Marine mammals

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Marine mammals

  1. 1. Marine mammals Dr. Diah Permata Wijayanti
  2. 2. Return to the Oceans •Mamalia laut harus kembali ke laut beberapa kali •Seluruh mamalia laut adalah viviparous •Anak disusui dari glandula susu induk •Harus beradaptasi untuk melahirkan dan menyusui anaknya di lingkungan laut •Bertahan tetap hangat adalah tantangan utama
  3. 3. What is a Whale? • Whales are large, magnificent, intelligent, aquatic mammals. They breathe air through blowhole(s) into lungs (unlike fish who breathe using gills). Whales have sleek, streamlined bodies that move easily through the water. They are the only mammals, other than manatees (seacows), that live their entire lives in the water, and the only mammals that have adapted to life in the open oceans.
  4. 4. Like all mammals: • Whales breathe air into lungs, • Whales have hair (although they have a lot less than land mammals, and have almost none as adults), • Whales are warm-blooded (they maintain a high body temperature), • Whales have mammary glands with which they nourish their young, • Whales have a four-chambered heart
  5. 5. WHALE CLASSIFICATION • Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata (vertebrates) Class: Mammalia (mammals) Order: Cetacea • Whales belong to the order Cetacea (from the Greek word "cetus" which means whale) • Cetaceans are the group of mammals that includes the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
  6. 6. Type of Whale • There are two types of whales alive today: toothed whales, Odontoceti, and baleen whales, Mysticeti. Toothed whales have teeth, are predators that eat fish, squid, and marine mammals, have a single blowhole, and use echolocation. Baleen whales are larger than the toothed whales, are filter feeders that use baleen to sieve food (baleen is a comb-like structure that filters the baleen whales' food from the water), and have 2 blowholes. A primitive groups of cetaceans, the Archaeoceti, evolved during the Eocene epoch, about 50 million years ago.
  7. 7. Characteristics • Mysticeti  No teeth. Instead they have keratin baleen plates, suspended from the roof of the mouth Two nasal openings (or blowholes) The skull is symmetrical The melon is present only in the fetal stage and absent or poorly developed in adults. They have no echolocation capabilities.
  8. 8. • Odontoceti All species have teeth. There number of teeth varies from 2 in some beaked whales to more than 250 in some dolphin species. Single nasal opening (or blowhole)The skull is asymmetrical The melon is well developed. It plays a major role in echolocation.
  9. 9. Mysticeti Odontoceti
  10. 10. Tebak yang mana
  11. 11. SWIMMING AND OTHER WATER ACTIVITIES • Whales have a streamlined shape and almost no hair as adults (it would cause drag while swimming). Killer whales and Shortfin Pilot whales are the fastest, swimming up to 30 miles per hour (48 kph). • Breaching: Many whales are very acrobatic, even breaching (jumping) high out of the water and then slapping the water as they come back down. Sometimes they twirl around while breaching. Breaching may be purely for play or may be used to loosen skin parasites or have some social meaning.
  12. 12. • Spyhopping: This is another cetacean activity in which the whale pokes its head out of the water and turns around, perhaps to take a look around. Lobtailing: Some whales stick their tail out of the water into the air, swing it around, and then slap it on the water's surface; this is called lobtailing. It makes a very loud sound. The meaning or purpose of lobtailing is unknown, but may be done as a warning to the rest of the pod of danger. Logging: Logging is when a whale lies still at the surface of the water, resting, with its tail hanging down. While floating motionless, part of the head, the dorsal fin or parts of the back are exposed at the surface.
  13. 13. MIGRATION • Many ceteaceans, especially baleen whales, migrate over very long distances each year. They travel, sometimes in groups (pods), from cold-water feeding grounds to warm-water breeding grounds. • Gray whales make the longest seasonal migration of any of the whales. They travel about 12,500 miles each year.
  14. 14. SOCIAL BEHAVIOR • Cetaceans have very strong social ties. The strongest social ties are between mother and calf. A social group of whales is called a pod. Baleen whales travel alone or in small pods. The toothed whales travel in large, sometimes stable pods. The toothed whales frequently hunt their prey in groups, migrate together, and share care of their young.
  15. 15. REPRODUCTION • Cetaceans give birth to live young which are nourished with milk from their mothers - they don't lay eggs. Cetaceans breed seasonally, usually in warm tropical waters, and females usually have one calf every 1-3 years. The gestation times range from 9-18 months. Whale calves can swim at or soon after birth. Mother whales care for their young for an extended period of time, usually at least a year, feeding them milk and protecting them.
  16. 16. • Young cetaceans are frequently mottled in color, camouflaging them from predators. Newborns have a sparse covering of hair which they lose as adults.
  17. 17. WHALE SONGS • Complex whales songs can be heard for miles under the water. The humpback's song can last for 30 minutes. Baleen whales sing low-frequency songs; toothed whales emit whistles and clicks that they use for echolocation The songs are thought to be used in attracting mates, to keep track of offspring, and for the toothed whales, to locate prey.
  18. 18. CLASSIFICATION OF CETACEANS • Cetaceans are divided into the following suborders: • Odontoceti (toothed whales) killer whales or orcas , beluga whales , narwhals , sperm whales , the beaked whales, dolphins , and porpoises. • Mysticeti (mustached whales) or baleen whales - blue whales , humpback whales , gray whales , bowhead whales , minke whales, and right whales.
  19. 19. Orcinus orca Delphinapterus leucas Balaena mysticetus Physeter macrocephalus Megaptera novaeangliae
  20. 20. • The biggest whale is the blue whale, which grows to be about 94 feet (29 m) long - the height of a 9-story building. These enormous animals eat about 4 tons of tiny krill each day, obtained by filter feeding through baleen. Adult blue whales have no predators except man. The smallest whale is the dwarf sperm whale which as an adult is only 8.5 feet (2.6 m)
  21. 21. • The blue whale is the largest animal that has ever existed on Earth. It is larger than any of the dinosaurs were. They are also the loudest animal on Earth. • These enormous mammals eat tiny organisms, like plankton and krill, which they sieve through baleen. They live in pods (small groups). These gray-blue whales have 2 blowholes and a 2-14 inch (5-30 cm) thick layer of blubber. Blue whales are rorqual whales, whales that have pleated throat grooves that allow their throat to expand during the huge intake of water during filter feeding. Blue whales have 50-70 throat grooves that run from the throat to mid-body.
  22. 22. Manatee, Dugong dan Pesut • Manatee dan Dugong yang dikenal sebagai Sapi Laut, Babi Laut atau Duyung merupakan species yang terancam punah. Mereka tergolong ke dalam Ordo Sirenia. Hanya 4 species Sirenian yang tersisa di dunia. • Tidak seperti Lumba-lumba dan Paus, Manatee dan Dugong benar-benar mamalia akuatik yang tidak pernah meninggalkan perairan bahkan untuk melahirkan bayi mereka sekalipun.
  23. 23. • Sebagai satu-satunya mamalia laut herbivore, Sirenia makan tanaman seperti lamun dan vegetasi lautan lainnya. • Manatee dan Dugong memiliki metabolisme yang amat rendah dan tak mempunyai kemampuan beradaptasi terhadap air dingin. • Kombinasi faktor-faktor inilah yang menyebabkan Sirenia hidup terbatas hanya di wilayah perairan hangat yang dangkal dan estuarin yang memiliki ekosistem sehat dengan vegetasi yang cukup untuk mendukung hidup mereka.
  24. 24. Tebak yang mana??
  25. 25. • Three extant manatees, the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis), and the Amazonian manatee, inhabit the rivers, estuaries, and coastal marine areas of the Atlantic Ocean basin. • The only extant dugong (Dugong dugon) inhabits coastal marine areas of the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. The extinct Steller's seacow (Hydrodamalis gigas) inhabited the very cold coastal marine areas of the northern Pacific Ocean.
  26. 26. Distribusi Manatee dan Dugong

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