Introduction to Biological
Oceanography
Diversity

Definition: The degree of variation of life on earth
Q: how did diversity of life on earth happen?
A: Evolution...
Evolution
• Definition: Change over time
• Occurs to species, NOT to individuals
• 6 Points:
– Overproduction
– Competitio...
Causes of Evolution
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Mutation
Gene flow
Genetic drift
Natural selection
Non-random mating
Evidence of Evolution
1) Analogous structures
2) Embryology
3) Vestigial Organs
4) Fossils
5) Biochemical
Overproduction
• Too many individuals
• Too many offspring
• Too many gametes
Competition
• For food
• For mates
• For territory
Genetic Variation

• Genes
• Traits
• Individuals
Adaptation
• A trait with a current functional role in helping
an animal better survive in its environment
• Three types:
...
Natural Selection
• Organisms better adapted to their
environment get to reproduce and pass their
genes on to their offspr...
Species

A species is a group of animals capable of producing
offspring with one another AND the offspring ALSO
must be ca...
Speciation can happen through
geographic isolation
Classification
• Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
• “King Phillip Came Over For Great Scallops”

• We name ...
How are organisms placed into
Kingdoms?

• Cell type & complexity
• Ability to make food
• Number of cells in their body
Introduction to biological oceanography notes
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Introduction to biological oceanography notes

  1. 1. Introduction to Biological Oceanography
  2. 2. Diversity Definition: The degree of variation of life on earth Q: how did diversity of life on earth happen? A: Evolution!
  3. 3. Evolution • Definition: Change over time • Occurs to species, NOT to individuals • 6 Points: – Overproduction – Competition – Genetic variation – Adaptation – Natural selection – Speciation
  4. 4. Causes of Evolution 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Mutation Gene flow Genetic drift Natural selection Non-random mating
  5. 5. Evidence of Evolution 1) Analogous structures 2) Embryology 3) Vestigial Organs 4) Fossils 5) Biochemical
  6. 6. Overproduction • Too many individuals • Too many offspring • Too many gametes
  7. 7. Competition • For food • For mates • For territory
  8. 8. Genetic Variation • Genes • Traits • Individuals
  9. 9. Adaptation • A trait with a current functional role in helping an animal better survive in its environment • Three types: – Behavioral – Physiological – Structural
  10. 10. Natural Selection • Organisms better adapted to their environment get to reproduce and pass their genes on to their offspring
  11. 11. Species A species is a group of animals capable of producing offspring with one another AND the offspring ALSO must be capable of reproducing too Mules aren’t a speciesthey can’t have babies!
  12. 12. Speciation can happen through geographic isolation
  13. 13. Classification • Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species • “King Phillip Came Over For Great Scallops” • We name organisms using their most specific classifications: Genus and Species • We use a Dichotomous Key to help identify organisms • The proper way to write a scientific name is to write the Genus name with a capital, the Species name in lower case, and italicize or underline them both – Morone saxatilis or Morone saxatilis – Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens
  14. 14. How are organisms placed into Kingdoms? • Cell type & complexity • Ability to make food • Number of cells in their body

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