“ Poetry is emotion put into measure. The emotion must come by nature, but the measure can be acquired by art.” ~Thomas Hardy
“ Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal.” ~ T S Eliot
“ Perhaps no person can be a poet, or can even enjoy poetry, without a certain unsoundness of mind.” ~ Thomas Babington Macaulay
Misconceptions About Poetry
Poetry is just for girls.
Poetry always rhymes.
Poetry is about weird and stupid things.
Poetry doesn’t make any sense.
Poetry is something we HAVE to do.
A lot of poetry is about love and death.
Poetry uses weird language.
Poetry isn’t about anything I like.
I can NOT write poetry!
What is Poetry?
Poetry – an imaginative response to an experience reflecting a keen awareness of language.
There are many elements used in writing effective poetry.
Language in Poetry
Figurative – language used to create a special effect in feeling; characterized by figures of speech or language that compares, exaggerates, or words that mean something other than its literal meaning.
Literal – The exact primary meaning of a word or words.
Speaker – the person who speaks in or narrates a poem.
The speaker and writer are NOT necessarily the same person.
Theme – a statement about life that a particular work is trying to get across to the reader.
Theme = Main Idea
Diction – an author’s choice of words based on their correctness, clarity (clear), or effectiveness.
Some words are purposely chosen to represent ideas, not to come right out and say them.
Imagery – words or phrases a writer selects to create a certain picture in the mind; based on sensory detail.
Imagery uses descriptive words to evoke the five senses.
METER AND RHYTHM
Meter and rhythm describe patterned repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry.
The meter and rhythm of a poem creates a beat.
VERSE AND REFRAIN
Verse – metric line of poetry names according to the kind and number of feet composing it.
Refrain – repetition of a line or phrase of a poem at regular intervals, especially at the end of a stanza (chorus).
Stanza – a division of poetry named for the number of lines it contains.
When you see a space between lines in a poem, that means a new stanza is beginning.
Rhyme – similarity or likeness of sound existing between two words.
T op = Top
St op = Stop
End Rhyme – rhyming words that appear at the ends of two or more lines of poetry.
I do not like green eggs and ham.
I do not like them Sam I am.
Internal Rhyme – occurs when rhyming words appear in the same line of poetry.
The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain.
Rhyme Scheme – the pattern or sequence in which rhyme sounds occur in a stanza or poem.
To label a rhyme scheme, a similar letter is assigned to each pair of rhyming sounds in a stanza.
LABELING RHYME SCHEME
Sonnet 18 by William Shakespeare
Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? A
Though are more lovely and temperate: B
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, A
And summer’s lease hath all to short a date. B
Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines C
And often is his gold complexion dimmed; D
And every fair from fair sometimes declines C
By chance or nature's changing course untrimmed. D
The rhyme scheme is ABAB CDCD
Alliteration – repetition of initial consonant sounds in words.
She sells sea shells down by the seashore.
Assonance – repetition of vowel sounds without the repetition of consonant sounds.
How now brown cow.
Simile – comparison of two unlike things using the words “like” or “as.”
He acts like an animal when he eats!
Metaphor – comparison of two unlike things NOT using “like” or “as.”
He is an animal when he eats!
Personification – giving human qualities to non-human objects.
The wind whispered through the trees.
The sun smiled down on the earth.
The flag waved at us.
The statue stared at us.
Onomatopoeia – the use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning.
Hyperbole – The use of exaggeration for a heightened effect.
Allusion – an indirect reference to art, literature, history, etc. that the author expects the reader to recognize.
Symbolism – the use of a person, place, or thing or an event used to represent something else. Symbol – the use of a concrete object to represent something abstract.
Paradox – an apparent contradiction which is somehow true.
Oxymoron – a paradox where two successive words (side by side) seemingly contradict each other.
Metonymy – the substitution of a term naming an object closely associated with the word in mind for the word itself.
Limerick – a short funny poem that follows certain rules: AABBA rhyme scheme. Lines 1, 2, 5 have 8-10 syllables. Lines 3, 4 have 5 syllables. Common limericks use the name of a place at the end of the first line.
There once was a lady from France. Who went to an old fashioned dance. She dances really quick. And did a neat trick. But she left with a hole in her pants.
CINQUAIN Cinquain (“sin-kane) – five line poem with definite requirements for each line. Line 1: One word – what the poem is about (noun). Line 2: Two words – words that describe the word in line 1 (adjectives). Line 3: Three words – actions associated with the word in line 1; what it does (verbs in the same form) Line 4: Four Words – Words that express thought or feeling about the word in line 1; words that make a statement about the word in line 1 (NOT A COMPLETE SENTENCE) Line 5: One word – Another word for the word in line 1; or a word that tells how you feel about the word in line 1 (noun)
Diamante – seven-line poem with definite requirements. Line 1: One word (noun that has an opposite) Line 2: Two words (two adjectives describing the noun) Line 3: Three words (three participles – words ending in –ing or –ed) Line 4: Four words (two nouns related to the word in line 1 and two nouns that are opposite of the first two) Line 5: Three words (three participles indicating change or development of the subject ending in –ing or –ed) Line 6: Two words (two adjectives carrying on the idea of change or development) Line 7: One word (noun that is opposite of line 1)
Fire Red, hot Burning, scalding, blistering Heat, flames – frost, freezer Cooling, soothing, refreshing Cold, chilly Ice Notice the diamond shape of the poem.
Simple narrative poem. Presents a single dramatic episode. Very little characterization, description, or motivation. Story told through action and dialogue. Deals with subjects such as adventure, love, jealousy, heroism, disaster, or revenge. Four-line stanzas. Usually meant to be sung. Usually ABCB rhyme scheme. Often 8 syllables in lines 1 and 3 and 6 syllables in lines 2 and 4. Usually has a refrain – ending of a stanza or separate stanza that is repeated.
Haiku – traditional form of Japanese poetry composed of three lines. Haiku is used to capture a moment, express a feeling, and/or celebrate some phase or element of nature. 1 Line – 5 syllables 1 Line – 7 syllables 1 Line – 5 syllables These lines can be in any order.
Whoppers sitting on a plate, Aroma so sweet, The thrill of eating.