Webb (1997) developed a process and criteria for systematically analyzing the alignment between standards and standardized assessmentsThe model is based upon the assumption that curricular elements may all be categorized based upon the cognitive demands required to produce an acceptable response.http://www.aps.edu/academics/common-core-state-standards/documents/Webbs%20Depth%20of%20Knowledge%20Guide.pdfFour Depth of Knowledge (DOK) levels were developed by Norman Webb as an alignment method to examine the consistency between the cognitive demands of standards and the cognitive demands of assessments. Introduction to Depth of Knowledge (DOK) - Based on Norman Webb’s Model(Karin Hess, Center for Assessment/NCIEA, 2005)The DOK level assigned should reflect the level of work students are most commonly required to perform in order for the response to be deemed acceptable.
Little transformation or extended processing of the target knowledge required
Develop a concept map showing a process or describing a topic. Make a timeline Write a list of keywords you know about… Make a chart showing… Recite a fact related to… Write in your own words… Cut out, or draw a picture that illustrates an event, process, or story. Report or present to the class. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of an event, process, or story. Write and perform… Write a brief outline and explain the event, process, or story. Write a summary report of the event Prepare a flow chart that illustrates the sequence of events. Paraphrase a chapter in the book Retell in your own words Outline the main pointsRecall, restate, remember, or recognize a fact, term, or property(Recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding) Using basic calculation tasks involving only one step (i.e. addition, subtraction, etc), complete the following… Locate or retrieve information in verbatim form. Straight‐forward recognition tasks related to identifying features, objects and/or steps that don’t vary greatly in form (i.e. recognizing features of basic tools). Writing tasks that involve applying a standard set of conventions and or criteria that should eventually be automated (i.e. using punctuation, spelling, etc) Basic measurement tasks that involve one step (i.e. using a ruler to measure length) Use this simple formula where at least one of the unknowns are provided to… Locating information in maps, charts, tables, graphs, and drawings
Level 2 “describe or explain” would require students to go beyond a description or explanation of recalled information to describe or explain a result or “how” or “why.” The learner should make use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned.
Classify a series of steps Construct a model to demonstrate how it looks or works Practices a play and perform in class Make a diorama to illustrate an event Write a diary/blog entry Make a scrapbook about the area of study Make a topographic map Make up puzzle or game about the topic Write an explanation about this topic for others Make a model… Routine application tasks (i.e. applying a simple set of rules or protocols to a laboratory situation the same way each time) Explaining the meaning of a concept and/or explaining how to perform a particular task Stating relationships among a number of concepts and or principles More complex recognition tasks that involve recognizing concepts and processes that may vary in how they “appear” More complex calculation tasks (i.e. multi‐step calculations such as standard deviation) Research projects and writing activities that involve locating, collecting, organizing and displaying information (i.e. writing a report with the purpose to inform; meeting all steps of the writing process) Measurement tasks that occur over a period of time and involve aggregating/organizing the data collected in to basic presentation forms such as a simple table or graph
Applying information to solve ill‐defined problems in novel situations Tasks that require a number of cognitive and physical skills in order to complete Writing and/or research tasks that involve formulating and testing hypotheses over time Tasks that require students to make multiple strategic and procedural decisions as they are presented withnew information throughout the course of the event Tasks that require perspective taking and collaboration with a group of individuals Creating graphs, tables, and charts where students must reason through and organize the information without instructor prompts Writing tasks that have a strong emphasis on persuasion Devise a way to… Develop a menu for a new restaurant using a variety of healthy foods Sell an idea Write a jingle to advertise a new product Conduct an internship in industry where students are faced with real‐world, unpredictable problems
The DOK level should reflect the complexity of the cognitive processes demanded by the task outlined by the objective, rather than its difficulty. Ultimately the DOK level describes the kind of thinking required by a task, not whether or not the task is “difficult”.
There is no one-to-one mapping between the two levels because the role of each rigor model is distinct. Bloom’s Taxonomy, for instance, more closely describes the type of thinking required to answer a question. On the other hand, depth of knowledge correlates to the level of understanding required of students to complete an activity.Bloom focuses on “type of thinking” are you analyzing, evaluatingWebb focuses on “how deeply do you have to know the content and what mental processes do you need to engage in to be successful”Webb is not about difficulty but about complexity” The objective’s central verb(s) alone is/are not sufficient information to assign a DOK level. Developers must also consider the complexity of the task and/or information, conventional levels of prior knowledge for students at the grade level, and the mental processes used to satisfy the requirements set forth in the objective.
Digging deeply into history
Presented by Betsey Kennedyelizabeth.firstname.lastname@example.org
Presentation Materials All materials available at:www.symbaloo.com/mix/DOK-CommonCoreLA-SS
The Basics Depths of Knowledge developed by Norman WebbExamines alignment between cognitive demands of standards and cognitive demands of assessments
Overview of DOK Levels DOK Level Title of Level 1 Recall and Reproduction 2 Skills and Concepts 3 Short‐term Strategic Thinking 4 Extended Thinking
Level 1:Recall and Reproduction Requires students to recall or reproduce knowledge and/or skills May involve use of simple procedures and/or formulas. A student answering a Level 1 item either knows the answer or does not; that is, the answer does not need to be “figured out” or “solved.”
Examples of Level 1 Tasks Define Compromise. Identify two examples of political conflict among individuals and/or groups in the United States during the colonial time period. Identify how scarcity forces people and societies to make choices. List three physical characteristics of a region of the United States. Identify figurative language in a reading passage. Use punctuation marks correctly.
Level 2: Skills and Concepts Requires students to: contrast or compare people, places, events and concepts; convert information from one form to another; classify or sort items into meaningful categories ; describe or explain issues and problems, patterns , cause and effect, significance or impact, relationships, points of view or processes
Examples of Level 2 Tasks Explain the causes and effects of the Revolutionary War. Explain the reasons why discrimination developed in the United States prior to the Civil Rights Movement. Compare and give examples of how scarcity required the North and the South to make decisions about how their productive resources should be used. Explain how interaction between the supporters of slavery and those opposed to slavery led to political conflict and competition during the 1850s. Use context cues to identify the meaning of unfamiliar words. Predict a logical outcome based on information in a reading selection. Identify and summarize the major events in a narrative. Write summaries that contain the main idea of the reading selection and pertinent details.
Level 3:Short-Term Strategic Thinking Demand a short‐term use of higher order thinking processes to solve real‐world problems with predictable outcomes Justifying answers is a key marker Tends to require coordination of knowledge and skill from multiple subject‐matter areas to carry out processes and reach a solution in a project‐based setting
Examples of Level 3 Tasks Citing evidence, evaluate monarchies, democracies, republics, and dictatorships in terms of their effectiveness in establishing order, providing security, and accomplishing common goals. Analyze the causes of the rapid population growth of the “Sun Belt” states, and explain the economic impact of this growth on those regions where population patterns have shifted. Determine the author’s purpose and describe how it affects the interpretation of a reading selection. Summarize information from multiple sources to address a specific topic. Use voice appropriate to the purpose and audience.
Level 4: Extended Thinking Students are engaged in conducting investigations to solve real‐world problems with unpredictable outcomes.Employing and sustaining strategic thinking processes over a longer period of time to solve the problem is a key feature.
Examples of Level 4 Tasks Create and participate in a simulation of a Congressional hearing. Plan and develop a solution to a problem/issue in your community. Examine and explain alternative perspectives across a variety of primary/secondary sources. Analyze and synthesize information for multiple sources. Describe and illustrate how common themes are found across texts from different cultures.
Complexity vs. Difficulty Same DOK, Different Level of Difficulty Level 1 DOK - Who is the current President of the United States? Level 1 DOK – Who was the 19th President of the United States?
Bloom and Webb DOK 1- Describe three characteristics of dictators. Requires simple recall DOK 2- Describe the difference between the Axis and Allied Powers in World War II. Requires cognitive processing to determine the differences in the two groups DOK 3/4- Describe the most significant effect of World War II on the nations of Europe. Requires deep understanding of the effects of World War II and a determination which of these effects was most significant among many different nations
Take a Look Examine the 4 cards in your envelope. Can you determine which task represents each Depth of Knowledge level? Be prepared to explain your reasoning.
The Standards Take a look at the Common Core Reading Standards for your grade level. What Depth of Knowledge level would you assign to each standard?Look at the “Historical Understandings” Georgia Performance Standards for your grade level. What Depth of Knowledge level would you assign to each standard?
Integration Possibilities Art and Text AnalysisShared Inquiry DiscussionsTug-of-WarCircle of Viewpoints
Art and Text Analysis Related Common Core Anchor Standards: 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
From Slave Ship to Freedom Road Task 1. Present students with an image from the text.2. Students discuss what they: See (only direct observations, no interpretations yet), Think (What do you think is going on?) Wonder (What questions come to mind?)3. Students read the corresponding text and select a sentence, phrase, and word that reflect the most important idea presented in the text.4. Groups discuss their selections and justify their thinking.
Other Possibilities Picture Puzzle Connect with different types of writing (songs, poetry, diary entries, letters, etc.)
Shared Inquiry Discussions Related Common Core Anchor Standards: 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
Columbus: Hero or Villian? Read the book Encounter by Jane Yolen to the class. As you read, have students take notes on a two column T-chart showing examples from the text of times when Columbus came across as a hero, and times when he came across as a villain. Read Columbus’ letter to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella and his diary entries. Continue adding to the T-chart with examples from these texts. Students must choose a side and will participate in a shared inquiry discuss supporting their chosen side with evidence from the texts.
Tug-of-War Related Common Core Anchor Standards: 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Japanese-Americans After Pearl Harbor Be fearful of Don’t be fearful Japanese of Japanese Americans Americans Reason Reason Reason Reason Reason Reason that that that that that that Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese Americans Americans Americans Americans Americans Americans should be should be should be should not should not should not feared. feared. feared. be feared. be feared. be feared.
Circle of Viewpoints Related Common Core Anchor Standards: 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.