate in attendance. He helped the others to work on compromises when debate seemed endless._________________________, leader of the Continental Army, also attended. Two delegates who wereimportant in writing the Constitution were _________________________ from New York and_________________________ from Virginia. The latter is actually known as the Father of the Constitutionbecause of his meticulous note-taking and desire for a stronger form of government. One source of debate at the Convention was the argument over representation in Congress. Small statessupported the _________________________ which called for _________________________ in Congress.Larger states supported the _________________________ which called for _________________________. Anagreement was reached called the Great Compromise which established two houses in the Congress. In theSenate, each state got two representatives while in the House of Representatives, the number of representativeswas based on a state’s population. The Constitution created three branches of government. The _________________________ is headedby the President and is in charge of enforcing laws. The _________________________ consists of the Congresswhose job is to create laws. The _________________________ included the Supreme Court whose job it is to 15
  • 16. interpret laws based on the Constitution. Each branch has the power to limit that of the other branches, creatinga system of _________________________. After the Constitution was written, it had to be presented in each state for_________________________ or formal approval. Those who supported the Constitution were called_________________________ while those who opposed it were called _________________________. Onereason this group objected was the lack of a Bill of Rights written in the Constitution. This was added later inthe first ten _________________________ or changes to the Constitution.*A variation of the Cloze summary would be to have students create their own paragraphs. As a class, studentsshould brainstorm a list of the 20 most important words used in a unit of study. With these 20 words in mind,students could create their own paragraphs. Completed paragraphs could be shared with a classmate allowingfor extra practice with vocabulary. In addition, students would be practicing important writing skills includinggrammar, punctuation, and syntax. 16
  • 17. BULL’S EYEBull’s Eye is just a unique name for a circle map. Students draw a large circle on their paper with a small“target” circle in the center. They then take “shots” at the target by placing relevant information on their map.This activity can be used as a pre-assessment to determine students’ prior knowledge; it can be used after ashort reading assignment or class discussion to help students recall information; or, it can be used before a finalassessment to assist students in recalling information that has been covered throughout a unit of study. Organizations such as the Sons of Liberty and Committees of members of the Safety Sons of Liberty and boys from Boston participate in the Boston Tea Party Paul Revere rode to warn the colonists at Lexington and Concord the British Army handily Historical defeats the Elements of Minutemen at Johnny Lexington Tremain Green but face much stiffer General Thomas Gage opposition on is put in charge of the their march Massachusetts Colony back to Boston Characters such as John Hancock, James Otis, Paul Revere, Dr. Joseph Warren, Thomas Gage and others 17
  • 18. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARYThe One-Sentence Summary is a simple strategy that allows students to condense information presented in areading. The strategy encourages students to focus on learning rather than on specific details. One-SentenceSummary requires students to synthesize information and identify important learning. The activity requires sixbasic steps. 1. Model the process prior to assigning students work on individual lessons. 2. Select a section of text that includes several paragraphs. Use a PowerPoint presentation or document camera so the class can work as a group in the beginning. 3. Read the first paragraph with the class. Cover the paragraph. Ask students to write one sentence that reflects their understanding of the paragraph. Emphasize to the students that they must adhere to the one sentence rule. 4. Share several sentences from individual students, looking for similarities and differences. Then write a class sentence. 5. Read the next paragraph and repeat the process. 6. After students feel comfortable with the process, have them work independently.Lawwill, Kenneth Stuart. “Using Writing-to-Learn Strategies: Promoting Peer Collaboration among HighSchool Science Teachers.” Diss. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 1999, 29-30.The One-Sentence Summary can be extended into a complete summarizing paragraph. Have students read overtheir summaries from an assigned reading and compile them into a paragraph that covers the pertinentinformation of a larger section.Example:Paragraphs from “The Road to the First Flight” provided by The National Park Service and copied from thewebsite http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-newcentury/5089.In 1878, the brothers’ father, Milton Wright, brought home a rubber band powered toy helicopter. Designed byFrench aeronautical experimenter Alphonse Pénaud, this toy did not simply fall to the ground as expected.Rather it “flew across the room till it struck the ceiling, where it fluttered awhile, and finally sank to the floor.”Though the fragile toy soon broke, Wilbur and Orville never forgot it. They even attempted to build their owntoy helicopters. In later years, Orville accredited this childhood toy as being the object that sparked their interestin flight.Summary: Wilbur and Orville Wright took their interest in flight from a toy helicopter their father bought themwhile they were children. 18
  • 19. WRITING ACTIVITY - RAFTA RAFT is a writing activity in which students are given a Role, Audience, Format, and Topic. Students mayassume the persona of a historical figure and write from an authentic point of view. The RAFT is a creative wayfor students to demonstrate their knowledge of historical context and perspective.Sample RAFTs 1. You are Roger Williams. In a pamphlet to Puritans, explain the benefits of tolerance and peace with natives. 2. You are Samuel Adams (Boston Massacre). Write a letter to John Hancock explaining how propaganda helped in your efforts to incite your fellow Bostonians’ independence fervor. 3. You are a Loyalist farmer. Write a petition to convince your neighbors that it is in their interests to remain loyal to the Crown and fight for the British cause. 4. You are an Anti-Federalist newspaper editor speaking out against ratification. Create a political cartoon in opposition to the newly written Constitution. 5. You are John Brown’s son. While surrounded and outnumbered at Harper’s Ferry, explain your last talk with your father. Record your thoughts in a personal journal entry. 6. You are Daniel Webster. Defend your position on the Compromise of 1850 to an angry crowd in a passionate speech. 7. You are Elizabeth Cady Stanton. In a conversation with your great-granddaughter, explain why you organized Seneca Falls. 8. You are newly-elected President Abraham Lincoln. Write your inaugural address in which you try to convince the Southern states to remain in the Union. 9. You are a Confederate soldier on the night before the Battle of Gettysburg. Write a letter to your mother explaining your hopes and fears for the battle. 10. You are President Woodrow Wilson. Write in your journal why you believe that the ‘world should be made safe for democracy’ after WWI.Another example:R– You are a middle school student traveling across the state from the mountains to the Outer Banks of North Carolina over a one week period.A– Personal reflection to yourselfF– A journal with daily entries.T– You will record your own personal reflections of the changes you notice in the geographical features of the area as well as historic places and population patterns. (Tell about changes in the population density and rural vs. urban centers.) 19
  • 20. Possible RAFT Formats  Advertisement  Pamphlet  Advice Column  Petition  Application  Resume  Cartoon  Review  Commercial  Skit  Editorial  Slogan  Essay  Tape  Eulogy  Telegram  Interview  Warning  Invitation  Will  Memo  Debate  Monologue  Yearbook  News Story Possible RAFT Audiences  Television news reporters  Newspaper editors  Chambers of Commerce  Community figures  Corporations  Journalists  The public  Local, state, or federal politicians  Social Leaders  Historical figures 20
  • 21. NOVEL STUDYWhy do I teach with historical fiction?  Historical fiction makes a time period come to life, providing background knowledge for those students who may be lacking  It allows the teacher to integrate other curriculum  It strengthens students’ knowledge of historical content including everyday details  It presents complex issues in ways students are more readily able to understand  Novels written about similar topics present information in multiple perspectives illustrating issues in a more realistic way helping students more easily relateHistorical fiction you choose should:  Present a well-told story that doesnt conflict with historical context  Portray characters realistically  Present authentic settings  Artfully weave historical facts into the story  Avoid stereotypes and mythsAdapted from: http://teacher.scholastic.com/lessonrepro/lessonplans/instructor/social1.htmSuggested Novel List: Johnny Tremain by Esther Forbes American Revolution George Washington’s Socks by Elvira Woodruff April Morning by Howard Fast NightJohn by Gary Paulsen US Slavery Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe Soldier’s Heart by Gary Paulsen Civil War Across Five Aprils by Irene Hunt Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens Revolutions Karl Marx for Beginners by Ruis Number the Stars by Lois Lowry World War II Under a War Torn Sky by LM Elliott Milkweed by Jerry Spinelli Good Night, Mr. Tom by Michelle Magorian Waiting for the Rain by Sheila Gordon- South th Late 20 Century Africa Red Scarf Girl by Gary Paulsen - China Homeless Bird by Gloria Whelan- India 21
  • 22. LITERATURE CIRCLES WHAT ARE LITERATURE CIRCLES? In literature circles, small groups of students gather together to discuss a piece of literature in depth. The discussion is guided by students response to what they have read. Beyond that, there are no rules. Some of the following might help you find a process that will work in your classroom. Literature Circles are . . . Literature Circles are not . . .Reader response centered Teacher and text centeredPart of a balanced literacy program The entire reading curriculumGroups formed by book choice Teacher-assigned groups formed solely by abilityStructured for student independence, Unstructured, uncontrolled "talk time" withoutresponsibility, and ownership accountabilityGuided primarily by student insights and questions Guided primarily by teacher- or curriculum-based questionsIntended as a context in which to apply reading Intended as a place to do skills workand writing skillsFlexible and fluid; never look the same twice Tied to a prescriptive "recipe" From: http://www.litcircles.org/Overview/overview.html TRIED AND TRUE TASKS Language Artful Artist Community Discussion Literary Vocabulary Arts Connector Director Luminary Virtuoso (Textual (Vocabulary) Evidence) Social Graphic Same Same Same Word Bank Studies (Organizer) (Factual Wizard Generator Details) (Vocabulary/Id) Additional resources: Start with the first two for a better understanding of Literature Circles and what they can be designed to do. If you have a basic idea of Literature Circles and their design, go straight to the third resource listed. It has some GREAT support materials!  Best Practices Site: http://www.saskschools.ca/~bestpractice/litcircles/index.html  Instructional Strategies Online: http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/de/pd/instr/strats/literaturecircles/index.html  Laura Candler’s Literature Circle Models: http://www.lauracandler.com/strategies/litcirclemodels.php 22
  • 23. Graphic (Organizer) GeneratorName: ________________________________Book: ________________________________Date: ________________________________Assignment: pages ______ to ______Graphic Generator: Your job is to create a content or concept map from the readingthat helps better understand the material. Create your concept map from the readingwith the main idea at the center or top and the related ideas moving out withsupporting or connecting details. You MUST FIRST use the back of this paper for arough draft. You can also use other digital concept mapping tools and resources (manytools are available online) to create maps such as a Venn diagram; timeline; or anotherconcept web we have used together in class. Paste your concept map into thewhiteboard space to share with the other group members and see if they have anyother points or connections to add. You can make any type of graphic organizer youwish, or choose from the list below. T-chart | Flow Chart | Identification Interaction | Venn Diagram | PictogramInternational Reading Association’s Read•Write•Think:http://www.readwritethink.org/student_mat/index.aspTeach-nology web site: http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/graphic_org/Presentation Plan: When the Discussion Director invites your participation, you mayshow your picture without comment to the others in the group. One at a time, they getto speculate what your graphic means, to connect the sketch to their own ideas aboutthe reading. After everyone has had a say, you get the final word: tell them what yourinterpretation was, where it came from, or what it represents to you. Every choiceshould work together to build more meaning. Assignment for tomorrow: p ______ - p ______ 23
  • 24. Community ConnectorName: ________________________________Book: ________________________________Date: ________________________________Assignment: pages ______ to ______Community Connector: Your job is to connect the contents of the reading selectionto current or past real world events and experiences. You will also connect the readingto other forms of literature, music, art and/or media.Real World Connections: Relate current reading to real situations.Experiences: Relate current reading to real experiences you (or someoneyou know) have had.Literature and Media Connections: Relate current reading to otherbooks, movies art, television, music and other media. Assignment for tomorrow: p ______ - p ______ 24
  • 25. Discussion DirectorName: ________________________________Book: ________________________________Date: ________________________________Assignment: pages ______ to ______Discussion Director: Your job is to develop a list of questions that your group mightwant to discuss about this part of the book and direct the discussion by asking eachmember for their input based on their current role. Dont worry about the small details;your task is to help people talk over the "big ideas" in the reading and share theirreactions. Usually the best discussion questions come from your own thoughts, feelingsand concerns as you read, which you can list below, during or after your reading. Anypassage that makes you say, “A-ha!” is a good one. Any explanation that goes beyondthe text is a good one!Possible discussion questions or topics for today:1.2.3.4.5.Sample Questions:What was going through your mind while you read this section?What questions did you have when you finished this section?Did anything in this section surprise you?Can anyone predict what will happen next?Can you predict what the effects of this might be? Assignment for tomorrow: p ______ - p ______ 25
  • 26. Literary Luminary Name: ________________________________ Book: ________________________________ Date: ________________________________ Assignment: pages ______ to ______ Literary Luminary: Your job is to locate a few special sections of the text that you think your group should reread aloud. The idea is to help people remember some interesting, powerful, puzzling, or important sections of the text. You decide which passages or paragraphs are worth hearing, and then jot plans for how they should be shared. You can read the passages aloud yourself, or ask someone else to read them. Then discuss them as a group. Location Quote Explanation1. PG _____ P# _____2. PG _____ P# _____3. PG _____ P# _____4. PG _____ P# _____5. PG _____ P# _____ Assignment for tomorrow: p ______ - p ______ 26
  • 27. Word (Bank) WizardName: ________________________________Book: ________________________________Date: ________________________________Assignment: pages ______ to ______Vocabulary Virtuoso: Your job is to be on the lookout for afew especially important words in todays reading. If you find words that are puzzling orunfamiliar, mark them while you are reading and then later jot down their definition,either from a dictionary or from some other source. You may also run across familiarwords that stand out somehow in the reading - words that are repeated a lot, are usedin an unusual way, or provide a key to the meaning of the text. Mark these specialwords, and be ready to point them out to the group. If you still struggle with finding goodexamples, think about identification words that may seem particularly important. Whenyour circle meets, help members find and discuss these words. Sentence Used & pg # used Word Definition Assignment for tomorrow: p ______ - p ______ 27
  • 28. FROM THE WIKI http://steeldragonslair.wikispaces.com/DISCUSSION BOARDSAn Internet forum, or discussion board, is an online discussion site where people can holdconversations in the form of posted messages. They are similar to chat rooms, but messages areat least temporarily archived. Also, depending on the access level of a user or the forum set-up, aposted message might need to be approved by a moderator before it becomes visible. A singleconversation is called a "thread" and develops in an hierarchical or tree-like in structure: a forumcan contain a number of subforums, each of which may have several topics. Within a forumstopic, each new discussion started is called a thread, and can be replied to by as many people asyou wish. On most forums, users do not have to log in to read existing messages, but have to bemembers to respond.  Wikispaces vs. PBworks  Purpose of discussion boards  Why I like discussion boards?http://users.rider.edu/~suler/psycyber/extendclass.htmlBLOGSA blog (short for web log) is a personal journal published on the Internet consisting of discreteentries ("posts") typically displayed in reverse chronological order so the most recent postappears first. Blogs are usually the work of a single individual, occasionally of a small group,and often are themed on a single subject.Visitors (teachers, parents, or other students) may leave comments and even message each other.As a form of social networking, it is this interactivity that distinguishes blogs from other staticwebsites. Many blogs provide commentary on a particular subject; others function as morepersonal online diaries. A typical blog can combine text, images, and links to other sites andother media related to its topic.http://www.teachingdegree.org/2009/06/22/100-tips-tools-and-resources-for-teaching-students-about-social-media/WEBQUESTA WebQuest, according to WebQuest.org, is an inquiry-oriented lesson format in which most orall the information that learners work with comes from the web. These can be created usingvarious programs, including a simple word processing document that includes links to websites.What are the components? :http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/webquests/index_sub3.htmlDirections and how to get started with video:https://sites.google.com/site/thewebquestmodel/designing-a-webquestFind a template and get started! : http://webquest.sdsu.edu/designpatterns/all.htm 28
  • 29. Other ResourcesKissner, E. (2006). Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Retelling: Skills for Better Reading, Writing, and Test Taking. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Macon, J. M., Bewell, D., & Vogt, M. (1991). Responses to Literature. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Wormeli, R. (2005). Summarization in Any Subject: 50 Techniques to Improve Student Learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 29