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Topic 8 interwar period


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Part 1 (pages 1 to 12)

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Topic 8 interwar period

  1. 1. The Interwar Period Topic 8
  2. 2. Versaille Treaty was severe <ul><li>G was forced to pay 8. 23 billion euros </li></ul><ul><li>G had to pay till 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>No one liked the treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lloyd-George and Wilson: it will not work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clemenceau: too soft </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. F and B wanted REVENGE
  4. 4. Reactions to the Treaty
  5. 6. Problems to the future <ul><li>Europe couldn’t recover while G remained poor </li></ul>
  6. 7. Self-determination would be difficult in new countries like Poland and Czechoslovaquia <ul><li>People together in artificial countries </li></ul>
  7. 8. G will lead to trouble in future
  8. 9. G, R and USA won’t take part in League of Nations <ul><li>Many Americans were German immigrants and hated the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Americans did not want to get involved in European affairs because it might involve Americans dying in a war. </li></ul>why?        
  9. 10. <ul><li>Americans did not want to get involved in European affairs because it might cost money </li></ul><ul><li>Many Americans were anti-British and hated the British Empire . </li></ul>why?
  10. 11. The other treaties <ul><li>St. Germain 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Trianon 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Neuilly 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Sèvres 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul>
  11. 12. St. Germain <ul><li>Separated A from H </li></ul><ul><li>Stopped A joining with G </li></ul><ul><li>Land taken away (Bosnia) </li></ul><ul><li>Made A disarm </li></ul><ul><li>Created new countries </li></ul>Germany Austria
  12. 13. Trianon <ul><li>Land taken away (Croatia) </li></ul><ul><li>Disarm </li></ul><ul><li>New countries </li></ul>A HUNG RY
  13. 14. Neuilly <ul><li>Lost land </li></ul><ul><li>Lost access to sea </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria disarmed </li></ul>BULGARIA
  14. 15. Sèvres <ul><li>Lost land </li></ul><ul><li>New mandates (Syria) </li></ul><ul><li>Lost control Black Sea </li></ul>
  15. 19. why? <ul><li>Many Americans were anti-British and hated the British Empire (the American revolution had been to get out of the British Empire) </li></ul>  <ul><li>Americans did not want to get involved in European affairs because it might cost money </li></ul>  <ul><li>Americans did not want to get involved in European affairs because it might involve Americans dying in a war. </li></ul>  <ul><li>Many Americans were German immigrants and hated the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul> 
  16. 23. Palace of the Nations in Geneva
  17. 24. WEAKNESS: A STRUCTURE for disaster The League of Nations had a structure where every single country had to agree in order to get something done. This meant SLOW progress. A picture of the leaders who represented the countries of the League LEAGUE OF NATIONS Remember: we all have to agree before we take any action! “ We should ban them from trading with us!” “ I think that’s too harsh!” “ Lets deal with the problem straight away!” “ Lets wait and give it more time!” “ We should do it this way.” “ No we shouldn’t. Lets do it my way!” Such arguments meant that it took long periods of time to get anything done.
  18. 25. Powers of the League <ul><li>If a country ignored the ruling of the League it could: </li></ul><ul><li>Put pressure on </li></ul><ul><li>Refuse to trade - sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>Send in troops - member countries join together </li></ul>
  19. 26. Strengths of the League <ul><li>Many countries supported it in early days - they wanted peace </li></ul><ul><li>Had some early successes: </li></ul><ul><li>Settled some land disputes in 1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>helped refugees, dealt with spread of disease, fought for better conditions for people </li></ul>
  20. 27. Weaknesses of League <ul><li>USA didn’t join </li></ul><ul><li>No real power - relied on goodwill and persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>No permanent army </li></ul><ul><li>Disarmament not realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Structure a disaster - everyone had to agree before any action taken </li></ul>
  21. 28. The League of Nations Encourage co-operation Stop aggression Disarmament Improve social conditions AIMS
  22. 29. Membership <ul><li>42 members - by 1930’s 59 </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated countries could not join e.g. Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Russia excluded because communist </li></ul><ul><li>USA did not join - isolation from world affairs </li></ul><ul><li>A club for the victorious? </li></ul>
  23. 30. Structure The Assembly Each country one vote The Council Met several times a year and in emergencies 5 permanent members Each had right to veto any idea The Secretariat Kept records - civil service Permanent court of International Justice Based at The Hague Settle disputes peacefully No power of enforcement
  24. 31. More international agreements <ul><li>During the 1920s, the political situation seemed to be getting better as countries worked hard to cooperate usefully. </li></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>There were a whole string of important agreements over issues of arms reduction and economic aid. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany accepted her new Western borders. </li></ul>
  26. 33. But all of these treaties had problems…
  27. 35. Countries began to sign treaties without the League of Nations
  28. 38. Boom and Bust in the 1920s
  29. 39. The booming twenties <ul><li>As the 1920s went on, it seemed that there was a real chance that peace would last. </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries were getting richer. </li></ul>
  30. 41. Behind the prosperity there were signs of trouble. <ul><li>USA was properous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap labour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High wages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass production </li></ul></ul>
  31. 45. Germany
  32. 48. La teoría del mercado alcista y las rodillas al descubierto
  33. 49. “ The black reign of dressing”
  34. 55. The Wall Street Crash 1929 <ul><li>People rushed to sell shares bc they realised their companies were doing badly. </li></ul><ul><li>By october 1929 the selling was frantic (crazy) in Wall Street, the trade center of USA. </li></ul>
  35. 57. <ul><li>Bussiness collapsed and thousands of people were ruined. </li></ul><ul><li>People hoped the Banks would keep the value of shares up artificially, but they couldn´t cause they were short of money. </li></ul>
  36. 58. <ul><li>Republican government did not interfere (free market) </li></ul>
  37. 59. The Depression was felt all over the world, especially by countries relying on American loans
  38. 60. <ul><li>In 1929 Usa stopped lending money abroad and called in its loans. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1930 nearly 2000 banks collapsed as people rushed to withdraw savings. </li></ul>
  39. 61. 3 Years later there weew over 12 million people unemployed in the USA
  40. 62. Britain was forced to devalue the pound in september 1929 <ul><li>This made it worth less. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain introduced protection but it did not work. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany was particulary affected. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banks failing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment rising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 million germans affected. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 63. Some good things came out of the Depression <ul><li>Not everybody was worse off </li></ul><ul><li>Many people who were still in work found their standard of living rising. </li></ul><ul><li>Industries using electricity or oil weren’t so badly affected. </li></ul>