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all about whales
made by : Salma Alanwar
undergraduate student
biotechnology . zoology dept.
faculty of science
Benha University

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  1. 1. WHALES
  2. 2. • What Are They ? Fish ?? Bird ??
  3. 3. Whales Are :• Whales are large, intelligent, aquatic mammals. They breathe air through blowhole(s) into lungs (unlike fish who breathe using gills).• They are the only mammals, other than manatees (sea cows), that live their entire lives in the water, and the only mammals that have adapted to life in the open oceans.
  4. 4.  Scientific ClassificationKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaSubclass: EutheriaOrder: Cetacea Whale (origin Old English hwæl)
  5. 5.  Evolution Of Whles•Primitive whales evolvedduring the mid-Eoceneperiod, about 50 millionyears ago. Fossil remainsindicate that whalesevolved from hoofed landmammals - perhaps theshore-dwelling, hyena-like Mesonychid thatreturned, bit by bit, to thesea roughly 50 million yearsago.•All cetaceans, includingwhales, dolphins andporpoises, are descendantsof land-living mammals ofthe Artiodactyl order
  6. 6. •Cetaceans include the whales, dolphins andporpoises.• There are over 75 species of Cetaceans.• Whales belong to the order Cetacea (from theGreek word "ketos" which means whale) CETACEANS Baleen whales Toothed whales (Mysticeti) (Odontoceti)
  7. 7. Toothed whales Baleen whales•predators that use their •predators that sieve tinypeg-like teeth to catch fish, crustaceans, small fish, andsquid, and marine mammals, other tiny organisms fromswallowing them whole. the water withThey have one blowhole baleen. Baleen is a comb-(nostril) and like structure that filters theuse echolocation to hunt. baleen whales food fromThere are about 66 species the water. Baleen whalesof toothed whales. are larger than the toothed whales and have 2 blowholes (nostrils). There are 10 species of baleen whales
  8. 8.  AnatomyLike all mammals, whales breathe air, are warm-blooded, nurse their young with milkfrom mammary glands, and have body hair
  9. 9. SIZE • The Blue Whale has been the largest animal that ever lived on Earth.• The adult is 28-33 M long (98 ft )The smallest whale is the dwarf sperm whale which as an adult is only 8.5 feet (2.6 m) long.
  10. 10. Special StructuresBlowhole(s)Features of a blue whaleWhales breathe via blowholes; baleen whales havetwo and toothed whales have one. These arelocated on the top of the head
  11. 11. BehaviorSleepA humpback whale breaching.Unlike most animals, whales areconscious breathers. Allmammals sleep, but whalescannot afford to becomeunconscious for long becausethey may drown. It is thought thatonly one hemisphere of thewhales brain sleeps at a time, sothey rest but are nevercompletely asleep
  12. 12.  Feeding• Whales are generally classed as predators, but their food ranges from microscopic plankton to very large animals.• Toothed whales eat fish and squid which they hunt by use of echolocation. Killer whales sometimes eat other marine mammals, including whales.• Baleen whales such as humpbacks and blues, when feeding in higher latitudes (such as the Southern Ocean), eat mostly krill. They imbibe enormous amounts of seawater which they expel through their baleen plates. The water is then expelled and the krill is retained on the plates and then swallowed.• Whales do not drink seawater but indirectly extract water from their food by metabolizing fat
  13. 13. SWIMMING AND OTHER WATER ACTIVITIES Breaching: Many whales are very acrobatic, even breaching (jumping) high out of the water and then slapping the water as they come back down. Sometimes they twirl around while breaching. Breaching may be purely for play or may be used to loosen skin parasites or have some social meaning. Logging: Logging is when a whale lies still at the surface of the water, resting, with its tail hanging down. While floating motionless, part of the head, the dorsal fin or parts of the back are exposed at the surface.
  14. 14. Spyhopping: This is another cetacean activity in which the whale pokes its head out of the water and turns around, perhaps to take a look around.Lobtailing: Some whales sticktheir tail out of the water intothe air, swing it around, and thenslap it on the waters surface;this is called lobtailing. It makes avery loud sound. The meaning orpurpose of lobtailing is unknown,but may be done as a warning tothe rest of the pod of danger.
  15. 15. REPRODUCTIONCetaceans give birth to liveyoung which are nourished withmilk from their mothers - theydont lay eggs. Cetaceansbreed seasonally, usually inwarm tropical waters, andfemales usually have one calfevery 1-3 years. The gestationtimes range from 9-18 months.Whale calves can swim at orsoon after birth. Mother whalescare for their young for an Young cetaceans are frequently mottled in color, camouflaging themextended period of time, usually from predators. Newborns have aat least a year, feeding them sparse covering of hair which theymilk and protecting them. lose as adults.
  16. 16. MIGRATION• Many ceteaceans, especially baleen whales, migrateover very long distances each year. They travel,sometimes in groups (pods), from cold-water feedinggrounds to warm-water breeding grounds.•Gray whales make the longest seasonal migration of any of thewhales. They travel about 12,500 miles each year.
  17. 17. WHALES SONGSComplex whales songs can be heard for milesunder the water.• The humpbacks song can last for 30 minutes.• Baleen whales sing low-frequency songs; toothedwhales emit whistles and clicks that they usefor echolocation• The songs are thought to be used in attractingmates, to keep track of offspring, and for thetoothed whales, to locate prey.
  19. 19. Amazing Whales ….. • BELUGA WHALE .
  20. 20. • The beluga or white whale or sea canary ,Beluga means "white one" in Russian , Its genus, Delphinapterus, means "whale without fins"• They have one blowhole• They blow air bubbles …. Just for fun• their unusual color makes them one of the most familiar and easily• They are social animals
  22. 22. •Blue Whales are the biggest animals everknown to man kind. They are even bigger thenthe dinosaurs. BLUE WHALE•The Blue Whale eats zooplankton[Smallcrustaceans]•The biggest Blue Whale ever to be caught wasa female Blue Whale. It was 29 metres long andweighed more then 158 tonnes.•Also, female Blue Whales are bigger then themales and their blood vessels are so big thatyou could swim in it.
  23. 23. SPERM WHALE
  25. 25. Uses of whale oilSoap, shampoo, detergent,cooking fat, lipstick,margarine, ice cream,crayons, paint,polish, lino,lubricants &dynamite Uses of baleen riding crops, shoehorns, umbrella ribs, brushes, watch springs, shop shutters, fishing rods, fans, corsets and crinolines
  26. 26. Uses of whale tissuesSkin: bootlaces, bike saddles,handbags, shoes.Tendons: tennis racquets,surgical thread.Blood: sausages, fertilizer.Connective tissue:jelly, sweets& photo film Uses of whale meat fertilizer, dog food, animal feed. Only eaten in Iceland, Norway, Korea and Japan
  28. 28. WHALING
  29. 29. REFERENCES• Carwardine, M. (2000). Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0751327816..• Williams, Heathcote (1988). Whale Nation. New York: Harmony Books. ISBN 0517569329..• http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subj ects/whales/allabout/
  30. 30. BY: Salma Mohamed Abdelkhalek Al-anwar 3rd year Biotechnology Faculty Of Science Zoology Dept. – Benha UniversityUnder the supervision of : Dr / Hany A. Abdel-Salam
  31. 31. THANKS A LOT ^_^