Marine Mammals
Marine Mammal Classification <ul><li>Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Pinn...
Pinnipeds <ul><li>Seal   Sea Lion </li></ul>Walrus
Sirenians <ul><li>Dugong   Manatee </li></ul>
Cetaceans <ul><li>Toothed Whales   Baleen Whales   </li></ul>Sperm Whale Pilot whale pod Orca Beluga
What are the things that make a marine mammal a mammal? <ul><ul><li>Vertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm blooded </...
How is it that these mammals are able to survive in a marine environment? <ul><li>ADAPTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>for life i...
Swimming <ul><li>Streamlined body to reduce drag </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful, efficient appendages  </li></ul><ul><li>Effic...
Thermoregulation <ul><li>Large body, small surface-to volume ratio reduces heat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Blubber and/or unde...
Water Conservation <ul><li>Use freshwater from food, inhaled air and blubber </li></ul><ul><li>Remove salts from bodies us...
Marine Mammal Evolution <ul><li>Life evolved in sea 3 billion years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestors in and out of sea, on ...
Evolution of a Seal
Evolution of a Whale <ul><li>PHYSICAL ADAPTATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Feet to Flippers- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front legs be...
<ul><li>Breathing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air is precious and in short supply while diving.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Temperature </li></ul>Cold is a problem for many marine mammals - water conducts heat 25x faster than air.  *Blubb...
Types of Pinnipeds <ul><li>Phocidae Odobenidae Otariidae </li></ul><ul><li>True Seals   Walrus   Sea Lions </li></ul><ul><...
True Seals - Phocidae <ul><li>Harbor Seal – Phoca Vitulina </li></ul><ul><li>Most common to LI  </li></ul><ul><li>1.2-1.8m...
<ul><li>Harp Seals  –  Pagophilus groenlandica  - big spots and blotches, like dalmatians.  Whiskers are cat-like, bushy a...
Types of Cetaceans <ul><li>Mysticetes_______ Odontocetes   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baleen Toothed  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Baleen Whales - Mysticetes  <ul><li>Larger whales including: </li></ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul><ul><li>Finback </li></ul><u...
Diet and Feeding <ul><li>Mysticetes –  </li></ul><ul><li>Filter feed by catching zooplankton or small schooling fish by sk...
Humpback Whale – Megaptera novaeangliae <ul><li>40-50 ft long, 40 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Males have complex whale song </l...
Fin Whale – Balaenoptera physalus <ul><li>70 ft long, 70 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Can swim up to 35 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Di...
Blue Whale – Balaenoptera musculus <ul><li>75-90ft, 125tons – Earth’s  largest animal ever </li></ul><ul><li>May consume 4...
Toothed Whales - Odontocetes Smaller whales including: Beluga  Orca  Sperm  Pilot Odontocetes Sperm Whale Pilot whale pod ...
Diet and Feeding <ul><li>Odontocetes   have variable number of identical conical teeth or spade shaped teeth used to strai...
Sperm Whale – Physeter macroencephalus <ul><li>60 ft, 70 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Square head 1/3  length of body </li></ul>...
Killer Whale – Orcinus orca <ul><li>30 ft, 8 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Round head, slight beak </li></ul><ul><li>20-26 teeth ...
Bottlenose Dolphin – Tursiops truncatus <ul><li>6-12 ft, 140-650 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Well-defined beak </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>The Future? </li></ul>
History of Whaling on Long Island <ul><li>Oil - Candles </li></ul><ul><li>Soap - Furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Horse whips  ...
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Whales Of Long Island New

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Whales Of Long Island New

  1. 1. Marine Mammals
  2. 2. Marine Mammal Classification <ul><li>Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Pinnipedia Sirenia Cetacea </li></ul><ul><li>Seals Dugong Toothed Whale </li></ul><ul><li>Sea Lions Manatee Baleen Whales </li></ul><ul><li>Walruses </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pinnipeds <ul><li>Seal Sea Lion </li></ul>Walrus
  4. 4. Sirenians <ul><li>Dugong Manatee </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cetaceans <ul><li>Toothed Whales Baleen Whales </li></ul>Sperm Whale Pilot whale pod Orca Beluga
  6. 6. What are the things that make a marine mammal a mammal? <ul><ul><li>Vertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm blooded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breath air through lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammary glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also, usually large brains and different shapes and sizes of teeth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How is it that these mammals are able to survive in a marine environment? <ul><li>ADAPTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>for life in a wet, cold and salty place. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Swimming <ul><li>Streamlined body to reduce drag </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful, efficient appendages </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of O2 in lungs </li></ul><ul><li>O2 is stored in blood (myoglobin) and muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary and conscious breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Collapsible lungs, thick cartilaginous trachea to </li></ul><ul><li>tolerate pressure changes </li></ul><ul><li>High tolerance to lactic acid- muscles can work anaerobically </li></ul>
  9. 9. Thermoregulation <ul><li>Large body, small surface-to volume ratio reduces heat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Blubber and/or underfur </li></ul><ul><li>Complex circulatory system conserves and dissipates heat </li></ul>
  10. 10. Water Conservation <ul><li>Use freshwater from food, inhaled air and blubber </li></ul><ul><li>Remove salts from bodies using many small kidneys </li></ul>
  11. 11. Marine Mammal Evolution <ul><li>Life evolved in sea 3 billion years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestors in and out of sea, on and off of land as food was available. </li></ul><ul><li>Whales and dolphins share a common ancestor with sheep, cows, pigs, giraffes? Related to hippos? </li></ul><ul><li>Manatees relatives of elephants? </li></ul><ul><li>Seals relatives of bears or canines ? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Evolution of a Seal
  13. 13. Evolution of a Whale <ul><li>PHYSICAL ADAPTATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Feet to Flippers- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front legs became paddle-like for steering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hind legs disappeared </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nostrils to Blow hole- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved to the top of the head and became blowholes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick breathing while swimming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tail to Fluke- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal tail widened into horizontal flukes for swimming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body Shape- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became sleek and torpedo-shaped “streamlined” for movement through water </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Breathing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air is precious and in short supply while diving. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A seal’s heart rate slows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when diving and blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is directed away from </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extremities towards heart, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lungs and brain. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whales have double </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the amount of blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and # of red blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cells than land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mammals. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul>Cold is a problem for many marine mammals - water conducts heat 25x faster than air. *Blubber to insulate and streamline *Blubber as stored energy Seals have braided arteries so that cold blood is warmed. Some whales have blubber 20 inches thick!
  16. 16. Types of Pinnipeds <ul><li>Phocidae Odobenidae Otariidae </li></ul><ul><li>True Seals Walrus Sea Lions </li></ul><ul><li> Fur Seals </li></ul>
  17. 17. True Seals - Phocidae <ul><li>Harbor Seal – Phoca Vitulina </li></ul><ul><li>Most common to LI </li></ul><ul><li>1.2-1.8m. (5.5ft., 250 lbs., females smaller, 200lbs.) </li></ul><ul><li>Variable gray color with dark spots </li></ul><ul><li>Piscivorous - Squid, mackerel, flounder, herring and crab, 12 – 15lbs./day </li></ul><ul><li>Found in North Pacific and North Atlantic, Hudson Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Summer in the Gulf of Maine and north, they breed there and find food. </li></ul><ul><li>Come to LI late November – April, sometimes longer </li></ul><ul><li>Pups born mid-May – July, 75 cm, 10kg, swim from birth weaned in 3 – 4 weeks, mother’s milk 50% fat </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Harp Seals – Pagophilus groenlandica - big spots and blotches, like dalmatians. Whiskers are cat-like, bushy and thinner. Can grow to 6 ft., 400lbs. </li></ul>Other True Seals Hooded Seals – Cristophora cristata - blue backs, can grow up to 9 ft. and 900lbs., females 7 ft., 670lbs. Gray Seals – Halichoerus grypus - horse heads, long snout, molt in June. Can grow to 7.5-8 ft., 800lbs.
  19. 19. Types of Cetaceans <ul><li>Mysticetes_______ Odontocetes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baleen Toothed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 blow holes 1 blow hole </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Baleen Whales - Mysticetes <ul><li>Larger whales including: </li></ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul><ul><li>Finback </li></ul><ul><li>Humpback </li></ul><ul><li>Right </li></ul><ul><li>Gray </li></ul>
  21. 21. Diet and Feeding <ul><li>Mysticetes – </li></ul><ul><li>Filter feed by catching zooplankton or small schooling fish by skimming or gulping large volumes of prey in water. </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue forces water to back of mouth past hundreds of baleen plates acting as sieves to trap the prey, then swallow. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Humpback Whale – Megaptera novaeangliae <ul><li>40-50 ft long, 40 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Males have complex whale song </li></ul><ul><li>Feed during summer in Arctic </li></ul><ul><li>Breaching, Tail flopping </li></ul><ul><li>Breed and give birth during winter </li></ul><ul><li>Population dropped by 90% during whaling industry </li></ul><ul><li>May live 50 years </li></ul>
  23. 23. Fin Whale – Balaenoptera physalus <ul><li>70 ft long, 70 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Can swim up to 35 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Dives for as long as 50 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Winters in the Arctic, food rich </li></ul><ul><li>Summers near Equator, live off fat </li></ul><ul><li>May live 90 years </li></ul>
  24. 24. Blue Whale – Balaenoptera musculus <ul><li>75-90ft, 125tons – Earth’s largest animal ever </li></ul><ul><li>May consume 4 tons of zooplankton each day in summer </li></ul><ul><li>Summer most frequently off eastern Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Winter to Florida and Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>May live 80 years </li></ul>
  25. 25. Toothed Whales - Odontocetes Smaller whales including: Beluga Orca Sperm Pilot Odontocetes Sperm Whale Pilot whale pod Orca Beluga
  26. 26. Diet and Feeding <ul><li>Odontocetes have variable number of identical conical teeth or spade shaped teeth used to strain or grasp prey, primarily fish and squid </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sperm Whale – Physeter macroencephalus <ul><li>60 ft, 70 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Square head 1/3 length of body </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow, underslung jaw </li></ul><ul><li>36-50 conical teeth in lower jaw only </li></ul><ul><li>Deepest, longest dives – up to 2 hours, 9,800 ft </li></ul><ul><li>Present year round in Gulf of Mexico and NC to Georges Bank </li></ul>
  28. 28. Killer Whale – Orcinus orca <ul><li>30 ft, 8 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Round head, slight beak </li></ul><ul><li>20-26 teeth in both upper and lower rows </li></ul><ul><li>Highly social </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse diet to include fish, squid, reptiles, marine mammals </li></ul><ul><li>More common n. of NJ </li></ul>
  29. 29. Bottlenose Dolphin – Tursiops truncatus <ul><li>6-12 ft, 140-650 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Well-defined beak </li></ul><ul><li>2 “ecotypes” – coastal, short and slim </li></ul><ul><li>offshore, larger </li></ul><ul><li>40-52 conical teeth, upper, 36-48 lower </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of 10s to 100s </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf of Mexico to Cape Hatteras </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>The Future? </li></ul>
  31. 31. History of Whaling on Long Island <ul><li>Oil - Candles </li></ul><ul><li>Soap - Furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Horse whips - Umbrellas </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing rods - Corsets </li></ul>

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