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POETRY
POETRY
 A type of literature
that expresses ideas,
feelings, or tells a
story in a specific
form (usually using
lines and stanzas)
Structure
FORM - the appearance
of the words on the
page
LINE - a group of
words together on one
line of the poem
STANZA - a group of
lines arranged together
A word is dead
When it is said,
Some say.
I say it just
Begins to live
That day.
Structure
KINDS OF STANZAS
Couplet = a two line stanza
Triplet (Tercet) = a three line stanza
Quatrain = a four line stanza
Quintet = a five line stanza
Sestet (Sextet) = a six line stanza
Septet = a seven line stanza
Octave = an eight line stanza
Rhythm
RHYTHM
The beat created by the
sounds of the words in a
poem
Rhythm can be created
by meter, rhyme,
alliteration and
refrain/repetition.
METER
A pattern of stressed and unstressed
syllables.
Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed
syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a
repeating pattern.
When poets write in meter, they count out the
number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed
(weak) syllables for each line. They then repeat the
pattern throughout the poem.
METER cont.
FOOT - unit of meter.
A foot can have two or
three syllables.
Usually consists of one
stressed and one or
more unstressed
syllables.
TYPES OF FEET
The types of feet are
determined by the
arrangement of stressed
and unstressed
syllables.
(cont.)
Shakespeare’s sonnets
In Shakespeare’s sonnets, the type of feet used
are Iambic: unstressed, stressed.
The metrical line he uses is pentameter: five
feet on a line..
“Shall_I com_pare thee_to a_sum mer's_ day?
Thou_art more_love ly_and more_ tem
per_ate:”
FREE VERSE POETRY
Unlike metered poetry,
free verse poetry does
NOT have any
repeating patterns of
stressed and unstressed
syllables.
Does NOT have rhyme.
Free verse poetry is
very conversational -
sounds like someone
talking with you.
A more modern type of
poetry.
BLANK VERSE POETRY
Written in lines of
iambic pentameter, but
does NOT use end
rhyme.
from Julius Ceasar
Cowards die many times before
their deaths;
The valiant never taste of death but
once.
Of all the wonders that I yet have
heard,
It seems to me most strange that
men should fear;
Seeing that death, a necessary end,
Will come when it will come.
RHYME
Words sound alike
because they share the
same ending vowel and
consonant sounds.
(A word always rhymes
with itself.)
LAMP
STAMP
Share the short “a”
vowel sound
Share the combined
“mp” consonant sound
END RHYME
A word at the end of one line rhymes with a
word at the end of another line
Hector the Collector
Collected bits of string.
Collected dolls with broken heads
And rusty bells that would not ring.
INTERNAL RHYME
A word inside a line rhymes with another
word on the same line.
Once upon a midnight dreary, while I
pondered weak and weary.
From “The Raven”
by Edgar Allan Poe
RHYME SCHEME
A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end
rhyme, but not always).
Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to
be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide
for an example.)
SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME
The Germ by Ogden Nash
A mighty creature is the germ,
Though smaller than the pachyderm.
His customary dwelling place
Is deep within the human race.
His childish pride he often pleases
By giving people strange diseases.
Do you, my poppet, feel infirm?
You probably contain a germ.
a
a
b
b
c
c
a
a
ONOMATOPOEIA
Words that imitate the sound they are
naming
BUZZ
OR sounds that imitate another sound
“The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of
each purple curtain . . .”
ALLITERATION
Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings
of words
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled
peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter
Piper pick?
ASSONANCE
Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines
of poetry.
(Often creates near rhyme.)
Lake Fate Base Fade
(All share the long “a” sound.)
ASSONANCE cont.
Examples of ASSONANCE:
“Slow the low gradual moan came in the
snowing.”
- John Masefield
“Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep.”
- William Shakespeare
REFRAIN/Repetition
A sound, word, phrase
or line repeated
regularly in a poem.
“Quoth the raven,
‘Nevermore.’”
TYPES OF POETRY
LYRIC
A short poem
Usually written in first person point of view
Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes
a scene
Does not tell a story and are often musical
(Many of the poems we read will be lyrics.)
HAIKU
A Japanese poem
written in three lines
Five Syllables
Seven Syllables
Five Syllables
An old silent pond . . .
A frog jumps into the pond.
Splash! Silence again.
CINQUAIN
A five line poem
containing 22 syllables
Two Syllables
Four Syllables
Six Syllables
Eight Syllables
Two Syllables
How frail
Above the bulk
Of crashing water hangs
Autumnal, evanescent, wan
The moon.
SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET
A fourteen line poem with a
specific rhyme scheme.
The poem is written in three
quatrains and ends with a
couplet.
The rhyme scheme is
abab cdcd efef gg
Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer’s lease hath all too short a date.
Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed;
And every fair from fair sometimes declines,
By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed.
But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;
Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
NARRATIVE POEMS
A poem that tells a
story.
Generally longer than
the lyric styles of poetry
b/c the poet needs to
establish characters and
a plot.
Examples of Narrative
Poems
“The Raven”
“The Highwayman”
“Casey at the Bat”
“The Walrus and the
Carpenter”
CONCRETE POEMS
In concrete poems, the
words are arranged to
create a picture that
relates to the content of
the poem.
Poetry
Is like
Flames,
Which are
Swift and elusive
Dodging realization
Sparks, like words on the
Paper, leap and dance in the
Flickering firelight. The fiery
Tongues, formless and shifting
Shapes, tease the imiagination.
Yet for those who see,
Through their mind’s
Eye, they burn
Up the page.
FIGURATIVE
LANGUAGE
SIMILE
A comparison of two things using “like, as
than,” or “resembles.”
“She is as beautiful as a sunrise.”
METAPHOR
A direct comparison of two unlike things
“All the world’s a stage, and we are merely
players.”
- William Shakespeare
EXTENDED METAPHOR
A metaphor that goes several lines or
possible the entire length of a work.
Hyperbole
Exaggeration often used for emphasis.
Litotes
Understatement - basically the opposite of
hyperbole. Often it is ironic.
Ex. Calling a slow moving person “Speedy”
Idiom
An expression where the literal meaning of
the words is not the meaning of the
expression. It means something other than
what it actually says.
Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs.
PERSONIFICATION
An animal
given human-
like qualities or
an object given
life-like
qualities.
from “Ninki”
by Shirley Jackson
“Ninki was by this time irritated
beyond belief by the general air of
incompetence exhibited in the kitchen,
and she went into the living room and
got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy
and never catches his own chipmunks,
but who is, at least, a cat, and
preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man
with a gun.
Paradox
A seemingly self-contradictory statement that
still is true.
“It was the best of times; it was the worst of
times.”
POETIC DEVICES
POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY
POET
The poet is the author
of the poem.
SPEAKER
The speaker of the
poem is the “narrator”
of the poem.
Theme
The main idea or underlying meaning of a
literary work.
Setting
The time (both the time of day and period in
history) and place in which the action of a
literary work takes place.
Tone
The tone of a poem is the attitude you feel in it
— the writer's attitude toward the subject or
audience.
The tone in a poem of praise is approval. In a
satire, you feel irony. In an antiwar poem, you
may feel protest or moral indignation.
Tone can be playful, humorous, regretful,
anything — and it can change as the poem goes
along.
Mood
Mood is the effect of the author’s words and tone on the reader.
It is the feeling that an author sets or creates for the reader
using carefully chosen words and phrases, as well as other
devices such as repetition, rhyme, and hyperbole.
Poets try to create an overall feeling by introducing mood to
their poems.
Certain words create or set the mood because words carry
emotional meaning. The mood may be dark and mysterious for
a poem about death or cheerful and peaceful for a poem about
a spring day. Whatever the mood, it colors the whole poem and
creates a feeling inside the reader.
SYMBOLISM
When a person, place,
thing, or event that has
meaning in itself also
represents, or stands
for, something else.
= Innocence
= America
= Peace
Irony
A contrast between what is said and what is
meant. Also, when things turn out different
than what is expected.
Allusion
Allusion comes from
the verb “allude” which
means “to refer to”
An allusion is a
reference to something
famous.
A tunnel walled and overlaid
With dazzling crystal: we had
read
Of rare Aladdin’s wondrous
cave,
And to our own his name we
gave.
From “Snowbound”
John Greenleaf Whittier
IMAGERY
Language that appeals to the senses.
Most images are visual, but they can also
appeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste, or
smell.
then with cracked hands that ached
from labor in the weekday weather . . .
from “Those Winter Sundays”

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Poetry terminology

  • 2. POETRY  A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas)
  • 4. FORM - the appearance of the words on the page LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem STANZA - a group of lines arranged together A word is dead When it is said, Some say. I say it just Begins to live That day. Structure
  • 5. KINDS OF STANZAS Couplet = a two line stanza Triplet (Tercet) = a three line stanza Quatrain = a four line stanza Quintet = a five line stanza Sestet (Sextet) = a six line stanza Septet = a seven line stanza Octave = an eight line stanza
  • 7. RHYTHM The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain/repetition.
  • 8. METER A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern. When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. They then repeat the pattern throughout the poem.
  • 9. METER cont. FOOT - unit of meter. A foot can have two or three syllables. Usually consists of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables. TYPES OF FEET The types of feet are determined by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables. (cont.)
  • 10. Shakespeare’s sonnets In Shakespeare’s sonnets, the type of feet used are Iambic: unstressed, stressed. The metrical line he uses is pentameter: five feet on a line.. “Shall_I com_pare thee_to a_sum mer's_ day? Thou_art more_love ly_and more_ tem per_ate:”
  • 11. FREE VERSE POETRY Unlike metered poetry, free verse poetry does NOT have any repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables. Does NOT have rhyme. Free verse poetry is very conversational - sounds like someone talking with you. A more modern type of poetry.
  • 12. BLANK VERSE POETRY Written in lines of iambic pentameter, but does NOT use end rhyme. from Julius Ceasar Cowards die many times before their deaths; The valiant never taste of death but once. Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, It seems to me most strange that men should fear; Seeing that death, a necessary end, Will come when it will come.
  • 13. RHYME Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds. (A word always rhymes with itself.) LAMP STAMP Share the short “a” vowel sound Share the combined “mp” consonant sound
  • 14. END RHYME A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line Hector the Collector Collected bits of string. Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring.
  • 15. INTERNAL RHYME A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. From “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe
  • 16. RHYME SCHEME A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always). Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example.)
  • 17. SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME The Germ by Ogden Nash A mighty creature is the germ, Though smaller than the pachyderm. His customary dwelling place Is deep within the human race. His childish pride he often pleases By giving people strange diseases. Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? You probably contain a germ. a a b b c c a a
  • 18. ONOMATOPOEIA Words that imitate the sound they are naming BUZZ OR sounds that imitate another sound “The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain . . .”
  • 19. ALLITERATION Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?
  • 20. ASSONANCE Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry. (Often creates near rhyme.) Lake Fate Base Fade (All share the long “a” sound.)
  • 21. ASSONANCE cont. Examples of ASSONANCE: “Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.” - John Masefield “Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep.” - William Shakespeare
  • 22. REFRAIN/Repetition A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem. “Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore.’”
  • 24. LYRIC A short poem Usually written in first person point of view Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes a scene Does not tell a story and are often musical (Many of the poems we read will be lyrics.)
  • 25. HAIKU A Japanese poem written in three lines Five Syllables Seven Syllables Five Syllables An old silent pond . . . A frog jumps into the pond. Splash! Silence again.
  • 26. CINQUAIN A five line poem containing 22 syllables Two Syllables Four Syllables Six Syllables Eight Syllables Two Syllables How frail Above the bulk Of crashing water hangs Autumnal, evanescent, wan The moon.
  • 27. SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET A fourteen line poem with a specific rhyme scheme. The poem is written in three quatrains and ends with a couplet. The rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate. Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer’s lease hath all too short a date. Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed; And every fair from fair sometimes declines, By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed. But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st; Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
  • 28. NARRATIVE POEMS A poem that tells a story. Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry b/c the poet needs to establish characters and a plot. Examples of Narrative Poems “The Raven” “The Highwayman” “Casey at the Bat” “The Walrus and the Carpenter”
  • 29. CONCRETE POEMS In concrete poems, the words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem. Poetry Is like Flames, Which are Swift and elusive Dodging realization Sparks, like words on the Paper, leap and dance in the Flickering firelight. The fiery Tongues, formless and shifting Shapes, tease the imiagination. Yet for those who see, Through their mind’s Eye, they burn Up the page.
  • 31. SIMILE A comparison of two things using “like, as than,” or “resembles.” “She is as beautiful as a sunrise.”
  • 32. METAPHOR A direct comparison of two unlike things “All the world’s a stage, and we are merely players.” - William Shakespeare
  • 33. EXTENDED METAPHOR A metaphor that goes several lines or possible the entire length of a work.
  • 35. Litotes Understatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic. Ex. Calling a slow moving person “Speedy”
  • 36. Idiom An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says. Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs.
  • 37. PERSONIFICATION An animal given human- like qualities or an object given life-like qualities. from “Ninki” by Shirley Jackson “Ninki was by this time irritated beyond belief by the general air of incompetence exhibited in the kitchen, and she went into the living room and got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy and never catches his own chipmunks, but who is, at least, a cat, and preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man with a gun.
  • 38. Paradox A seemingly self-contradictory statement that still is true. “It was the best of times; it was the worst of times.”
  • 40. POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY POET The poet is the author of the poem. SPEAKER The speaker of the poem is the “narrator” of the poem.
  • 41. Theme The main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work.
  • 42. Setting The time (both the time of day and period in history) and place in which the action of a literary work takes place.
  • 43. Tone The tone of a poem is the attitude you feel in it — the writer's attitude toward the subject or audience. The tone in a poem of praise is approval. In a satire, you feel irony. In an antiwar poem, you may feel protest or moral indignation. Tone can be playful, humorous, regretful, anything — and it can change as the poem goes along.
  • 44. Mood Mood is the effect of the author’s words and tone on the reader. It is the feeling that an author sets or creates for the reader using carefully chosen words and phrases, as well as other devices such as repetition, rhyme, and hyperbole. Poets try to create an overall feeling by introducing mood to their poems. Certain words create or set the mood because words carry emotional meaning. The mood may be dark and mysterious for a poem about death or cheerful and peaceful for a poem about a spring day. Whatever the mood, it colors the whole poem and creates a feeling inside the reader.
  • 45. SYMBOLISM When a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else. = Innocence = America = Peace
  • 46. Irony A contrast between what is said and what is meant. Also, when things turn out different than what is expected.
  • 47. Allusion Allusion comes from the verb “allude” which means “to refer to” An allusion is a reference to something famous. A tunnel walled and overlaid With dazzling crystal: we had read Of rare Aladdin’s wondrous cave, And to our own his name we gave. From “Snowbound” John Greenleaf Whittier
  • 48. IMAGERY Language that appeals to the senses. Most images are visual, but they can also appeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste, or smell. then with cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weather . . . from “Those Winter Sundays”

Editor's Notes

  1. Activity: Rhyme group game
  2. Activity: Rhyme Scheme group game
  3. Activity: Alliteration group game