Currentdevelopments in embeddedsystems in domainssuch as home appliances, sensor net, or simple everydayobjectbeingtaggedwith RFID:Show thatthey are gettingincreasinglysmarter and connectedwhichlead to a very large ecosystem of smart thingsLet us think of an electronic article surveillance system in a store thatwouldleveragethiseco-system: tag objectswith RFID trigger the RFID readerswith a proximitysensor trigger the security camera if somethingwasstolenbroadcast the information to the staff on their mobile phones
This leads to a problemresearched by many, showing:ToomuchprotocolsheterogeneityExpensive and time-consumingexpertknowledgeRequirements for application layer for the IoT
Four layers but: Not OSI:layers are flexible, eacheases a little more building applications: from Embedded Syst. Dev to End-UsersContribution: LayersBuilding blocks: each block is a Web APIApplications testingthese blocks
Resource Tree:functionality of the sun spot identified by resolvableURIsNot bound to one representation. We use HTML for browsability, JSON for mashups, HTTP has a content-negotiationmechanism for selecting the right representation.GET on temperature => retrieves the representation of the tempsensorPUT on LED => changes the state of the LED (on/off)
One of ourcore contributionsFor smart thingsthat do not speak Internet or Web protocolswe propose a lightweight software frameworkthatcanbedeployed on computers at the edge of the network (e.g., NAS, wifi routers, etc.):Device Drivers: encapsulate the proprietary or low-levelprotocolsCore Services: are used by drivers to maptheirfunctionality to a Web APIPluggable Services: services implementing cross-cuttingconcerns (seenextlayers)Maybeaddstuff about Web Sockets
Withthis layer wewant to achievetwothings:MakethingsfindableusingsearchenginesAllow the semi-automaticintegrationintomashuptoolsGuinard, D., Trifa, V., Mattern, F., & Wilde, E. (2011). From the Internet of Things to the Web of Things: Resource-oriented Architecture and Best Practices. In D. Uckelmann, M. Harrison, & F. Michahelles (Eds.), Architecting the Internet of Things (pp. 97-129). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/p314x13322qnw276
SAC: Manages Access to Smart ThingsThrough Social NetworksAnd offers an API for clients or client applicationsRequirements (details):Security: prevent attackers from gaining accessEase of use: significantly influences adoption [Ion2010]Reflecting existing trust modelsInteroperable: Web protocols, prevent user lock-inIntegrated Advertisement
Smart things are securedbased on HTTP Basic AccessAuthentication or HTTP DigestAuthenticationAuthenticationthroughOauthUsing the social network API (OpenSocial if supported, otherwise social network proprietary API)
List of resources (i.e., services) thatcanbesharedisautomaticallygenerated by crawling (see sharing layer)
Manualmashupdev:Wetake a device on whichappscanbedeveloped by domainspecialists and, using the otherlayers, bringit to Web developers
We use the RFID network in place (e.g. SAP AII)We bring this network to the Web (REST)Every tagged object in the world gets a URL!The big community of Web developers can develop Widgets for the RFID network.
Bringingdevelopment as close as possible to endusersWecreated a frameworkthatallows the creation of dedicatedmashup editorsi.e., Web toolthat let usersbuildmashupssimply by visuallycomposingwidgetsThanks to the otherlayerseachwidgetisreduced to an HTTP call and canevenbeautomaticallygenerated.This is the EAS mashup.
Web of Things architecture:Blueprints to bring IoT application development closer to non-specialists thanks to the Web:Performances are acceptable for sub-second use-casesUnveils integration possibilities (browser integration, social networks, Web scripting languages, mashups, etc.)Fosters open, participatory innovation to physicalmashupsEvaluated and prototyped in two domains:Wireless Sensor Networks & RFIDDeliverables: ~20 co-authored publications, 5 frameworks (3 open-source), 10 applications (1 open-source)
A Universal Application Platform for Sensors, RFID, NFC and Embedded Devices