Industrial revolution

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Industrial revolution

  1. 1. INDUSTRIALREVOLUTION
  2. 2. Why did it begin in Great Britain?1.Farming (more land new crops, better food)2.Britain had many workers (pop)
  3. 3. 3. British had money or CAPITAL to invest.4. ENTREPRENEURS: businessmen who want new opportunities to make money.
  4. 4. 5. natural resources such as coal, iron, & water for power & shipping.6. Colonies create markets to sell goods
  5. 5. 1. 1765: . James Hargreaves-invented spinning jenny-makes thread. Cottonindustry grows!!
  6. 6. Other inventions: 2. 1775: James Watt- improved steam engine- run machines, faster transportation
  7. 7. 2. Edmund Cartwright- water powered loom-weaves cloth, powered by rivers next to factories
  8. 8. COAL & IRON 3. Henry Cort invents PUDDLING- process to burn away impurities in iron to make hi quality iron
  9. 9. 4. 1804: Robert Trevithick 1 steam locomotive st•Creates new jobs, mkts & lowers costs of shipping. Trains go up to 50 mph, build 100s miles of track
  10. 10. 5. Robert Fulton credited w/ Clermont , 1 steamboat st
  11. 11. • INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM- an eco system based on industrial production & new classes developed as a result
  12. 12. • Factories built.• Owners have shifts to run machines constantly.• Employees work assembly lines, repeating same task.• Fined & beaten for being late
  13. 13. • Many workers had been farmers & many were women or kids (young as 5) who worked 12-16 hr days, for little pay
  14. 14. Social Changes New social classes developed: 1. Middle Class were managers, store owners, market planners 2. Industrial Working Class- were factory workers.
  15. 15. 1. Worked 12- 16 hr days, 6 days a weeks2. Little pay.3. Dangerous, loud & dirty conditions
  16. 16. • Society changed:• Most factory laborers were farmers ( 2/3 were women & kids)• Many moved to the cities• Working class & middle class developed
  17. 17. • Women paid ½ & were 50% of factory laborers.• Many also work out of home (called a COTTAGE INDUSTRY) doing cleaning, laundry, etc
  18. 18. NORTH AMERICADon’t write:Btw 1800-1860 pop grew!• canals & RRs link US• 50% of people live on farms in US, but many moving to the North to work in cities
  19. 19. How did population change? Urbanization (city growth) factors include:*Pop doubles in Europe. (266 mil)* Less wars & diseases, & better food led to growth.* people come to city to work in factories
  20. 20. EUROPE BY 1815
  21. 21. •Living conditions poor in cities•Cheap, crowded, dirty apartments•Rats & trash spread disease,•sewage & poor sanitation
  22. 22. •Conditions worsen & socialism grows (idea govt should take control of means of production) & Trade unions dev to fight to raise wages, & improve conditions
  23. 23. REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  24. 24. CONGRESS OF VIENNA
  25. 25. • GB, AUS, PRU, RUS meet Sept 1814 for peace settlement at CONGRESS OF VIENNA• Led by Klemens Von Metternich
  26. 26. •Principle of Legitimacy- restore monarchies to power•Divide territories so that so no one too strong•GB, Rus, Pru Aus, Fr meet to keep peace
  27. 27. • adopt PRINCIPLE of INTERVENTION- right to send in armies if rev occurs. But Britain refused
  28. 28. • New ideas:• LIBRALISM-idea people should be free from govt restraint (freedom of speech, separation of church & state, want a constitutional monarchy)
  29. 29. •NATIONALISM- a uniquecultural identity of a peoplebased on a commonlanguage, religion, history.Often leads people to wantown nation. Startsrevolutions, upsets balanceof power
  30. 30. • GERMANY was 38 states (German Confederation)• Rulers promise new constitutions & meet as Frankfort assembly to write one. Draft it, but can’t enforce.• ITALY: 9 states, some owned by Austria.• Revolts break out to create unified Italy w/ liberal constitutions, but Austrians stop it.
  31. 31. SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  32. 32. •DON’T WRITE!!!• Second Industrial Rev lasted from 1870s into 1900s.• 1st rev focused on railroads, iron, coal, and cloth. 2nd focused on:
  33. 33. 1. Iron replaced by steel- light, strong2. electricity- heat & light, factories could run 24 hrs3. chemicals & oil
  34. 34. NEW 1. telephone inINVENTIONS 1876- Alexander Graham Bell 2. Radio- Guglielmo Marconi 3. Plane- Wright brothers 4. Internal combustion engine- Daimler
  35. 35. OTHER CHANGES •Wages increased & prices drop due to cheaper transportation & factories
  36. 36. • Italy, Aus- Hungary, SP, Port & Rus still agricultural, not industrial.
  37. 37. Top- wealthy 5% of pop own 30-40% of money• Middle Class- Drs, lawyers, civil servants• Lower-middle class- shopkeepers• Lower class- sales people, secretaries.• Working class- 80% of pop (servants, farmers)
  38. 38. GROCERY STORE late 1800s
  39. 39. 1. Women- new jobs open up. Create jobs as clerks, secretaries, typists2. Women work until marriage in working class families.3. Feminism grows.4. Can divorce, own property, go to college
  40. 40. FUN!!!! • People had time & $$$$ for leisure • Pro sports (Reds 1869) • Amusement parks & dance halls open
  41. 41. CONEY ISLAND’S 1st COASTER
  42. 42. CONEY ISLAND RIDES
  43. 43. CONEYISLAND RIDES
  44. 44. •State financed schools set up for boys & girls to:•train labor for factories•Increase literacy•Create patriotism
  45. 45. ORGANIZING THE WORKING CLASS•Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels upset by factory conditions & blame industrial capitalism.•Wrote in Communist Manifesto that:
  46. 46. COMMUNIST MANIFESTOa.history is a class struggle b. Oppressors or Bourgeoisie are middle class who own means of production (land, $$$) & control govt
  47. 47. COMMUNIST MANIFESTOc. Oppressed or Proletariat are working class & depend on oppressord. Huge struggle will occur w/ violent revolution
  48. 48. KARL MARX e. Proletariat will overthrow bourgeoisie & form dictatorship to organize production.
  49. 49. KARL MARXf . Creates no social or economic classes or differences .

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