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Topic 8: Interwar period (part 2)


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Topic 8: Interwar period (part 2)

  1. 1. Topic 8. Interwar period. Boom and bust (Part II)
  2. 2. Changes in european politics
  3. 3. The rise of the democracies and the Fascism (1918-1939)
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>20’s = No stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Triumph of the Soviet Revolution in Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Depression </li></ul>Democracies go back Rise of fascism
  5. 5. Peacemakers wanted democracy
  6. 7. Increasement of the Fascist movement Fascist knocks Democratic countries are weak Rearm Agressive politic affaires
  7. 8. WW2
  8. 9. Crisis on the democratic systems <ul><li>Countries without deep democratic tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Dictatorships (map on page 76) <ul><li>Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>Lituania. </li></ul><ul><li>Letland. </li></ul><ul><li>Estonia. </li></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Dictatorships in Europe
  11. 14.
  12. 18. Democracies <ul><li>GB. </li></ul><ul><li>France. </li></ul><ul><li>Swizerland. </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Holand. </li></ul><ul><li>Norway. </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden. </li></ul>
  13. 19. Fascist ideology <ul><li>Created by Benito Mussolini. </li></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>Violent reaction against the democracy and the socialism. </li></ul><ul><li>Antidemocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Against political opponents. </li></ul><ul><li>Violent state </li></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>Giacomo Matteotti verbal attacks on Mussolini lead to his murder. </li></ul><ul><li>On August 18th his body was found in a grave just outside of Rome. </li></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>Against the national sovereign authority </li></ul><ul><li>Against the universal suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Against the parliament </li></ul>
  17. 23. <ul><li>Citizens are not equal </li></ul>
  18. 26. Racism.
  19. 28. Elites must control the rest Race exaltation
  20. 29. <ul><li>Economic Interventionism </li></ul><ul><li>Autarchism. </li></ul><ul><li>Control of the fascist organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Parties prohibition. </li></ul>
  21. 30. <ul><li>Against rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Arouse of the irrational behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Praise of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Against pacifism. </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimise the violence </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialist agresivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial reivindications. </li></ul><ul><li>War as a progress weapon </li></ul>
  22. 31. Imperialist agresivity
  23. 32. Grandiloqueant scenography, charismatic leader
  24. 35.
  25. 36. The rise of Fascism seemed to be unstoppable in Italy
  26. 37. <ul><li>Poor people </li></ul><ul><li>Expected goverment to help them </li></ul><ul><li>Quick solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t support democracy </li></ul>
  27. 38. Performing the Roman salute
  28. 39. Italian fascism seemed to be unstoppable <ul><li>1919-1922- 4 goverments </li></ul><ul><li>Socialist called for general strike </li></ul>
  29. 40. <ul><li>Mussolini terrorised people </li></ul><ul><li>Became popular </li></ul>
  30. 41. <ul><li>Marched on Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Terrified king Vittorio Emmanuelle III </li></ul>
  31. 42. <ul><li>M was asked to be PM </li></ul><ul><li>He had people’s support </li></ul>
  32. 43. <ul><li>M became PM </li></ul>
  33. 44. <ul><li>Later, he changed the voting rules. </li></ul><ul><li>In the elections of 1924 the fascists swept to power. </li></ul>
  34. 46. <ul><li>From 1925 he began to change Italy into a dictatorship, where people had to do as they were told. </li></ul><ul><li>He got rid of political parties, and became the head of State. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The king had no real power left. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 47. <ul><li>M was now called Il Duce. </li></ul>
  36. 48. Fascism was a big danger to democracy <ul><li>Most dictators are cruel tyrans who would bully and even murder their opponents when it suited them. </li></ul>
  37. 49. <ul><li>Many countries were now becoming dictatorships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy was rejected by people who felt betrayed by the Peace Treaties and the poor living conditions since the War finished </li></ul></ul>
  38. 50. Dictatorships <ul><li>Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>Lituania. </li></ul><ul><li>Letland. </li></ul><ul><li>Estonia. </li></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal. </li></ul>
  39. 51. <ul><li>Th L of N was strengthened by the Geneva Protocol, Locarno Pacts and the Kellog-Briand Pact </li></ul>
  40. 52. International agreements
  41. 53. The booming twenties <ul><li>As the 1920s went on, it seemed that there was a real chance that peace would last. </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries were getting richer. </li></ul>
  42. 54. Behind the prosperity there were signs of trouble. <ul><li>USA was properous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap labour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High wages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass production </li></ul></ul>
  43. 58. Germany
  44. 61. La teoría del mercado alcista y las rodillas al descubierto
  45. 62. “ The black reign of dressing”
  46. 70. Not americans were well-off <ul><li>Many were low paid. </li></ul><ul><li>USA started to protect their own goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Many americans were borrowing money nd buying shares </li></ul>
  47. 71. European countries had US debts <ul><li>Germany borrowed billions of US dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>France occupied the Ruhr. </li></ul><ul><li>The Dawes plan tried to solve the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany relied on the USA. </li></ul>
  48. 72. The causes of the Great Depression
  49. 73. The boom ended
  50. 74. Overproduction
  51. 75. Boom=to borrow
  52. 76. Why not selling goods to Europe? <ul><li>American products were too expensive </li></ul><ul><li>European protection </li></ul>
  53. 77. American people bought shares
  54. 78. Supply and demand
  55. 79. Artificial prices!! <ul><li>People hoped banks keep value </li></ul><ul><li>They had short of money </li></ul><ul><li>Banks failed </li></ul><ul><li>Goverment made nothing: free market </li></ul>
  56. 80. To summarize it…
  57. 81. Early 20s
  58. 82. Borrow to buy shares
  59. 83. Shares increased
  60. 84. Selling whom????
  61. 85. Production stopped=unemployment Economía/Motor.- La planta de Renault en Palencia alcanza una producción de cuatro millones de vehículos VALLADOLID, 27 (EUROPA PRESS)
  62. 86. The Wall Street Crash 1929 <ul><li>People rushed to sell shares bc they realised their companies were doing badly. </li></ul><ul><li>By october 1929 the selling was frantic (crazy) in Wall Street, the trade center of USA. </li></ul>
  63. 88. <ul><li>Bussiness collapsed and thousands of people were ruined. </li></ul><ul><li>People hoped the Banks would keep the value of shares up artificially, but they couldn´t cause they were short of money. </li></ul><ul><li>Republican government did not interfere (free market) </li></ul>
  64. 89. “ The black Tuesday” <ul><li>29 october, banks ask people to give money back. </li></ul><ul><li>People sell shares no matter how much to get cash. </li></ul><ul><li>Values fall down till 1932. </li></ul>
  65. 91. Effects of the Depression
  66. 92. The Depression was felt all over the world, especially by countries relying on American loans
  67. 93. <ul><li>In 1929 Usa stopped lending money abroad and called in its loans. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1930 nearly 2000 banks collapsed as people rushed to withdraw savings. </li></ul>
  68. 94. 3 Years later there were over 12 million people unemployed in the USA
  69. 95. Britain was forced to devalue the pound in september 1929 <ul><li>This made it worth less. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain introduced protection but it did not work. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany was particulary affected. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banks failing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment rising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 million germans affected. </li></ul></ul>
  70. 96. Some good things came out of the Depression <ul><li>Not everybody was worse off </li></ul><ul><li>Many people who were still in work found their standard of living rising. </li></ul><ul><li>Industries using electricity or oil weren’t so badly affected. </li></ul>
  71. 97. The Depression continues (p.14) <ul><li>At the start of the 1930’s the depression got worse and soon became a big political issue </li></ul>
  72. 98. Key political effects of the Depression <ul><li>People criticised governments </li></ul><ul><li>Countries turned to dictators </li></ul><ul><li>Italy, Japan and Germany decided to expand into other countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This led to lots of international tension. </li></ul></ul>
  73. 100. Factors in the rise of the dictators <ul><li>Locarno </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Communism </li></ul><ul><li>Isolationism </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Disarmament failed </li></ul>Rise of Dictatorships
  74. 101. Locarno= Western borders
  75. 102. Depression: unemployment and poverty
  76. 103. Democracy <ul><li>Blamed for the bad conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to prevent or improve </li></ul>
  77. 104. Communism: seen as a threat
  78. 106. Isolationism continued
  79. 107. France: suspicious of Germany and was building the Maginot line
  80. 108. Disarmament failed
  81. 110. Japanese expansion
  82. 111. Japanese agression led to the Manchurian Crisis <ul><li>Since 1905, Japan controlled the territory of the South Manchurian Railway. </li></ul>
  83. 112. <ul><li>In September 1931, it used the excuse of a disturbance to take Mukden and send its troops to overrun the rest of Manchuria. </li></ul>
  84. 113. <ul><li>Japan withdrew from the League in 1933. </li></ul><ul><li>Dictators like Hitler and Mussolini saw the weakness of the League. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan signed a treaty with Germany in 1936 (Antikomintern)and in 1937 it started to invade China. </li></ul><ul><li>The League did nothing to stop it. </li></ul>
  85. 114. Italy under Mussolini
  86. 115. Italy under Mussolini <ul><li>Mussolini came to power in 1922. </li></ul><ul><li>He turned the country into a dictatorship. </li></ul><ul><li>He was an injured soldier </li></ul><ul><li>He considered himself as a “Great leader” </li></ul>
  87. 116. He would bring the glories of the Roman Empire
  88. 118. He got rid of other political paties and arrested and killed communist leaders
  89. 119. <ul><li>From 1926 ruled without parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Used Fascist Grand Council (Gran Consejo Fascista) </li></ul>
  90. 120. <ul><li>There was a Council of Deputies (did what Grand Council said) </li></ul><ul><li>He began a Corporate state. Individuals weren’t as important as the good of Italy as a whole </li></ul>
  91. 121. Fascist headquarters
  92. 122. He set up a National council of Corporations <ul><li>Which ruled economic affairs </li></ul>
  93. 123. Organisations to control the youth <ul><li>National Recreational Club </li></ul><ul><li>Opera Nazionale Balilla </li></ul>
  94. 124. National Recreational Club <ul><li>Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro or OND was the Italian Fascist leisure and recreational organization. </li></ul>
  95. 125. Opera Nazionale Balilla <ul><li>It was an Italian Fascist youth organization functioning, as an addition to school education, between 1926 and 1937. </li></ul>
  96. 126. Hitler Youth
  97. 130. OJE (Spain)
  98. 131. Ideario <ul><li>Amar a Dios y levantar sobre este amor todos mis pensamientos y acciones. </li></ul><ul><li>Servir a mi Patria y procurar la unidad entre sus tierras y entre sus hombres. </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer de mi vida, con alegría y humildad, un acto permanente de servicio . </li></ul><ul><li>Sentir la responsabilidad de ser español dentro de la necesaria comunidad de los pueblos. </li></ul><ul><li>Recordar que el estudio y el trabajo constituyen mi aportación personal a la empresa común. </li></ul>
  99. 132. Frente de Juventudes
  100. 133. “ Positive achievements” <ul><li>Wheat harvest doubled </li></ul><ul><li>Reclaimed the Pontine Marshes and drained it </li></ul><ul><li>Massive road-buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Electrified railways </li></ul><ul><li>Lateran Treaty in 1929 </li></ul>“ Wheat battle”
  101. 134. Propaganda-Building
  102. 136. The Pontine marshes
  103. 137. <ul><li>The project was seen as a triumph over nature </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini used the ten-year operation for propaganda purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini was often photographed between workers, shirtless with a shovel in his hand, or threshing wheat at harvest time. </li></ul>
  104. 138. Lateran Treaty (Pactos de Letrán) 1929
  105. 140. He was ruthless and cowardly at times <ul><li>Used thugs and terror to win the power </li></ul><ul><li>Ready to run away if March over Rome failed </li></ul><ul><li>Murdered Matteotti </li></ul>
  106. 141. <ul><li>Secret policy called Ovra </li></ul><ul><li>Increasement of population=soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes 4 singles </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed persecution of jews </li></ul>
  107. 142. OVRA Organizzazione per la Vigilanza e la Repressione dell'Antifascismo
  108. 143. Invasion of Abisinia in 1935 <ul><li>1896. Abisinia (Ethiopia) defeated Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted revenge </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic position in Africa for the future’s Italian Empire </li></ul>
  109. 144. <ul><li>League of Nations imposed economic sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions between diffent countries </li></ul><ul><li>1938 completed conquest </li></ul>
  110. 145. Results of the invasion <ul><li>League of Nations failed to protect Abbysinia </li></ul>
  111. 146. <ul><li>Lost Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Italy was really confident </li></ul><ul><li>Invaded Albania in 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Signature of pact of Steel </li></ul>
  112. 147. Pact of Steel <ul><li>Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy </li></ul><ul><li>The Pact consisted of two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 1st section was an open declaration of continuing trust and cooperation between Germany and Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 2nd, a 'Secret Supplementary Protocol' encouraged a joint military and economic policy. </li></ul></ul>
  113. 148. Anti-kommintern Pact <ul><li>Japan+Germany against communism </li></ul><ul><li>Rome-Berlin axis </li></ul>
  114. 149. “ Nostalgic products”
  115. 150. There are some nostalgics here too…
  116. 151. The Failure of the League of Nations Page 18
  117. 152. L of N failed to prevent war or solve international disputes. It did not achieve its original aims <ul><li>To prevent aggression </li></ul><ul><li>To encourage co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>To work towards disarmament </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent a major war breaking out again </li></ul>
  118. 153. Failure of the LON <ul><li>The Manchurian crisis was the turning point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The league should have resisted japan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too many members did not keep to the rules. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They left the League (Germany, Japan, Italy) </li></ul></ul>
  119. 154. <ul><li>Britain and France were often very slow to do things </li></ul><ul><li>Members did not want to risk a war. </li></ul>
  120. 155. <ul><li>Mussolini and Hitler weren’t dealt with strongly enough </li></ul><ul><li>USA did not join </li></ul>