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wireless electricity and power transmission

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  • 1. SUBMITTED TO:-Mr Ram Bhagat ,Assistant professor(Dept of Electrical Engineering)
  • 2. The transmission of energy from one place to another without using wires  Conventional energy transfer is using wires ,which results in large Copper loss.  But, the wireless transmission is made possible by using various technologies based on Resonant frequency ,Inductive coupling etc.
  • 3.  Near Field Techniques  Inductive Coupling  Resonant Inductive Coupling  Far Field Techniques  Laser power Transmission  Microwave Power Transmission  Solar power Satellite(SPS)
  • 4. INDUCTIVE COUPLING It is based on the FARADAY’S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION Make use of coils. The coils are not connected through wire or any other kind of material. Transfer of energy is due to mutual induction. Its based on the concept :- that an oscillating electric field produces magnetic field and an oscillating magnetic field produces oscillating electric field
  • 5. Same inductive coupling(EMI) concept but the coils here operate at their resonating frequency. Inductance induces current. Resonance makes both the coil to operate at same frequency. Fields are non-radiative in nature.
  • 6. RIC is highly efficient RIC has much greater range than inductive coupling RIC is directional when compared to inductive coupling RIC can be one-to-many. but usually inductive coupling is one-to-one Devices using RIC technique are highly portable
  • 7. ADVANTAGES OF NEAR FIELD TECHNOLOGY  For short range transmission  Aims low power transmission  Need for battery is eliminated  Efficient energy transfer using RIC  Harmless, if field strengths under safety levels  Maintenance cost is less
  • 8. DISADVANTAGES OF NEAR FIELD TECHNOLOGY  Distance constraint  Field strengths have to be under safety levels  Initial cost is high  In RIC, tuning is difficult  High frequency signals must be the supply
  • 9. APPLICATION OF NEAR FIELD TECHNNOLOGY  Electric automobile charging  Consumer electronics  Industrial purposes  Sharing information
  • 10. FAR FIELD ENERGY TRANSMISSION  Aims high power transmission  For long range of transmission  Require line of sight  Radiative in nature
  • 11.  Microwave Power Transmission (MPT)  LASER Power Transmission  Solar power Satellite(SPS)
  • 12. MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION (MPT) Transfers high power from one place to another.  Two places being in line of sight usually. Electrical energy converted to microwave energy using magnetron. Capturing microwave using retina. Conversion of microwave energy into electrical energy. Transmission of electrical energy.
  • 13. LASER POWER TRANSMISSION LASER is highly directional and coherent But, gets attenuated when it propagates through atmosphere Simple receiver Photovoltaic cell Cost-efficient
  • 14.  Satellites are placed in geostationary orbit  Solar energy is captured using photocells  Each SPS may have 400 million photocells  Transmitted to earth in the form of microwaves/LASER  Using rectenna/photovoltaic cell, the energy is converted to electrical energy  Efficiency exceeds 95% if microwave is used.
  • 15. ADVANTAGE OF FAR FIELD TECHNIQUE  Efficient,Easy  Need for grids, substations etc are eliminated  More effective when the transmitting and receiving points are along a line-of- sight
  • 16. DISADVANTAGES  Needs line-of-sight  Initial cost is high  When LASERs are used,  conversion is inefficient  Absorption loss is high  When microwaves are used,  interference may arise  Needs positioning and GPS systems.
  • 17. WITRICITY Transmission of electrical energy from one object to another without the use of wires is called as WiTricity.  Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. HOW WITRICITY WORK???  Near-field inductive coupling through magnetic fields  It makes use of resonating frequency to transmit energy.
  • 18. THE FORGOTTEN INVENTION IS REBORN IN 2007 In 2007,6 MIT members headed by Marin Soljacic were able to successfully transmit power to a bulb within a distance of 2m at a frequency of 9.9MHz using concepts of non radiative mid range energy transfer. Resonance inductive coupling Efficiency at that point was just approximately 43%
  • 19.  To fulfil the ever increasing demand of nation.  It is efficient and reliable.  Its application are eco-friendly.  Safe for humans.  Low maintenance cost.  Fast  Can be used for short-range and long-range transmission.  Wireless technology is a non-radiative mode of energy transfer, relying instead on the magnetic near field.
  • 20. WHY WIRELESS OR WHY NOT WIRES ?  Conventional medium of transferring electrical energy is wires.  So most of losses occurs during transmission.  Globally on an average about 30%.  In India its about 40% or more.  Billions, trillions of $ is spend on wires and in their installation.  Waste management a challenge in 21 century.  40 billion disposal batteries added to e-waste every year.  PVC is non-biodegradable.
  • 21. NETWORK OF WIRES ON ELECTRIC POLES IN DARYAGANJ, NEW DELHI
  • 22. RESONANCE INDUCTIVE COUPLING  Two objects having same resonating frequency and in Magnetic resonance at Strongly coupled regime tend to exchange energy , while dissipating relatively little energy to the extraneous off-resonant objects.  The equipment used is sometimes called a resonant or resonance transformer.
  • 23. APPLICATION  Automatic Wireless Power Charging :- When all the power a device needs is provided wirelessly, and no batteries are required. This mode is for a device that is always used within range of its WiTricity power source. When a device with rechargeable batteries charges itself while still in use or at rest, without requiring a power cord or battery replacement. This mode is for a mobile device that may be used both in and out of range of its WiTricity power source.  Consumer Electronics  Automatic wireless charging of phones, laptops, game controllers in home, car, office, Wi-Fi hotspots.  Direct wireless powering of stationary devices like flat screen TV's, digital picture frames, home theatre accessories, wireless loud speakers etc ,eliminating expensive custom wiring, unsightly cables and "wall-wart" power supplies.  Direct wireless powering of desktop PC peripherals: wireless mouse, keyboard, printer, speakers, display, etc. eliminating disposable batteries and awkward cabling.
  • 24. Industrial  Direct wireless power and communication interconnections across rotating and moving "joints" (robots, packaging machinery, assembly machinery, machine tools) . eliminating costly and failure-prone wiring.  Direct wireless power and communication interconnections at points of use in harsh environments (drilling, mining, underwater, etc.) ... where it is impractical or impossible to run wires.  Direct wireless power for wireless sensors and actuators, eliminating the need for expensive power wiring or battery replacement and disposal..
  • 25.  Transportation:-  Automatic wireless charging for existing electric vehicle classes: golf carts, industrial vehicles.  Automatic wireless charging for future hybrid and all-electric passenger and commercial vehicles, at home, in parking garages, at fleet depots.
  • 26. MAY BE IN FUTURE