Problems After The War

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Problems After The War

  1. 1. PROBLEMS AFTER THE WAR
  2. 2. <ul><li>Germ unhappy w/ treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>* due to reparations, loss of land & reduction in military </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>2. League of Nations too weak- US did not join when Senate refused to ratify treaty due to harsh treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>LON used economic sanctions to stop problems. </li></ul><ul><li>No weapons cuts . </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>3. Inflation - Workers strike & Germ prints more money ( making mark worthless ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>4. DAWES PLAN - set up to </li></ul><ul><li>coordinate Germ’s bill paying & set up 200 million in loans to rebuild. </li></ul><ul><li>Created US </li></ul><ul><li>investment . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>5. DEPRESSION -period of low eco activity & rising unemployment </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Depression caused by: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Farm prices fall due to overproduction( some destroy crops to help prices ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>2. US stock market booms </li></ul><ul><li>in 20s, so investors pull </li></ul><ul><li>money out of Germ to </li></ul><ul><li>invest. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Market crashes </li></ul><ul><li>& stock prices </li></ul><ul><li>drop </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>4. US investors w/draw </li></ul><ul><li>money from Germ & </li></ul><ul><li>Euro & banks </li></ul><ul><li>weakened. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Production falls & </li></ul><ul><li>unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>rises. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Many ignore John Maynard Keynes- economist who said: </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Unemployment caused by less demand which can be increased by putting people to work building </li></ul><ul><li>public works </li></ul><ul><li>( highways, </li></ul><ul><li>govt buildings) </li></ul>
  12. 12. F D R <ul><li>US-Franklin D Roosevelt wins 1932 election. </li></ul><ul><li>15 mill out of work, 50% cut in production </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Created NEW DEAL - put people to work by funding public works. (building roads, post offices, airports). </li></ul><ul><li>Creates Social Security Act, TVA, etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. RISE OF THE DICTATORS
  15. 15. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!!! </li></ul><ul><li>By 1939, Fr & GB only big nations of Europe still democratic </li></ul><ul><li>New form of dictatorship develops </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>TOTALITARIAN STATE - aims to control all aspects of citizen’s lives. (poli, eco, social, culture & intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>Individual will is subordinated </li></ul><ul><li>to collective </li></ul><ul><li>will of masses </li></ul>
  17. 17. MUSSOLINI & ITALY
  18. 18. I T A L Y <ul><li>1920s: BENITO MUSSOLINI rises in Italy & creates new poli party. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates FASCISM which glorifies state above the individual, nationalism, glory of Italy & needs a strong central govt led by dictator </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>1920- Italy has problems. Midsdle class fears communist takeover. Muss forms BLACK SHIRTS (armed fascists) who attack strikes & communists </li></ul><ul><li>making many </li></ul><ul><li>happy </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>1922: Fascist threaten to march on Rome if not given power. </li></ul><ul><li>King VICTOR </li></ul><ul><li>EMMANUAL III makes Muss Prime minister & Muss creates fascist dictatorship by making PM head of govt. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Steps to control: </li></ul><ul><li>1.created secret police (OVRA), who arrest anyone. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Banned & kills opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Muss called Il Duce (the leader) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Stresses Italian pride </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>5. Took over media to spread </li></ul><ul><li>propaganda, </li></ul><ul><li>slogans. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Created youth </li></ul><ul><li>groups. Focused </li></ul><ul><li>on military </li></ul><ul><li>activities & values </li></ul><ul><li>to create war lovers </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Muss gave money to Catholic Church & created Vatican City as independent state & made it religion of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>In return, Pope </li></ul><ul><li>recognized Italy </li></ul><ul><li>& MUSS as leader. </li></ul>
  24. 24. STALIN & THE USSR
  25. 25. Don’t Write <ul><li>Famine hits in 1920-1922 & industry falls 20%. </li></ul><ul><li>VI LENIN create NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (called NEP), a version of capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants can sell produce & small businesses could be privately owned, but </li></ul><ul><li>heavy industry & banking </li></ul><ul><li>owned by govt </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Communists create UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST </li></ul><ul><li>REPUBLICS. </li></ul><ul><li>(USSR) </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Sickle-Unity of peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Hammer- workers </li></ul><ul><li>Red field: blood spilled by workers in fight for freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Star-energy of sun and life </li></ul>
  28. 28. LENIN DIES! <ul><li>Lenin dies 1924. </li></ul><ul><li>Fight for power begins in POLITOBURO </li></ul><ul><li>-leading policy making body </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>LEON TROTSKY , war commissar, wants to spread communist rev & industrialize rapidly </li></ul>
  30. 30. JOSEF STALIN <ul><li>Josef Stalin - party general secretary wants power. </li></ul><ul><li>In charge of appointing 1000s of officials, who support him. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Stalin gets control of party. </li></ul><ul><li>Gets rid of old Bolsheviks, & kicks out Trotsky (who is murdered in Mexico). </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Creates 5 YEAR PLANS - sets of eco goals for 5 year periods to go from agricultural nation to industry . </li></ul><ul><li>1 st plan- produce more CAPITAL GOODS (goods used to produce </li></ul><ul><li>other goods). </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Bigger labor force in cities </li></ul><ul><li>no housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Low wages. </li></ul><ul><li>Strict laws </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda stresses sacrifice to build nation </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>COLLECTIVIZATION -govt took over private farms & made peasants work for them. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1934, 26 mil farms taken . </li></ul><ul><li>famine occurs, 10 mil die, resistors sent to </li></ul><ul><li>labor camps & party </li></ul><ul><li>control increases. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Paranoid Stalin begins PURGES -eliminating problem people to keep power. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Military officers, party members, citizens, union </li></ul><ul><li>officials & diplomats were killed, arrested or sent to labor camps </li></ul>
  37. 37. HITLER & GERMANY
  38. 38. Don’t write <ul><li>Born Aus 1889, Austria. Mom remarried. </li></ul><ul><li>high school failure </li></ul><ul><li>Traveled to Vienna & rejected by art school. </li></ul><ul><li>Dev racist & </li></ul><ul><li>nationalist ideas here. </li></ul><ul><li>Saw poli parties </li></ul><ul><li>use terror & </li></ul><ul><li>propaganda </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>HITLER’S REPORT CARD </li></ul><ul><li>French  Unsatisfactory </li></ul><ul><li>Geography Satisfactory </li></ul><ul><li>German Adequate </li></ul><ul><li>Gymnastics Excellent </li></ul><ul><li>History Satisfactory </li></ul><ul><li>Physics Adequate </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics Unsatisfactory </li></ul><ul><li>Art Excellent </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry Adequate </li></ul><ul><li>Geometry Adequate </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Spent 4 years at front in WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>Joined extreme nationalist group in Munich called German Workers Party in 1919. </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>By 1921, controls & renames party National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) or NAZI. </li></ul><ul><li>55,000 people join </li></ul><ul><li>Create party militia of 12,000 called Brown Shirts. </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Organized uprising against the govt in 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>The BEER HALL PUTSCH , was crushed </li></ul><ul><li>& Hitler jailed </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Wrote MEIN KAMPF while in jail about Germ nationalism, anti-Semitism, anti-communism, </li></ul><ul><li>racism </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>Emphasized right of “ superior nations” to LEBENSRAUM - living space thru </li></ul><ul><li>expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Superior individuals” should rule over the masses </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>Realizes Nazi party needs to get votes to get power, not violent rev. Party expands & appeals to pride. </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest party in </li></ul><ul><li>REICHSTAG </li></ul><ul><li>(parliament) by </li></ul><ul><li>1929. </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>Don’t WRITE! </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi rise helped by unemployment & eco problems </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>leaders, </li></ul><ul><li>aristocrats, </li></ul><ul><li>officers look to </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler for leadership. </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>Pres. Hindenburg makes Hitler Chancellor in 1933, hoping Hitler will help him gain support. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought he could control him </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>Hitler sets up total Nazi control by Mar. 23, 1933 </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>Reichstag passes ENABLING ACT- give govt power to ignore constitution for </li></ul><ul><li>4 years to pass </li></ul><ul><li>laws to deal </li></ul><ul><li>w/ nations </li></ul><ul><li>problems. </li></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>Gave Hitler legal basis for actions & became dictator </li></ul>
  51. 52. <ul><li>Nazis purge Jews from govt </li></ul><ul><li>CONCENTRATION CAMPS set up. </li></ul><ul><li>Abolished </li></ul><ul><li>trade unions </li></ul><ul><li>& poli </li></ul><ul><li>parties </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>Hindenburg dies in 1934 & Hitler rules. All officials take oath of loyalty to “Fuhrer”. </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to develop an “Aryan nation” to rule Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Says Germ had 2 empires & Hitler will create THIRD REICH or 3 rd empire </li></ul>
  53. 54. DON’T WRITE!!!!!!! <ul><li>Believed they were descendents of Romans & Greeks & Germs meant to create Roman-like empire. </li></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>Heinrich Himmler set up S CHUTZSTAFFEN or SS, secret police, use arrests, execution & concentration camps for terror. </li></ul>
  55. 56. <ul><li>Hitler used public works & grants to private construction firms to put people to work & rearmed military </li></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><li>JOESPEH GOEBBELS , propaganda minister set up: </li></ul><ul><li>mass demonstrations, parades, speeches, controlled churches & schools, formed professional groups for teachers, lawyers etc. & NAZI youth group’s for kids </li></ul>
  57. 59. <ul><li>Nuremberg Laws - racial laws-exclude Jews from citizenship, wear a yellow star, carry id card & no marriage btw Germs & Jews. </li></ul>
  58. 60. <ul><li>Also banned from public buildings, transportation,cannot own, manage or work in stores. </li></ul>
  59. 61. <ul><li>KRISTALLNACHT - (night of shattered glass) Nov 9, 1939- Nazi’s, kill 100, destroy 7000 businesses & synagogues </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 men sent to camps </li></ul>

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