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Ancient India
Geography of India• India is part of a subcontinent  (landmass   smaller than a   continent) &   shaped like   an upside d...
• Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean  & Bay of Bengal on 3 sides• Cut off from Asia by  mountains (Hindu Kush, Himalayans)• E & W G...
Geography of India
• Deccan Plateau, rocky, dry  center btw Ghats (little  moisture, blocked by mts)• Thar Desert to East(80-100  degrees)• R...
• Major rivers flow from HK  & Him mtns:• Indus River flows thru  Pakistan into Arabian Sea(Indus Valley   home to   early...
• Ganges River-flows to Bay  of Bengal, w/ many  branches. (Holy river)• Brahmaputra goes E across  India to Ganges• Plain...
MONSOONS• Monsoon: (seasonal winds  from June-Sept. Temp  rises, air heats, moist air  blows in from ocean,  brings heavy ...
Indus Valley Civilizations• Little is known (writing not  deciphered)• Dev 2500 BC• Over 100 settlements(Harappa & Mohenjo...
Harappa1.Highly organized, planned cities2.Built on mud brick platforms (avoid floods)3.Oven dried mud brick walls
4.Citadel (fortified area) has major buildings(temple, granary,royals?)5. 30 ft wide, straight streets (e-w & n-S), cross ...
6. Walls divide residential districts, homes vary in size (houses laid out in block units w/ lanes in btw)
• Modern plumbing & sewage  (had bathrooms)• Toilets of brick w/ wood  seat, pipes connect to  each house w/ waste  flowin...
Harappan Culture• Written language of 400  symbols (found on carved  stone stamps & seals).Animals  on everything• Religio...
• Had potters wheel, made  beautiful jugs, statues etc• Made toys, jewelry
Don’t Write• Grew wheat barley, cotton,  (could weave into cloth)• Trade all over region (Persia, Dec Pla,  Afghan) using ...
• Don’t Write!• Disappear slowly ca 2000 BC. Why?• Tectonic plates shift, cause floods,  earthquakes, change course of  In...
Indo-Aryans• Btw 2000-1500 BC, Indo-  Aryans,(from grasslands  btw Caspian & Black Seas?) conquer Harappa.
• Had iron weapons & horses• Est own govt (individual  tribes elect chief & tribal  council) Combined to form  small kingd...
Vedic Age- 1500• Brought Vedas, 4 collections  of religious beliefs, prayers,  spells & ritual instructions  (Rig Veda mos...
*Polytheistic-many gods• Eventually grows into  Hinduism (no founder)• Brought along 3 CASTES (expand over time)
THE CASTE SYSTEM• Caste: strict religious &  social class/order• You are BORN into caste  & cannot move out of  caste in T...
THE CASTES                         UNTOUCHABLESOutside of caste, street cleaners, butchers, grave diggers, unclean        ...
Caste System       • Strict rules:         Can’t marry         or associate         w/ people         outside of         c...
THE BELIEFS• People suffer from pain &  sorrow b/c they chase false  goals (material goods)• Goal is MOKSHA- free soul  fr...
CYCLE OF REBIRTH• Reincarnation is a cycle  of REBIRTH of soul  (reborn over & over until  overcome your  weaknesses)• KAR...
• DHARMA- duty: every Hindu  has obligations to their  CASTE• Can improve your position in next life by fulfilling duties ...
The Gods/Godesses • Shiva- the                  destroyer of                  ego &                  universe
• Brahma-  god of  creation
• Vishnu- preserver of universe• All-Pervading essence of all beings, the  master of past, present & future, one who  supp...
• Krishna-god/child prankster in  Mahabharata•             Ganesha is the Remover•              of Obstacles, Lord of Begi...
BUDDHISM  • 563 BC: Prince    Siddhartha    Gautama born    in Nepal.  • Raised to be    king, wealthy,    sheltered.
THE PRINCE• Prince leaves palace & realizes  world is full of pain & misery.• Sees poor, sick & elderly & dead• Wants to f...
THE BUDDHA  • Prince found    answers.  • Became known as    the Buddha, the    “Enlightened One”    as he traveled the   ...
THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS1. Everyone suffers2. Cause of suffering is desire   (riches objects   attachments)3. Only way to end...
NIRVANA • Goal is to reach   NIRVANA- a   condition of   wanting   nothing, a   calmness, great   insight &   happiness.
Theravada Buddhism Don’t write The oldest school of Buddhism, found in s Asia. The monastic life is the best way  to ach...
Don’t Write!!!!Jainism• Founded by Mahavira 599-527 BC• All living things have a soul &  should not be harmed• Tolerance o...
India 1500-1000• Small kingdoms, no unity• Different religions &  beliefs• Magadha: Indo-Aryan kingdom runs N India
• 326 BC: Alexander the  Great extends empire over  India (huge battle 12,000  Greeks die, but still wins)
Maurya Empire• 323 BC: Chandragupta  Maurya conquers Maghda  kingdom & Macedonian  satrapies.• Unites India & sets Patalip...
• Fights Selecus (Alex’s,  successor), wins. Sel Gives up  Afghan & Pakistan. Marries  his daughter to unite  kingdoms, ge...
• Chanakya (advisor) wrote  Arthasastra, guide to  running empire• Built bureaucratic govt w/  4 provinces each headed  by...
Asoka• Grandson of Chan M• Conqueror, but felt sorrow  when 100,000 die attacking  Kalinga.• Converts to Buddhism• Teachin...
•   Dont write!• Built roads, improved  conditions(every 9 miles houses, wells 4 rest)• public health care for humans  & a...
• Fell apart on his death as  Greeks,Persians,Asians invade• ends 184 BC, w/ 500 yrs of  turmoil (s.India has 3  kingdoms)...
Golden Age of India• 320 AD Chandra Gupta, local  chief, marries princess & rule  from Magadha (Pataliputra)  (Empire cove...
• Don’t Write!!!• relied heavily on infantry archers, The Hindu  version of the longbow was composed of metal,  or more ty...
• Hinduism grows• Art, architecture, sculpture  poetry, drama, fables  flourish• Rule 320-500 AD. Ends when  overrun by Huns
• Late 400s, Huns (from c  Asia) raid• By 600 AD Gupta  fall• Descendents of  Huns became  wealthy warrior princes called ...
• 600 years  of  invasions  w/ civil  wars as  Indian  princes  fight 1  another
Muslim invaders• Muslim leaders start to  invade around 1000 AD.• Mahmud of Ghazni is SULTAN (authority), 1st to have that...
*Invasions  directed at  temple towns to steal  wealth & jewels, destroy,  take slaves & break will  of Hindus• Some towns...
• Others invade• Sultan Aibak Kutbuddin   est sultanate or   kingdom of Delhi.• Next 400 years, 33 sultans  rule from Delh...
Mongols/Moguls/Mughals?• Tamerlane ,Mongol warrior  from Asiatic Russia loots,  kill 1000s of Hindus &  Muslims, destroys ...
• Babur-born in Uzbekistan -  leader at 12, loses power.  Conquers north, is a Muslim  descendent of Tam & Genghis  Khan ....
Don’t write!!!• Babur is said to have been extremely strong &physically fit.  Would carry 2 men, 1 on each of his shoulder...
Akbar the Great• Grandson of Babur  (1556-1605)1. expanded military  power2.Used heavy  artillery, cannons,  appt rajputs ...
“a monarch shouldever be intent onconquest,otherwise hisneighbor rise inarms against him”
3.Muslim, urged religious tolerance4. Bureaucratic officials  were both native & foreign5.Officials trained for civil serv...
*Persian main lang, but others develop. (Urdu grows out of soldier camps)*Work carefully w/ Portuguese & Ottoman empire*Pa...
Shah Jahan• Shah Jahan- grandson of  Akbar. Killed rivals• Loved architecture & wife• Mumtaz Mahal died in 1631 during  ch...
• Spent 22 years, w/ 20,000  laborers building Taj Mahal  as a monument to Mumtaz• Country suffers from  neglect, hi taxes...
• http://www.history.com/videos/seven-  wonders-the-taj-mahal#seven-wonders-the-  taj-mahal
Shah Jahan’s throne was shaped like a bed, standing on   tall table legs with 2 or 3 steps leading up to it.   Western vis...
• DON’T WRITE!!!!!!!!!!!!• The Shah’s army during this time?• 440,000 infantry, musketeers &  artillery• 185,000 Sowars co...
Aurangzeb• Aurangzeb- during civil war,  kills brother & arrests dad• 1658-1707 extends empire, but loses power. Drained r...
• Intolerant of other  religions• Enforce Muslim laws• Tax on non-muslims• No new Hindu temples.• Censors, heavy taxes• ki...
*Don’t’ Write!!!His son tried to rebel, driven to Persia• Start to break apart into small kingdoms  after his death• .Port...
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India

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India

  1. 1. Ancient India
  2. 2. Geography of India• India is part of a subcontinent (landmass smaller than a continent) & shaped like an upside down triangle.
  3. 3. • Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean & Bay of Bengal on 3 sides• Cut off from Asia by mountains (Hindu Kush, Himalayans)• E & W Ghats along coast in South
  4. 4. Geography of India
  5. 5. • Deccan Plateau, rocky, dry center btw Ghats (little moisture, blocked by mts)• Thar Desert to East(80-100 degrees)• Rainforest along West coast• Coastal plains
  6. 6. • Major rivers flow from HK & Him mtns:• Indus River flows thru Pakistan into Arabian Sea(Indus Valley home to early civ)
  7. 7. • Ganges River-flows to Bay of Bengal, w/ many branches. (Holy river)• Brahmaputra goes E across India to Ganges• Plains area btw rivers is fertile!
  8. 8. MONSOONS• Monsoon: (seasonal winds from June-Sept. Temp rises, air heats, moist air blows in from ocean, brings heavy rain). Unpredictable!*Cyclones too!
  9. 9. Indus Valley Civilizations• Little is known (writing not deciphered)• Dev 2500 BC• Over 100 settlements(Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro biggest)
  10. 10. Harappa1.Highly organized, planned cities2.Built on mud brick platforms (avoid floods)3.Oven dried mud brick walls
  11. 11. 4.Citadel (fortified area) has major buildings(temple, granary,royals?)5. 30 ft wide, straight streets (e-w & n-S), cross at right angles
  12. 12. 6. Walls divide residential districts, homes vary in size (houses laid out in block units w/ lanes in btw)
  13. 13. • Modern plumbing & sewage (had bathrooms)• Toilets of brick w/ wood seat, pipes connect to each house w/ waste flowing into underground sewage system & into pits outside of city walls
  14. 14. Harappan Culture• Written language of 400 symbols (found on carved stone stamps & seals).Animals on everything• Religion-maybe theocracy?• Statues of mother goddess, fertility images, maybe shiva, worship bull
  15. 15. • Had potters wheel, made beautiful jugs, statues etc• Made toys, jewelry
  16. 16. Don’t Write• Grew wheat barley, cotton, (could weave into cloth)• Trade all over region (Persia, Dec Pla, Afghan) using Indus & Arabian Sea to trade w/ Meso, Egypt & maybe Crete)• Traded bright cloth, copper lumber for gold, silver, semiprecious stones
  17. 17. • Don’t Write!• Disappear slowly ca 2000 BC. Why?• Tectonic plates shift, cause floods, earthquakes, change course of Indus, changes in climate, farming dries up?• May have moved on into India
  18. 18. Indo-Aryans• Btw 2000-1500 BC, Indo- Aryans,(from grasslands btw Caspian & Black Seas?) conquer Harappa.
  19. 19. • Had iron weapons & horses• Est own govt (individual tribes elect chief & tribal council) Combined to form small kingdoms led by Rajah)• Brought metalworking, horses, bronze weapons• No writing system• Adopted other cultures
  20. 20. Vedic Age- 1500• Brought Vedas, 4 collections of religious beliefs, prayers, spells & ritual instructions (Rig Veda most important)• Not written, passed along
  21. 21. *Polytheistic-many gods• Eventually grows into Hinduism (no founder)• Brought along 3 CASTES (expand over time)
  22. 22. THE CASTE SYSTEM• Caste: strict religious & social class/order• You are BORN into caste & cannot move out of caste in THIS life.• caste is a result ofkarma from previous life.
  23. 23. THE CASTES UNTOUCHABLESOutside of caste, street cleaners, butchers, grave diggers, unclean jobs
  24. 24. Caste System • Strict rules: Can’t marry or associate w/ people outside of caste, determines job, clothes, manners & even food
  25. 25. THE BELIEFS• People suffer from pain & sorrow b/c they chase false goals (material goods)• Goal is MOKSHA- free soul from body so soul can join the ATMAN (universal soul)• CANNOT reach MOKSHA in 1 life, need reincarnation.
  26. 26. CYCLE OF REBIRTH• Reincarnation is a cycle of REBIRTH of soul (reborn over & over until overcome your weaknesses)• KARMA- belief all good & bad actions, mental or physical, affect people’s fate in next life.
  27. 27. • DHARMA- duty: every Hindu has obligations to their CASTE• Can improve your position in next life by fulfilling duties in this life.• Present life is result past behavior
  28. 28. The Gods/Godesses • Shiva- the destroyer of ego & universe
  29. 29. • Brahma- god of creation
  30. 30. • Vishnu- preserver of universe• All-Pervading essence of all beings, the master of past, present & future, one who supports, sustains & governs Universe & originates & develops all elements within.
  31. 31. • Krishna-god/child prankster in Mahabharata• Ganesha is the Remover• of Obstacles, Lord of Beginnings (patron of arts and sciences, intellect & wisdom)
  32. 32. BUDDHISM • 563 BC: Prince Siddhartha Gautama born in Nepal. • Raised to be king, wealthy, sheltered.
  33. 33. THE PRINCE• Prince leaves palace & realizes world is full of pain & misery.• Sees poor, sick & elderly & dead• Wants to find answer why & how to stop it.• Travels world & meditates under tree for 49 days.
  34. 34. THE BUDDHA • Prince found answers. • Became known as the Buddha, the “Enlightened One” as he traveled the world to teach his beliefs.
  35. 35. THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS1. Everyone suffers2. Cause of suffering is desire (riches objects attachments)3. Only way to end suffering is crush desire4. Way to end desire is to follow the Noble 8 Fold Path
  36. 36. NIRVANA • Goal is to reach NIRVANA- a condition of wanting nothing, a calmness, great insight & happiness.
  37. 37. Theravada Buddhism Don’t write The oldest school of Buddhism, found in s Asia. The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana. Focus on wisdom and meditation. Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.” Over 100,000,000 followers today. Mahayana Buddhism The “Great Vehicle.” Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan). Buddhism “for the masses.” Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings. Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self- sacrifice of those enlightened few.
  38. 38. Don’t Write!!!!Jainism• Founded by Mahavira 599-527 BC• All living things have a soul & should not be harmed• Tolerance of other religions• Occupations cannot harm others• encourages spiritual development thru cultivation of ones own personal wisdom & reliance on self control thru 5 vows (Mahavareta)
  39. 39. India 1500-1000• Small kingdoms, no unity• Different religions & beliefs• Magadha: Indo-Aryan kingdom runs N India
  40. 40. • 326 BC: Alexander the Great extends empire over India (huge battle 12,000 Greeks die, but still wins)
  41. 41. Maurya Empire• 323 BC: Chandragupta Maurya conquers Maghda kingdom & Macedonian satrapies.• Unites India & sets Pataliputraas capital*Paranoid!
  42. 42. • Fights Selecus (Alex’s, successor), wins. Sel Gives up Afghan & Pakistan. Marries his daughter to unite kingdoms, gets Egyptian, Greek ambassadors on court.
  43. 43. • Chanakya (advisor) wrote Arthasastra, guide to running empire• Built bureaucratic govt w/ 4 provinces each headed by princes. Divided into local districts to assess & enforce taxes. Use Spies• Became Jainist, dumped throne on son.
  44. 44. Asoka• Grandson of Chan M• Conqueror, but felt sorrow when 100,000 die attacking Kalinga.• Converts to Buddhism• Teachings written on pillars, urged rel toleration, preach non-violence, monks sent all over Asia
  45. 45. • Dont write!• Built roads, improved conditions(every 9 miles houses, wells 4 rest)• public health care for humans & animals, improvements in agriculture, est wildlife reserves,• Wanted moral, spiritual, & social renewal. Reformed administrative & judicial systems of India
  46. 46. • Fell apart on his death as Greeks,Persians,Asians invade• ends 184 BC, w/ 500 yrs of turmoil (s.India has 3 kingdoms) “There is no better work than promoting the welfare of the world. Whatever be my great deeds, I have done them in order to discharge my debt to all beings."
  47. 47. Golden Age of India• 320 AD Chandra Gupta, local chief, marries princess & rule from Magadha (Pataliputra) (Empire covers anges & Indus)• Son Samudra focused on arts & expands empire• Chandra Gupta II- strengthened empire thru diplomatic & marriage alliances
  48. 48. • Don’t Write!!!• relied heavily on infantry archers, The Hindu version of the longbow was composed of metal, or more typically bamboo, & fired a long bamboo cane arrow with a metal head• Iron shafts were used against armored elephants& fire arrows used by archers• Archers protected by infantry equipped with shields, javelins, & long swords.• Had knowledge of siege craft, & catapults
  49. 49. • Hinduism grows• Art, architecture, sculpture poetry, drama, fables flourish• Rule 320-500 AD. Ends when overrun by Huns
  50. 50. • Late 400s, Huns (from c Asia) raid• By 600 AD Gupta fall• Descendents of Huns became wealthy warrior princes called Rajputs
  51. 51. • 600 years of invasions w/ civil wars as Indian princes fight 1 another
  52. 52. Muslim invaders• Muslim leaders start to invade around 1000 AD.• Mahmud of Ghazni is SULTAN (authority), 1st to have that title, invades India,
  53. 53. *Invasions directed at temple towns to steal wealth & jewels, destroy, take slaves & break will of Hindus• Some towns were conquered & left in control of Hidu, Buddhist or Jains as vassal states
  54. 54. • Others invade• Sultan Aibak Kutbuddin est sultanate or kingdom of Delhi.• Next 400 years, 33 sultans rule from Delhi Sultanate• 100s killed, cruel to Hindus
  55. 55. Mongols/Moguls/Mughals?• Tamerlane ,Mongol warrior from Asiatic Russia loots, kill 1000s of Hindus & Muslims, destroys Delhi Sultanate in 1398
  56. 56. • Babur-born in Uzbekistan - leader at 12, loses power. Conquers north, is a Muslim descendent of Tam & Genghis Khan .• Brilliant general. (led 12,000 troops against 100,000 sultan & an army of . rajputs• Est Mogul empire
  57. 57. Don’t write!!!• Babur is said to have been extremely strong &physically fit. Would carry 2 men, 1 on each of his shoulders, & then climb slopes on the run, just for exercise.• Legend holds that Babur swam across every major river he encountered, including twice across the Ganges River• Lovedto kill people, cut heads of people and create pillars out of cut heads
  58. 58. Akbar the Great• Grandson of Babur (1556-1605)1. expanded military power2.Used heavy artillery, cannons, appt rajputs as officers (mix cultures, turn enemies into allies)
  59. 59. “a monarch shouldever be intent onconquest,otherwise hisneighbor rise inarms against him”
  60. 60. 3.Muslim, urged religious tolerance4. Bureaucratic officials were both native & foreign5.Officials trained for civil service6. Taxed on graduated system to be fair7.Acted as judge, heard cases
  61. 61. *Persian main lang, but others develop. (Urdu grows out of soldier camps)*Work carefully w/ Portuguese & Ottoman empire*Patron of art, architecture, translated works
  62. 62. Shah Jahan• Shah Jahan- grandson of Akbar. Killed rivals• Loved architecture & wife• Mumtaz Mahal died in 1631 during childbirth of 14 th kid
  63. 63. • Spent 22 years, w/ 20,000 laborers building Taj Mahal as a monument to Mumtaz• Country suffers from neglect, hi taxes for Taj & luxuries instead of roads, irrigation• 1657 4 sons fight
  64. 64. • http://www.history.com/videos/seven- wonders-the-taj-mahal#seven-wonders-the- taj-mahal
  65. 65. Shah Jahan’s throne was shaped like a bed, standing on tall table legs with 2 or 3 steps leading up to it. Western visitors to Delhi in the 17th century measured the bed part to being 1.8 by 1.2 meters , From its bars rose 12 columns supporting a canopy. It was decorated with 108 rubies, 116 emeralds and numerous pearls.
  66. 66. • DON’T WRITE!!!!!!!!!!!!• The Shah’s army during this time?• 440,000 infantry, musketeers & artillery• 185,000 Sowars commanded by princes and nobles• Marwari horse, colorful,strong• Mughal Cannons were mass produced• Empire became a huge military machine
  67. 67. Aurangzeb• Aurangzeb- during civil war, kills brother & arrests dad• 1658-1707 extends empire, but loses power. Drained resources, money*Didn’t keep alliances
  68. 68. • Intolerant of other religions• Enforce Muslim laws• Tax on non-muslims• No new Hindu temples.• Censors, heavy taxes• killed leader of Sikhs (who rebel)• Rajputs rebel
  69. 69. *Don’t’ Write!!!His son tried to rebel, driven to Persia• Start to break apart into small kingdoms after his death• .Port, Dutch, FR & BR start to come in during empire, eventually take over (moguls done by 1857-1858)

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