When Things will Speak "Web" (Lecture)
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When Things will Speak "Web" (Lecture)

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When Things will Speak "Web" (Lecture)

When Things will Speak "Web" (Lecture)

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  • Talk at least about CHUMBY, TOASTER, POKEN, NABAZTAG, etc.
  • The problem is that to build applications on top of these devices we still need to learn a 100 different systems and APIs. Our thesis: how do you enable business to create applications on top of eco-systems of sensor networks and embedded devices.
  • Thus, we suggest creating a Web of Things as an alternative. We basically consider sensor nodes as nodes of the Internet and make them universally accessible over HTTP like the Web is. We do this by: Having IP connectivity (IPv6 Lowpan) Having the nodes (or a gateway) embedding a Web-Server Modeling services as resources.
  • Easy to program, create new stuff Browse and use the IoT 1 or 2.0
  • Where we started, a quick overview of our first trials to integrate sensor networks to business applications. A few guidelines on how to make sensor nodes first class citizens of the Web. Our implementation of these guidelines on the Sun SPOT plateform, including the video of a business use case we implemented using the RESTful Sun SPOTs.
  • The first step is to get the Sensors connected to the Internet (!= Web, the Internet is the underlying network! Not the application layer). This can be achieved in two ways: Direct connectivity by using for instance IPv6 Lowpan, i.e. the Ipv6 protocol for resource constrained devices. More and more sensor networks (e.g. Arch Rock nodes, etc.) For non-IPv6 nodes we propose the concept of smart gateways. Smart gateways are small pieces of software that can be installed on emedded devices such as Wireless routers or NAS (Network Access Storage). Their goal is to understand the proprietary protocols and APIs of embedded devices (e.g. BT) and to « translate » offer access to these devices through uniform REST APIs.
  • Now that we have means to connect the nodes to the Internet we need to « Web enable » them. This is done by exposing their services as « resources », i.e. by applying the REST architectural style to represent their functionality and thus making them service nodes of the Web. REST is basically about four concepts: every thing, that can and that's worth, getting a URI and links is a resource Resources have a unique name in the form of a URI (often a URL). Resources have several representations (JSON, XHTML). Resources can be interacted with using a unform interface: HTTP:
  • Let’s turn a Sun SPOT sensor node into a resource. The first step is to think of what should be a resource in a Sun SPOT. Obviously the spot itself should be, so it’s sensors and actuator.
  • Then we think about the representation of these resources. We suggest offering at least HTML since it allows for natural browsing and user oriented-discovery of the sub resources. For application to application communication we suggest JSON, a lightweight alternative to XML which is easily parseable into objects (javascript or java). To specify the format we would like to obtain we use either a .format or the standard http accept header (recommended).
  • The last part is already given. HTTP provides us with pretty much everything we need to provide services on the Web.
  • Where we started, a quick overview of our first trials to integrate sensor networks to business applications. A few guidelines on how to make sensor nodes first class citizens of the Web. Our implementation of these guidelines on the Sun SPOT plateform, including the video of a business use case we implemented using the RESTful Sun SPOTs.
  • Discovery, embedded WebServer Access the Ploggs functionality directly from the browser.
  • Demo
  • Discover a Sun Spot, see the Web UI, browse it.
  • Where we started, a quick overview of our first trials to integrate sensor networks to business applications. A few guidelines on how to make sensor nodes first class citizens of the Web. Our implementation of these guidelines on the Sun SPOT plateform, including the video of a business use case we implemented using the RESTful Sun SPOTs.
  • Where we started, a quick overview of our first trials to integrate sensor networks to business applications. A few guidelines on how to make sensor nodes first class citizens of the Web. Our implementation of these guidelines on the Sun SPOT plateform, including the video of a business use case we implemented using the RESTful Sun SPOTs.

When Things will Speak "Web" (Lecture) When Things will Speak "Web" (Lecture) Presentation Transcript

  • When Things will Speak « Web » Architecture, Challenges and Business Opportunities for a Dominique Guinard, ETH Zurich & SAP Research Lecture for Lancaster University, UK. 18.02.2010
  • MOTIVATION
    • Do we really need a Web of Things?
    [http://www.flickr.com/photos/moragcasey/]
  • Embedded Devices Invade us!
    • Emergence of the physical Web:
      • Embedded devices get more ubiquitous.
      • They are also getting connected to the Internet.
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Problem: How to Achieve a (Re-)Composable Web of Things?
    • Huge eco-system of embedded devices.
      • About 1000 smart objects / person:
      • and… about 1000 systems to use them and build applications on top of them.
    • How do we enable tech savvys and companies to create applications on top of this eco-system?
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research “ re-think the way we design computing systems in order to take into account the >1000 smart objects per people we will soon have to deal with.” David Orban, Open Spime
  • Contribution: Web of Things (WoT) in a Nutshell
    • Creating a Web of Things by:
      • Connecting embedded devices to the Internet (IP) [Hui08].
      • Having them embedding a Web-Server.
      • Modelling their services in a Resource Oriented manner (RESTful API) so that they become first-class citizens of the World Wide Web!
    • Benefits:
      • Ease the building of applications on top of embedded devices.
      • Get a lot of the features/services of the Web almost for free:
        • bookmarking, caching, linking, searching, securing etc.
        • Twitter, Atom, blogs, social networks, visualization APIs, maps, etc.
      • And enable physical mashups:
        • dynamic, ad-hoc composite applications involving real-world devices
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
      • [Hui08] Hui, Jonathan W., and David E. Culler. “IP is dead, long live IP for wireless sensor networks.” In Proceedings of the 6th ACM conference on Embedded network sensor systems, 15-28. Raleigh, NC, USA: ACM, 2008.
  • Enable Real-World Mashups REST REST URL PHP REST API [http://www.pachube.com] [http://www.webothings.com/energievisible] REST [http://www.clickscript.ch] JavaScript Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Today’s Menu
    • Motivation
    • A Web Oriented Architecture for the Real World
    • Protoypes and Applications
    • WoT and the Business
    • Challenges for a seamless WoT
    [http://www.flickr.com/photos/lessio/1346732230/ ] Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • A WEB ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE FOR THE REAL WORLD
    • Push the Web down to devices!
    [ http://www.flickr.com/photos/julianbleecker ]
  • 1) Connecting Embedded Devices to the Internet IPv6 lowpan [3] Vlad Trifa, Samuel Wieland, Dominique Guinard, Thomas Michael Bohnert: Design and Implementation of a Gateway for Web-based Interaction and Management of Embedded Devices. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Sensor Network Engineering (IWSNE 09). Marina del Rey, CA, USA, June 2009 Non IP devices Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • 2) Resource Oriented Embedded Devices REST in a Nutshell
    • Resources
    • Their names (URIs).
    • Their representations (JSON, XHTML).
    • Links between them.
    • A uniform interface (HTTP).
    REPRESENTATION HTTP URI Links Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • 2.1.) Resource Design
    • Thanks to their atomicity services on embedded devices are quite adapted to Resource-Oriented Architectures.
    • Root: http://webofthings.com/
    • Resources:
      • Spots: http://webofthings.com/spots
      • Spot 2: http://webofthings.com/spots/2
      • Light Sensor: http://webofthings.com/spots/2/sensors/light
      • Led Actuator: http://webofthings.com/spots/2/actuators/led/
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • 2.2) Representation Design
    • XHTML as default, ideal for browsing:
      • http://webofthings.com/spots
    • JSON, ideal for parsing:
      • http://webofthings.com/spots.json
    • XML, ideal for integration with business systems:
      • http://webofthings.com/spots.xml
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • 2.3. Uniform Interface
    • HTTP Verbs: What do you want to do?
      • GET: retrieve the representation of a resource:
        • Current consumption of an electricity sensor.
      • PUT: update a resource:
        • Turn a device on/off.
      • DELETE: remove a resource:
        • Delete a threshold on a senors, shut a device down.
      • POST: create a subordinate:
        • Create a new feed to trace the location of a tagged object.
    • HTTP Headers: What type of data are you sending me/requesting?
      • Metadata:
        • Content type: application/json, text/html, etc.
      • Status:
        • 200 OK, 201 Create, 400 Bad Request, 401 Unauthorized
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Today’s Menu
    • Motivation
    • A Web Oriented Architecture for the Real World
    • Protoypes and Applications
    • WoT and the Business
    • Challenges for a seamless WoT
    [http://www.flickr.com/photos/lessio/1346732230/ ] Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • APPLICATIONS AND PROTOTYPES
    • Let’s get concrete!
    [http://www.flickr.com/photos/lpettinati/]
  • The « Energie Visible » Project
    • Help people better understanding the energy consumption of devices.
    • Monitor and control your energy consumption at home.
    • Fully integrate the monitoring and control to the web.
    • webofthings.com/energievisible
    Gateway Level: Web server and RESTful API Sensor Level: Ploggs Device Level: Appliances Client Level: Web/Mobile App Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Talk to devices: The WEB Way Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Energy « Mashups »
    • Energie Visible Control and Visualization Interface [Gui09] :
      • JavaScript (GWT) page.
    • E-meter iPhone [Wei09] Interface:
      • Objective C program.
    [http://www.vs.inf.ethz.ch/res/show.html?what=emeter_demo
      • [Wei09] Markus Weiss, Dominique Guinard, Thorsten Staake, and Wolf Roediger, eMeter: An interactive energy monitor. Proceedings of Ubicomp 2009.
      • [Gui09] Dominique Guinard, Vlad Trifa Towards the Web of Things: Web Mashups for Embedded Devices. In proceedings of WWW 2009.
  • Demo Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • RESTful SunSPOTs
    • Web-enabling the Sun SPOT platform:
      • All sensors and actuators become resources.
    • Two implementation:
      • Web-server on the nodes.
      • Web-server on the gateway.
    [http://www.sunspotworld.com]
      • [GuiSpot09] Dominique Guinard, Vlad Trifa, Thomas Pham, Olivier Liechti. Towards Physical Mashups in the Web of Things. Proceedings of IEEE INSS 2009
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Physical-Physical Mashup: Ambient Energy Meter
    • Create an ambient device that can assess the energy consumption of the current place it is in.
    • Mashup of:
      • The RESTful Ploggs
      • The RESTful Sun Spots
      • The Smart Gateways.
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Demo
  • FAT: Friends and Things
    • Sharing platform for the WoT:
      • Discovery, share and advertise things with friends (e.g. Facebook), relatives and colleagues (e.g. LinkedIn).
      • Aggregate feeds from several sensors using ATOM.
      • Based on social networks APIs.
      • http://tiny.cc/sac315
      • [GuiFAT10] Dominique Guinard, Mathias Fischer, Vlad Trifa . Sharing Using Social Networks in a Composable Web of Things. Proc. of the first IEEE Conference on the Web of Things (WoT 2010).
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Mobile Energy Mashup Editor
    • RESTful Framework allowing the creation of physical mashups:
      • «  Turn the heating off when I’m more than two KMs away from home ».
      • Workflow engine based on Ruote (Ruby).
      • Interface between devices and the Web.
      • Mashup editor on Android.
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Today’s Menu
    • Motivation
    • A Web Oriented Architecture for the Real World
    • Protoypes and Applications
    • WoT and the Business
    • Challenges for a seamless WoT
    [http://www.flickr.com/photos/lessio/1346732230/ ] Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • WOT AND THE BUSINESS
    • Business Opportunities
    [http://www.flickr.com/photos/daviddmuir/]
  • Forcasts
    • Specialists talk about a market of $4.6 billion for Wireless Sensor Networks in 2011 [OnWorld07]
    • This does not take into account Web-enabled consumer electronics.
    • Clear trend for the Ubiquitous Web.
    • [OnWorld07] M. Hatler, D. Gurganious, C. Chi, and M. Ritter, “WSN for Smart Industries,” OnWorld Study, 2007. [Online]. Available on: www.onworld.com
    [Trends for Web of Things and Internet of Things on www.google.com] Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Actors of the (future) WoT Market
    • «  Smart Gateway » providers:
      • There corporation (ex-Nokia), Oberon.ch, Netgear, Arimaz, ioBridge, etc.
      • The OSGi folks.
      • Energy dedicated gateways:
        • Apple, Energy Optimizers
    [http://therecorporation.com/] [http://www.netgear.com] [http://www.iobridge.com] [http://www.arimaz.com] Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Actors of the (future) WoT Market
    • «  Smart Things » manufacturers:
      • Consumer « gadgets »:
        • Violet, Chumby, Poken, Arimaz
      • Sensors/actuators nets:
        • Phidget, SunSPOTs, Sentilla, etc.
      • Energy Monitoring and Management:
        • Energy Optimizers, DiyKyoto, Current Cost, etc.
    [http://violet.net/] [http://www.chumby.com] [http://www.plogginternational.com/] [http://www.diykyoto.com/] Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Actors of the (future) WoT Market
    • «  Software » companies:
      • Pachube
      • Google:
        • Power Meter
        • Visualization API
      • SAP:
        • SAP MII, AII
      • Oberon.ch
        • Yaler.net
    [http://www.google.org/powermeter] [http://www.pachube.com] [http://www.sap.com] [http://code.google.com/apis/charttools] Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Today’s Menu
    • Motivation
    • A Web Oriented Architecture for the Real World
    • Protoypes and Applications
    • WoT and the Business
    • Challenges for a seamless WoT
    [http://www.flickr.com/photos/lessio/1346732230/ ] Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • CHALLENGES FOR A SEAMLESS WOT
    • Where do we go from there?
    [http://www.flickr.com/photos/parmiter/] Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Beware, WoT is coming!
    • The vision [Kindberg02] of our everyday physical world merging with the World Wide Web is becoming a reality.
    • There is a need for standards or at least good practices.
    • The REST architectural style is a good candidate!
    • Yes! But…
    • [Kindberg02] Kindberg, Tim, John Barton, Jeff Morgan, Gene Becker, Debbie Caswell, Philippe Debaty, Gita Gopal, et al. “People, places, things: web presence for the real world.” Mob. Netw. Appl. 7, no. 5 (2002): 365-376.  
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • A Word About Client-Servers
    • REST over HTTP (i.e. client pull) on/for embedded devices is good for control scenarios (e.g. actuation).
    • Monitoring scenarios (e.g. sensing) speak for device/gateway push.
    • Atom can help, but clients still pull data.
    • « Web-flavored » alternatives exist and have to be further explored:
      • Pubsubhubbub, Comet, Webhooks, XMPP, etc.
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • And a Word about Discovery
    • Another important challenge is discovery and search of Web-enabled things:
      • How to understand what a thing provides beyond what is described by its REST API?
      • How to search for things in an ecoystem of billion of devices?
    • Here also, Web-flavored solutions are being developed:
      • Microformats, Semantic Web, RDFa, etc.
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research
  • Thanks a lot for your attention
    • Contact:
      • Dominique Guinard
      • dguinard a t ethz.ch
      • www.guinard.org
    • Special thanks to:
      • Thomas Pham, Mathias Fischer, Azulena Aguilar, Vlad Trifa, …
    Dominique Guinard, ETH / SAP Research www.webofthings.com