Integrating mobile devices and apps into your teaching

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  • Mobile learning is defined as learning supported by mobile devices. Learning can happen anywhere and any time

    Essentially, mobile devices are changing the when, where, and how of learning
  • Aside from being a trend in higher education, mobile devices (and apps) are essentially changing the information landscape for our students. It’s changing content, the way it’s delivered, and the way that students and instructors interact.
  • The big question: tablets are cool, but why, and how, do we use them in instruction?
    Question is all over ILI listserv, and at conferences, but it’s not a new one
  • For educators, the Dynabook could be a new world limited only by their imagination and ingenuity. They could use it to show complex historical inter-relationships in ways not
    possible with static linear books. Mathematics could become a living language in which children could cause exciting things to happen. Laboratory experiments and simulations
    too expensive or difficult to prepare could easily be demonstrated. The production of stylish prose and poetry could be greatly aided by being able to easily edit and file one’s own compositions.
  • iPad: essentially created the current market for tablet computers
    Educational applications (we’ll discuss in greater detail) have to do with mobility, access to information, and apps
  • Participants developing this particular instruction scenario decided to use an app not on the provided list: Leafsnap, an electronic field guide that uses visual recognition software to help students identify trees from photographs of their leaves.  The group selected this app because it will allow students to take tablet computers outdoors, making the learning experience truly mobile.  In this scenario, the instructor will first work with students in the classroom to locate articles related to local plant life; students will use tablets in groups to search Google Scholar, Nature Mobile, and other relevant databases.  Students will capture their results in a shared Evernote notebook.  After this indoor activity, student groups will take their tablet(s) outdoors, into campus, and use the Leafsnap app to grab and identify images of trees on campus, eventually adding these images and any other descriptive information to the collaborative Evernote notebook, drawing connections between the local plant life and the articles found earlier
  • In this scenario, a library instructor works with a group of first year students who are conducting research on controversial issues; each student or group of students has access to a tablet computer to use throughout the session.  At the beginning of the session, the library instructor will use Poll Everywhere to gather student suggestions for criteria that they might use to evaluate information found on the web. Using a pre-selected group of YouTube videos and the evaluation criteria generated within the class, students will work in groups to watch and evaluate videos on their selected topic(s).  Student groups will record evaluations of the video(s) watched in Evernote in order to share with the rest of the class. 
  • Participants will explore areas on campus and how they have changed over time - example, Durham Park- what has that space been over time.  Two students, one who is pintresting images, the other making notes in Evernote to provide context - timeline
    Participants will explore areas on campus and how they have changed over time - example, Durham Park- what has that space been over time.  Two students, one who is pintresting images, the other making notes in Evernote to provide context - timeline


  • Tree, highway, mirror, saturn, electrode

    Now, what is 23 X 8?
    List the last five letters of the alphabet, in reverse order.

    What were the original five words?
  • “Bloomin’ Apps”—from Kathy Schrock, who is a tech guru/school directory of technology
    There are about 50,000 apps in the Apple App Store education category, and 12-13,000 in the Google Apps Marketplace
  • Integrating mobile devices and apps into your teaching

    1. 1. REBECCA K. MILLER VIRGINIA TECH NEFLIN WEBINAR AUGUST 26, 2014 Integrating mobile devices and apps into your teaching
    2. 2. SOME BACKGROUND…
    3. 3. tabletsinlibraries.tumblr.com
    4. 4. Rather than imposing legacy pedagogical guidelines on mobile learning, higher education decision makers, instruction designers, and perhaps most importantly, teachers need to innovate, experiment, and be prepared to fail. It’s not clear where mobile learning technology and applications will go, but…it will be disruptive, explosive, and game changing…. Rick Oller, ECAR, The Future of Mobile Learning I feel that one of our obligations as educators is to consider how the mobile Internet changes not only how we teach, but what it means to be knowledgeable and educated in our culture. And just as important, the mobile web opens up a host of pedagogical possibilities. David Parry, EDUCAUSE Review
    5. 5. GOALS FOR YOU 1. You will walk away with the right questions to ask about integrating mobile devices in your library’s instruction program (and beyond) 2. You will be able to apply best practices in integrating mobile devices into instruction (and beyond) 3. You will be inspired to be a leader on your campus and a strong voice in all conversations revolving around learning environments, technologies, and strategies
    6. 6. INNOVATION “Applications of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs.”
    7. 7. DYNABOOK (1968) Alan Kay
    8. 8. IPAD (2010) Steve Jobs
    9. 9. MOBILE DEVICE ENABLERS WORLDWIDE Mobile networks accessible to > 90% of the world’s population By 2017, 1 billion people expected to access the Internet via mobile devices Improved speed (4G), power (1 GHz), and capabilities (GPS, accelerometers, gyroscopes, compasses) ECAR Research Bulletin: The Future of Mobile Learning May 1, 2012
    10. 10. Pew Research Center
    11. 11. ECAR, September 2013
    12. 12. DISCUSSION: YOUR ENVIRONMENT The data we just looked at is national. Every learning environment is unique—what have you observed in yours? 1. Are students using desktops, laptops, tablets, smartphones, or e-readers? What do you see at your institution? 2. Do your students need guidance in using the devices that they own or borrow? 3. Is there a BYOD (bring your own device) culture at your institution? Why or why not? 4. Are students using smartphones in class? If so, what are they doing?
    13. 13. INTENTIONAL
    14. 14. INNOVATION “Applications of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs.”
    15. 15. INTENTIONAL INNOVATION IS: • Strategic • Informed • Purposeful • Learner-centered • Goal-directed • Aligned • Realistic • Integrated and programmatic
    16. 16. INTENTIONAL INNOVATION IS NOT: • Distracting • Aimless • Technology-centered • Isolated
    17. 17. “…illustrates the necessity of local user research, which provides insight into unique institutional cultures and student learning environments, and suggests how libraries can leverage collected data to both evaluate and prioritize a range of initiatives.” --Booth, 2009
    18. 18. INNOVATION IN LIBRARY INSTRUCTION: TEACHING & LEARNING
    19. 19. April 2014 Information Literacy Instruction listserv (ili-l@ala.org)
    20. 20. TEACHING The mobile environment is evolving instruction in two major ways: What we teach (skills and content) • Technology use • Mobile information literacy skills • Resources used and recommended How we teach (strategies and pedagogy) • Technology used in the classroom • Communication and collaboration opportunities • Connecting the classroom to the outside world
    21. 21. TEACHING MODELS • Informational (LibGuides) • Information literacy/library instruction sessions • Train the trainers
    22. 22. TEACHING MODEL: INFORMATIONAL • LibGuides, webpages, handouts • Curated information for your learners/users • Often aimed at personal use • Low investment of time and resources • Can be a substitute for in-person teaching
    23. 23. http://libguides.mit.edu/apps
    24. 24. http://libguides.library.curtin.edu.au/mobile
    25. 25. http://guides.mclibrary.duke.edu/content.php?pid=11651&sid=1853931
    26. 26. TEACHING MODEL: INFORMATION LITERACY SESSIONS • One-shot instruction sessions or workshops • Focus on teaching a particular objective related to mobile information literacy AND/OR teaching a particular tool • Aimed toward a group • Integrated into a larger context or curriculum • May include an opportunity cost • May come with additional risks (e.g., distractions, multitasking)
    27. 27. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN: OBJECTIVES
    28. 28. “Don’t assume all students know how to use the technology they own and use as academic tools….[technical] training is essential for their success in a world where these skills are expected.” ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2012 “Most students look to their instructors for technology training that applies to their coursework.” ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2013
    29. 29. MOBILE INFORMATION LITERACY Scranton Smartphone Survey (2010) A few generalizations and recommendations: • Information literacy instructors should become familiar with new search methods (such as QR codes) to help students use them effectively and efficiently • Students should be encouraged to review a range of search results, particularly when searching for academic information • Information literacy instructors should help students understand how to evaluate information, especially when it is presented in a nontraditional form, such as an app. • Students may need assistance from educators in applying information literacy skills they have learned while searching on a laptop or desktop to the mobile environment Kristen Yarmey, Student Information Literacy in the Mobile Environment
    30. 30. MOBILE INFORMATION LITERACY Three key areas of information engagement on the move: 1. How people search for and evaluate information on the move • Searching for information is quick and easy • Information needs are contextual • Searching can be social 2. How people use information and create new knowledge on the move • Memory can be outsourced • Mobile internet acting as a bridge between devices 3. How people cope with the “always on” nature of mobile information • Information is constantly pushed at us Andrew Walsh, Mobile Information Literacy: A Preliminary Outline of Information Behaviour in a Mobile Environment
    31. 31. DISCUSSION: AREAS OF MOBILE IL Kristen Yarmey and Andrew Walsh both offer their insights on how information literacy instructors can help students gain the information and technology skills they need for a mobile environment. What have you observed as a mobile information literacy need in your students? It could be one that Yarmey or Walsh identified, or something totally different.
    32. 32. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN: STRATEGIES & CONTENT
    33. 33. INTEGRATING MOBILE: EXAMPLE 1 Objective: Organizing and converting information found into knowledge Context: Science students in a lower level biology or environmental studies class Method of assessment: Collaborative Evernote notebook Leafsnap Evernote Google Scholar Nature.com mobile
    34. 34. INTEGRATING MOBILE: EXAMPLE 2 Objective: Critically evaluating information Context: First year students in an introductory science or engineering class class Method of assessment: Informal; student discussion Evernote Poll Everywhere YouTube
    35. 35. INTEGRATING MOBILE: EXAMPLE 3 Objective: Searching for information effectively Context: Online course (any discipline) Method of assessment: Screen shot of database with search strategy and result list; Popplet mind map Popplet Google Drive PubMed Mobile
    36. 36. INTEGRATING MOBILE: EXAMPLE 4 Objective: Organizing and converting information found into knowledge Context: First year students researching environmental changes on campus Method of assessment: Student responses and citations in Evernote Pinterest Evernote
    37. 37. INTEGRATING MOBILE: EXAMPLE 5 Objective: Organizing and converting information found into knowledge Context: Upper-level undergraduate nursing students Method of assessment: Collaborative Evernote notebook PubMed Mobile Eponyms Evernote
    38. 38. EVALUATING MOBILE RESOURCES FOR TEACHING Consideration Questions to Ask Cost Is the resource free? How much does it cost? Is volume purchasing available? Device Which device(s) does the resource work with? Work best with? Function and Usability How relevant is the resource’s function? What skill(s) does it promote? Is there a learning curve? Security and Privacy How secure is the resource? Does it collect personal information? Support and Reliability What is the history of the resource? Is there support for it? Access Does the resource allow sharing? Provide feedback, if that’s important?
    39. 39. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN: LEARNERS & ENVIRONMENT
    40. 40. YOUR BRAIN & LEARNING ?????
    41. 41. WORKING MEMORY 4 things 20 seconds
    42. 42. COGNITIVE LOAD THEORY Your capacity for learning is limited. Learners are often “overwhelmed by the number of information elements and their interactions that need to be processed simultaneously before meaningful learning can commence” (Paas, Renkl, & Sweller 2004). For example:
    43. 43. STRATEGIES • “Chunk” content into discrete sections that learners can handle more easily • Offload some material and ideas onto guides or instructions • Recognize how these limitations restrict the scope of your classes
    44. 44. MULTITASKING Sana, Weston, & Cepeda (2012) found that laptop use in a classroom led to student multitasking, which distracted both the student on the laptop and students in view of the laptop.
    45. 45. STRATEGIES • Make sure technologies are being actively used for learning purposes • Discuss issues openly with the students
    46. 46. TEACHING MODEL: TRAIN THE TRAINERS • Workshops and/or instructional design consulting for faculty (or colleagues!) • Need to cultivate buy-in • Help faculty think beyond “the library” • Will alleviate pressure to fit everything into 50 minutes • Offers a more sustainable model of instruction • May be initially time consuming
    47. 47. http://www.ala.org/aasl/standards-guidelines/best-apps/2013
    48. 48. http://www.schrockguide.net/bloomin-apps.html
    49. 49. Developed by Allan Carrington http://padagogy.net/
    50. 50. DEVELOPING A LESSON PLAN As you work on lesson plans for information literacy or train-the- trainer sessions, some things you may want to keep in mind: • Define the context and the learners • 1-3 learning objectives • Instructional strategy (including devices and/or apps used) • Method of assessment
    51. 51. BEST PRACTICES • Align and Organize: Make sure technology selected aligns with students, context, and objectives • Accessibility: Make sure technology is accessible to all students • Interaction: Provide students with the opportunity to interact with each other, you, and the content • Reinforcement: Technology should reinforce and supplement your teaching • Assessment: Assess for learning, impact, effectiveness • Share and Collaborate: Let others know what you’re doing; share your ideas and use others’ ideas! • Keep it fresh: Be flexible, stay on top of technology and trends http://www.cidde.pitt.edu/ta-handbook/teaching-technology-1 http://teach.ucf.edu/pedagogy/best-practices/
    52. 52. KEEPING IT FRESH: PERSONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
    53. 53. WHAT'S IN A PLE OR PLN? Twitter Blogs MOOCs Facebook
    54. 54. IDENTIFY: Leaders in the field Resources that you already use or would like to use • Listservs • Twitter, Tumblr, Facebook • Scholarship • Blogs • Webinars and online courses • Conference presentations and workshops • Internal opportunities Strategies for working this into your normal day
    55. 55. LISTSERVS ALA listservs: http://lists.ala.org/sympa • ILI • LITA • RUSA EDUCAUSE listservs: http://listserv.educause.edu/cgi-bin/ wa.exe?INDEX • Mobile Tech • Games and Learning
    56. 56. TWITTER People • @JasonGriffey • @noshelfrequired • @andywalsh999 • @nic221 Hashtags • #EdApp • #EdTech • #libtablet • #libgadget • #ipaded • #Mlearning • #Elearning
    57. 57. PUBLICATIONS • International Journal of Mobile & Blended Learning • International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies • Ubiquitous Learning: An International Journal • ECAR: http://www.educause.edu/ecar • EDUCAUSE • Horizon Report • College & Research Libraries
    58. 58. BLOGS • ALA TechSource: http://www.alatechsource.org/blog • No Shelf Required: http://www.libraries.wright.edu/noshelfrequired/ • Mobile Technologies in Libraries: http://mlibraries.jiscinvolve.org/wp/ • List of 20 mobile learning blogs: http://www.edudemic.com/2012/09/20-blogs-mobile-learning- worth/
    59. 59. WEBINARS/COURSES/ CONFERENCES • ALA TechSource • ACRL e-Learning Webcasts • Library Juice Academy • EDUCAUSE • NEFLIN (!) • Computers in Libraries • M-Libraries • LOEX • WILU • Handheld Librarian • LITA Forum
    60. 60. DISCUSSION: TAKING IT HOME Principles from instructional design tell us that a “follow through” activity helps learners retain more of what they have learned. How do you plan to use what we explored in this session? What are your next steps? Consider: • Questions you will now ask • Partners you will seek out • Research that you will now read • What else?
    61. 61. GOT QUESTIONS? Rebecca Miller, millerrk@vt.edu http://www.rebeccakatemiller.com @rebeccakmiller
    62. 62. FURTHER READING 1. Rethinking reference and instruction with tablets (Miller, Meier, & Moorefield-Lang): http://www.alatechsource.org/taxonomy/term/106/rethinking-reference- and-instruction-with-tablets 2. Personal dynamic media (Kay & Goldberg):http://www.newmediareader.com/book_samples/n mr-26-kay.pdf 3. ECAR study of undergraduate students and information technology: http://www.educause.edu/library/resources/ecar-study-undergraduate- students-and-information-technology-2013 4. Informing innovation (Booth): available http://www.ala.org/acrl/publications/booksanddigitalresourc es/digital
    63. 63. FURTHER READING 6. Mobile information literacy (Walsh): http://ojs.lboro.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/JIL/article/view/PRA-V6- I2-2012-4 7. Working memory TED talk (Doolittle): http://www.ted.com/talks/peter_doolittle_how_your_worki ng_memory_makes_sense_of_the_world 8. Cognitive load theory and library research guides (Little): http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/drakepubs/9/ 9. Laptop multitasking (Sana, Weston, & Cepeda): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S036013 1512002254
    64. 64. IMAGE CREDITS Slide 1: http://pixabay.com/en/mobile-pad-screen-160500/ Slide 2: Carolyn Meier Slide 3: ALA store Slide 6: http://www.ipadebookslibrary.com/ Slide 8: http://musictherapyservices.net/from-ipad-skeptic-to-ipad-enthusiast-how-i-came-to-realize-that-the-ipad-could-enhance-therapy- sessions/ Slide 9: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynabook Slide 10: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Jobs Slide 12: http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/01/16/e-reading-rises-as-device-ownership-jumps/ Slide 13: http://www.educause.edu/library/resources/ecar-study-undergraduate-students-and-information-technology-2013 Slide 15: http://pixabay.com/en/plate-font-dynamic-innovation-223322/ Slide 17: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess Slide 18: https://www.flickr.com/photos/anoldent/576399939/ Slide 19: ALA store Slide 20: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_libraries Slide 23: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teacher Slide 24: https://www.flickr.com/photos/heathbrandon/3187207970/ Slide 29: http://insightlopedia.wordpress.com/2008/10/13/the-dick-and-carey-systems-approach-model-of-instructional-design/ Slide 42: http://pixabay.com/en/brain-thinking-ideas-people-person-147026/

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