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The Web of Things: Enabling the Physical World to the Web


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A presentation about the practice of Web-enabling the physical world, by means of principles inspired from the Web of Things. This is an invited presentation of Prof. Andreas Pitsillides and Andreas Kamilaris at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa in April, 2012. In this presentation, the motivation, practice, historical background, exemplary applications, dangers and future challenges of the Web of Things are discussed.

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The Web of Things: Enabling the Physical World to the Web

  1. 1. The Web of Things: Enabling the Physical World to the WebAndreas Kamilaris and Andreas PitsillidesJohannesburg, South Africa April 2012 1
  2. 2. Talk Schedule University of Cyprus• Motivation• The Internet of Things• The Web of Things Practice• History of the Web of Things• Building the Web of Things• Exemplary Application Domains• Concluding Remarks• Future Challenges 2
  3. 3. Motivation
  4. 4. Motivation University of Cyprus 20 years on, Vision or Reality? 4
  5. 5. Motivation University of CyprusIts a smart world?‘The real and the digital worlds are converging,bringing much greater efficiency and lots of newopportunities’ WHAT if the two worlds exist, the real one and its digital reflection? • A Real world - full of sensors, picking up everything from movement to smell. • A Digital world, a construction built of software - takes in all that information and automatically acts on it. • E.g. If a door opens in the real world, so does its virtual equivalent. If the temperature in the room with the open door falls below a certain level, the digital world automatically turns on the heat. Vision of Prof David Gelernter, Yale University, in early 1990s in his book ―Mirror Worlds‖. Two decades later that sounds like science fiction. But does it? 5
  6. 6. Motivation University of CyprusThe real and the digital worlds are converging dueto:• emergence of connected sensors and embedded devices (currently, mostly living in their microcosm, but could be interconnected in the ‗big web‘, sensing and acting on the environment)• new ubiquitous wireless networks 17388368?story_id=17388368 and communication techniques and standards• activities of humans themselves. ‘For e.g. the micro-blogging service Twitter’s 160m users send out nearly 100m tweets a day. When they see, hear or read something, they type it into their computer or smartphone, 140 characters at a time.’!! Smart systems - The next big thing ? 6
  7. 7. Motivation University of CyprusSo,• Sensors are becoming an integral part in our life.• New sensor and communication technologies are appearing, some with Internet support. (e.g. sensor networks, RFIDs, short-range wireless communications, real-time localization)• Prices for embedded hardware have effectively dropped.• High heterogeneity is present in pervasive environments. How do we bridge these technologies together? How can heterogeneous physical things communicate and interact? 7
  8. 8. Motivation University of CyprusThe Internet is a solution! • An increasing number of embedded devices are supporting the IP protocol, thus many physical objects will have direct connectivity to the Internet. thus the Internet of Things (IoT). which includes technologies and research disciplines that enable the Internet to reach out into the real world of physical objects. 8
  9. 9. Motivation University of Cyprus Large sums spent on smart-infrastructure projects; some countries made smart systems a priority of industrial policy. E.g. • IoT is central to European Union‘s ―Digital Agenda‖ and China announced a plan with clear guidelines for IoT. There is real need for such systems • physical infrastructure is ageing • health-care costs are exploding • money is tight, .... Can use resources more intelligently, e.g. • Monitoring patients remotely  can be much cheaper and safer than keeping them in hospital. • A bridge equipped with the right sensors  can tell engineers when it needs to be serviced. • Today power grids, transport systems and water-distribution systems are essentially networks of dumb pipes  make smart. • If power grid in America were 5% more efficient, it would save greenhouse emissions equivalent to 53m cars. • congested roads cost the country, e.g. in 2007 in US 4.2 billion working hours lost and 10.6 billion litres of wasted petrol. • utilities around the world lose between 25% and 50% of treated water to leaks 9
  10. 10. The Internet of Things
  11. 11. The Internet of Things (IoT) University of Cyprus Vision: A network of objects, where all things are uniquely and universally addressable, identified and managed by computers in the same way humans can.The question is:If wireless objects (e.g.sensor networks)represent a future of“billions of informationdevices embedded inthe physical world,”why should they not An enabler forrun the standard many ‗smart‘internetworking systems andprotocol? applications Thus, the Internet can penetrate into the real world of physical objects. 11
  12. 12. IoT Initiatives: 6LoWPAN University of CyprusLow-power Wireless Personal Area Network (LoWPAN)• LoWPAN is a simple, low-cost, wireless communication network for constrained applications with limited power.• 6LoWPAN is an adaption layer that allows efficient IPv6 communication over IEEE 802.15.4. • turns IEEE 802.15.4 into the next IP-enabled link • offers wide-scale connectivity, open-system based interoperability, and interoperability between low-power devices and IP devices • Leverages well-known IP-based knowledge and practices • Imports well-known capabilities of IPv6 to low-power devices. uIPv6 12
  13. 13. The IoT in Home Automation University of Cyprus Home automation solutions in comparison to IPv6 (6LoWPAN). ―Internet technology, utilizing IPv6, will become the future standard in home automation.‖Matthias Kovatsch et al., Embedding Internet Technology for Home Automation, inProceedings of ETFA, Bilbao, Spain, September 2010. 13
  14. 14. Internet-enabled Practices University of CyprusThe IoT influences enterprise operations. SenseAware combines an in-package sensing device with a comprehensive web-based information platform.SenseAware. Online at: 14
  15. 15. Internet-enabled Prototypes (‗smart objects‘) University of Cyprus (left) (right) 15
  16. 16. More Prototypes… University of Cyprus Juan Ignacio Vazquez and Diego Lopez-De-Ipina, Social devices: autonomous artifacts thatcommunicate on the internet, in IOT‘08, 2008. (left)Anders Wallberg et al., Socially intelligent interfaces for increased energy awareness in thehome, in IOT‘08, 2008. (right) 16
  17. 17. Even More Prototypes… University of Cyprus (left) (right) 17
  18. 18. The Web of Things Practice
  19. 19. The Web of Things (WoT) University of CyprusConnectivity at the network layer is nice…… but what about the application layer?The WoT is a notion where everyday devices and sensorsare connected by fully integrating them to the Web.Based on the success of the Web 2.0, this concept isabout reusing well-accepted and understood Webstandards to connect constrained devices. 19
  20. 20. The WoT Practice University of CyprusThe WoT practice mainly follows these steps:1. Connect embedded devices to the Internet, through IPv4 or IPv6.2. Embed Web servers on these devices.3. Model their services in a resource-oriented way.Directly Web-enabling Vs using a Gateway 20
  21. 21. WoT basic ingredients for wide scale adoption University of Cyprus• Internet capable (IP) devices (with direct Web server/Web- based ubiquitous middleware) • facilitates uniform interaction amongst devices and end-users• Universal addressability (can be provided by IPv6), device discovery, and semantics-based service description• Proven and scalable Web-based technologies • Web techniques such as HTTP caching and push messaging, can facilitate a well performing, fully Web-based smart system.• Web-based service/information retrieval for the real world (e.g. a Google for physical things) 21
  22. 22. REST and Resource-Oriented Architectures University of CyprusREST is a lightweight architectural style which basically defines howto use the HTTP application protocol as an application interface tothe world of smart objects.REST Vs Web Services (WS-*)A resource-oriented architecture is about four concepts:1. Resources.2. Their names (URIs).3. The links between them.4. Their representations (HTML, JSON, XML).Resources can be manipulated with:1. GET to retrieve a representation of a resource.2. POST represents an insert or update.3. PUT to alter the state of a resource.4. DELETE to delete resources. 22
  23. 23. History of the Web of Things
  24. 24. The Cooltown project University of Cyprus One of the first projects to envision Web presence for physical elements, to offer the webs high degree of interoperability for interactions with devices. each entity in the physical world has an associated web resource: a web presence; no need to load new software or reconfigure existing softwareTim Kindberg et al., People, places, things: web presence for the real world, in Mobile NetworkApplications, 7(5):365–376, 2002. 24
  25. 25. Web-based Ubiquitous Middleware University of Cyprus pREST: A RESTful protocol for pervasive spaces. • An early initiative for a Web-based ubiquitous middleware.W. Drytkiewicz et al., pREST: a REST-based protocol for pervasive systems, in IEEEInternational Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems, pages 340–348, 2004. 25
  26. 26. Web-based Ubiquitous Middleware University of Cyprus Web-based Middleware for Smart Spaces. • Device/Service Discovery based on Zeroconf mDNS. • The Web as a platform for ubiquitous applications.Christian Prehofer et al., Towards the web as a platform for ubiquitous applications in smartspaces, in RSPSI at Ubicomp, 2007. 26
  27. 27. Web-based Large-Scale Sensor Platforms University of Cyprus Online, global sensor platforms enable people to share, discover and monitor in real-time sensor, energy and environmental data from objects, sensors and buildings that are connected to the Web, from around the world.The most well-known are Pachube, SenseWeb, IrisNet, G-Sense.Pachube. Online at: 27
  28. 28. Building the Web of Things
  29. 29. Directly Web-enabling Physical Things University of Cyprus Embedding Web servers on sensors and WSN is a recent development...Lars Schor et al., Towards a Zero-Configuration Wireless Sensor Network Architecture forSmart Buildings, in BuildSys, 2009.Dogan Yazar and Adam Dunkels, Efficient Application Integration in IP-based SensorNetworks, in BuildSys, 2009. 29
  30. 30. Discovering locally the WoT University of CyprusMulticast DNS• Multicast DNS (mDNS) is a way of using familiar DNSprogramming interfaces for enabling local discovery ofembedded devices.S. Cheshire and M. Krochmal, Multicast DNS, IETF Internet Draft, draft-cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns-15, December, 2011. 30
  31. 31. Discovering globally the WoT University of CyprusDyser real-time search engine.• Discovering ubiquitous services in real-time through the Web.Benedikt Ostermaier et al., A real-time search engine for the web of things, In Proc. of theInternet of Things 2010 Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 2010. 31
  32. 32. Describing the WoT University of Cyprus Web Applications Description Language (WADL) • A machine-readable, XML-based description language for Web applications.Web Applications Description Language (WADL). Online at: 32
  33. 33. Semantically Describing the WoT University of CyprusSOAM: Describing things through Semantic Web technologies. Capabilities Context Information ConstraintsJuan Vazquez et al.,. SOAM: An Environment Adaptation Model for the Pervasive SemanticWeb, in ICCSA, volume 3983 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 108–117.Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006. 33
  34. 34. Composing the WoT University of Cyprus Physical Mashups exploit real-world services offered by physical devices and combine them using the same tools and techniques of classic Web mashups. Ambient meter applicationDominique Guinard and Vlad Trifa, Towards the web of things: Web mashups for embeddeddevices, in MEM Workshop of WWW Conference, Spain, 2009. 34
  35. 35. Facilitating Composition of the WoT University of Cyprus Mobile Framework for Physical Mashups The framework is composed of four main parts: 1. Web-enabled devices tagged with small 2D bar-codes. 2. Virtual services on the Web. 3. The mashup server framework. 4. Mobile mashup editors.Dominique Guinard, Mashing up Your Web-Enabled Home, in ICWE 2010, Vienna, 2010. 35
  36. 36. Sharing the WoT University of Cyprus Sharing physical things using social networking.D. Guinard et al., Sharing Using Social Networks in a Composable Web of Things, In Proc. ofthe 1st WoT Workshop at IEEE PerCom, 2010. 36
  37. 37. Messaging at the WoT University of Cyprus RMS-RESTful Message System • HTTP not best for building WSN applications because of its request/response nature. • Web push tools and techniques have enabled the development of event- driven applications directly over the Web. • RESTful messaging for building open and programmable distributed sensing applications.Vlad Trifa, Dominique Guinard, Vlatko Davidovski, Andreas Kamilaris and Ivan Delchev. WebMessaging for Open and Scalable Distributed Sensing Applications. In InternationalConference on Web Engineering (ICWE 2010), pages 129–143, Vienna, Austria, July 2010. 37
  38. 38. Caching at the WoT University of Cyprus Web caching as a tool for saving bandwidth, energy and time. • Web caching is very important for the Embedded Web! e.g. adding IPv6 on sensor motes affects their performance and energy consumption. Can decrease by exploiting the HTTP caching feature.Andreas Kamilaris and Andreas Pitsillides, HomeWeb: An Application Framework for Web-based Smart Homes, In Proc. of the 18th International Conference on Telecommunications(ICT 2011), Ayia Napa, Cyprus, May 2011. 38
  39. 39. Applying the Web of Things in Real-Life Scenarios
  40. 40. Exemplary application domains University of CyprusThe WoT in: • Smart metering • Smart homes and energy-aware home environments • Social interactions and networking • Competitions for energy efficiency in local neighbourhoods • Country-scale comparisons of domestic electrical consumption • Logistics • The urban environment • The smart grid of electricity 40
  41. 41. Smart Metering in General University of CyprusSmart meters are sensor devices that measure in real-time theenergy consumption of houses. Smart power outlets are wirelessdevices that measure the electricity footprint of various electricaldevices and control their operation.Timely electrical consumption feedback through smart metering, isbelieved to reduce electrical consumption by a fraction of 5-15%.Whole Home Vs Device-specific Approaches 41
  42. 42. The WoT in Smart Metering University of Cyprus eMeter • It employs a smart electricity meter to provide real-time feedback on a mobile phone, through a Web interface. • The system can disaggregate overall electricity consumption by forcing the users to manually switch specific devices on or off.Markus Weiss, Dominique Guinard, Thorsten Staake, and Wolf Roediger. eMeter: Aninteractive energy monitor. In Proc. of International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing(Ubicomp), Orlando, Florida, USA, September 2009 42
  43. 43. The WoT in Smart Metering University of Cyprus Energie Visible: Device-level metering. • It utilizes residential smart meters to visualize in real-time the energy consumption of the appliances. • Web-based interface.Markus Weiss Dominique Guinard and Vlad Trifa, Energie Visible. Online at: 43
  44. 44. The energy-aware Smart Home University of Cyprus • Home residents can use their mobile phones as magic lenses to view the energy consumption of their appliances, just by pointing out them with the phone‘s camera.M. Jahn et al., The Energy Aware Smart Home, In FutureTech, pages 1–8, 2010. 44
  45. 45. The WoT in Smart Homes University of Cyprus WS-* integration in a smart home. Big Web services are employed for interoperability of home appliances. WS-* inappropriate for resource-constrained devices in terms of response times and energy performance.Marco Aiello. The role of web services at home. In IEEE Web Service-based Systems andApplications (WEBSA), page 164, 2006. 45
  46. 46. The WoT in Smart Homes University of Cyprus The Smart Home meets the Web of Things. • Reuse of Web principles in a resource-oriented style. • Integration of household appliances to the Web. • An application framework offers support for multiple home residents concurrently. • A reliable and efficient smart home environment. • Flexible applications on top of heterogeneous embedded devices, can be built with minimum effort, by following the REST paradigm.Andreas Kamilaris, Vlad Trifa, and Andreas Pitsillides. The Smart Home meets the Web ofThings. International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing (IJAHUC), Special issue onThe Smart Digital Home, 7(3):145-154, April, 2011. 46
  47. 47. The WoT in Smart Homes University of CyprusThe Smart Home meets the Web of Things. function check { if [ $? -le 20 ] ; then curl -d "color=GREEN" -X POST localhost:8080/sensors/sensor5/Light/ fi } curl -s -X GET localhost:8080/sensors/sensor8/Temperature/ $1 check; 47
  48. 48. The WoT in Energy-aware Smart Homes University of Cyprus • Deployment of a WSN of smart power outlets called Ploggs. • IPv6-enabled Telosb sensor devices by means of blip (6LoWPAN implementation for the TinyOS sensors operating system). 48
  49. 49. The WoT in Energy-aware Smart Homes University of Cyprus • All interactions with embedded devices are done via standard HTTP requests. 49
  50. 50. The WoT in Energy-aware Smart Homes University of Cyprus • Device-level energy consumption information. • Electricity comparison with previous days, weeks, months, years. • Association of electricity data with costs. 50
  51. 51. The WoT in Energy-aware Smart Homes University of Cyprusfunction check { if [ $? -le 20 ] ; then curl -d "status=OFF" -X PUT [serverAddress]/AirConditioner/Switch/ fi}curl -s -X GET [serverAddress]/Kitchen/Temperature/ $1check;• Combine household electrical appliances with Web content.• Web practices for developing smart, energy-efficient rules. 51
  52. 52. The WoT in Energy-aware Smart Homes University of Cyprus• A physical mashup editor for the smart home.• Creation of physical mashups in only a few clicks. 52
  53. 53. The WoT in Energy-aware Smart Homes University of Cyprus• Performance comparable to non-IPv6 implementations.• Satisfactory response times.• Acceptable energy consumption. 53
  54. 54. The WoT in Social Networking University of Cyprus Social Networking of the Smart Home. • Sharing household appliances.Andreas Kamilaris and Andreas Pitsillides, Social Networking of the Smart Home, in 21st AnnualIEEE International Symposium on Personal,Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC2010), Istanbul, Turkey, September 2010. 54
  55. 55. The WoT in competitions for energy efficiency in local neighborhoods University of Cyprus A small case study in two blocks of flats, creating a social competition among the flats, to award those with the best energy management.Andreas Kamilaris, Giannis Kitromilides and Andreas Pitsillides. Energy Conservation throughSocial Competitions in Blocks of Flats. In Proc. of the 1st International Conference on SmartGrids and Green IT Systems (SMARTGREENS), Porto, Portugal, April 2012. 55
  56. 56. The WoT in competitions for energy efficiencyin local neighborhoods University of CyprusSuburban Block of Flats Urban Block of FlatsComparing with previous months, 11.90% average reduction ofenergy in the suburban case and 27.74% for the urban block. 56
  57. 57. The WoT in country-scale comparisons of domestic electrical consumption University of Cyprus SocialElectricity is a Facebook application that allows people to compare their electricity footprint with their friends and their street/neighborhood/city.Andreas Kamilaris, Diomidis Papadiomidous and Andreas Pitsillides. Lessons Learned from OnlineSocial Networking of Physical Things. In Proc. of the Sixth International Conference on Broadband andWireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), Barcelona, Spain, October 2011. 57
  58. 58. The WoT in Logistics University of Cyprus Electronic Product Code Information Services (EPCIS) is an open public standard used to track the progress of objects as they move through the supply chain, using RFID. • Building a Web-enabled EPCIS.D. Guinard, M. Müller, Jacques Pasquier, Giving RFID a REST: Building a Web-EnabledEPCIS, Proceedings of the Internet of Things 2010 International Conference (IoT 2010),November 2010, Tokyo, Japan. 58
  59. 59. The WoT at the Urban Environment University of Cyprus • Community-based, real-time (indirect) sensor sharing. • Location-based discovery of sensors through the Web. • Web-enabled physical devices have the potential to become first-class citizens in the digital cities of the future.Andreas Kamilaris, Nicolas Iannarilli, Vlad Trifa, and Andreas Pitsillides. Bridging the MobileWeb and the Web of Things in Urban Environments. In Urban Internet of Things Workshop, atIOT 2010, November 2010. 59
  60. 60. The WoT at the Urban Environment University of CyprusUrban Mashups defined as opportunistic physical mashups,validated when the local environmental conditions support thepervasive services, defined in the mashups.Advanced automatic knowledge inference in the urbanenvironment about environmental services. 60
  61. 61. The WoT in the Smart Grid University of Cyprus • Link features of the smart grid (demand response, real- time tariff changes etc.) to energy-aware smart homes. • Do the washing when the tariff is low!Andreas Kamilaris and Andreas Pitsillides. Exploiting Demand Response in Web-based Energy-awareSmart Homes. In Proc. of the first International Conference on Smart Grids, Green Communicationsand IT Energy-aware Technologies (Energy 2011), Venice, Italy, May 2011. 61
  62. 62. The WoT in the Smart Grid University of CyprusExploiting Demand Response in energy-aware smart homes• Web-based notification of tariff changes in real-time.• Identification of schedulable home appliances.• Schedule electricity-related tasks for future execution.• Perform the ironing when the tariff falls 8%.• Define the duration of each task, max amount of waiting time etc. 62
  63. 63. The WoT in the Smart Grid University of CyprusUsing Load Shedding for avoiding outages 63
  64. 64. Concluding Remarks
  65. 65. Concluding Remarks University of Cyprus• A number of interesting IOT applications platforms have been developed• A unified platform which supports the whole IoT/WoT spectrum is still missing… 65
  66. 66. Concluding Remarks University of Cyprus • Potential applications are out there • Technology is maturing • Many challenges still exist, but solutions and some early deployments are appearing • An open unified platform is missing, but active research in that direction • Generally, it is an active research field... with many potential benefits, and perhaps potential dangers. 66
  67. 67. Concluding Remarks University of Cyprus With so much to gain, what is there to lose? • Privacy (potentially) • Risk of abuse by a ‗malevolent‘ government or IT company • ‗compared with some smart systems, the ubiquitous telescreen monitoring device in George Orwell‘s novel ―1984‖ seems a plaything. The book‘s hero, Winston Smith, would soon have a much harder time finding a corner in his room to hide from big brother.‘ • Fairness between those with access to smart systems, which can be better informed than those without, giving them an unfair advantage (or perhaps not, due to the clutter of information?!). • Information clutter (e.g. in Germany this year they threw out 86 million RFIDs— projected to grow to 23 billion RFIDs and sensors by 2020) • ... And many more ... Brother. 67
  68. 68. Future Challenges
  69. 69. Future Challenges University of Cyprus• An open unified platform for the IoT/WoT• Application of the WoT in more domains: Widespread real- life experiences of the WoT are still missing• The Web as a complete practice for embedded computing• Security and privacy in the WoT• Wide acceptance, deployment, scaling, large scale adoption• Semantics for WoT• Web 3.0 and a real pervasive world of things 69
  70. 70. Future Challenges University of CyprusA need for a global, real-time, ubiquitous discovery of sensordevices and environmental services.• Harness existing DNS infrastructureAndreas Kamilaris and Andreas Pitsillides. Using DNS for Global Discovery of EnvironmentalServices. In Proc. of the 8th International Conference on Web Information Systems andTechnologies (WEBIST), Porto, Portugal, April 2012. 70
  71. 71. Future Challenges University of Cyprus EVRYTHNG• Blending physical things with online social networking.• Every object in the world with its own unique identity.Evrythng Company. Online at: 71
  72. 72. Future Challenges University of CyprusWhat about the Internet of Nanothings?!!!• Nanotechnology promises new solutions for many applications in the biomedical, industrial and military fields as well as in consumer and industrial goods.• interconnection of nanoscale devices with existing communication networks and ultimately the Internet defines a new networking paradigm that is further referred to as the Internet of Nanothings. 72
  73. 73. Demonstration University of Cyprus SocialElectricity Facebook ApplicationSocialElectricity Facebook application. Online at: 73
  74. 74. Thanks for your attention!Contact Details: Andreas Pitsillides (Email: Andreas Kamilaris (Email: )NetRL Group: 74
  75. 75. REST- Representational State Transfer University of Cyprus • provides Web services modelled as resources, identified by Unique Resource Identifiers (URI). • resources can only be manipulated by the methods specified in the HTTP standard (e.g. GET, PUT, POST, DELETE), under a uniform interface. • promotes the practice of Resource Oriented Architectures (ROA), in order to provide and connect together services on the Web. • guarantees interoperability, loose-coupling and a smooth transition from the Web to home environments. 75
  76. 76. REST vs WS-* University of Cyprus• Web services tend to fall into one of two camps: • Big Web services (WS-*) and RESTful Web services.• WS-* are a set of complex standards and specifications for enterprise application integration.• We believe that RESTful Web services are more appropriate for • resource-constrained, ad hoc environments due to their simplicity and flexibility. 76
  77. 77. Service discovery and description (an aside) University of CyprusSince we envision Web-enablement of embedded devices, we need tofollow Web-based approaches also for discovering these devices andwhat they can offer. Search engine / Registry Discover Publish /subscribe (WADL) (http) Device Service Device Service Requestor Provider Interact (http) Enterprise computing parallelism for the real-world 77