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Hina .microwave copy

Hina Saxena
Hina Saxena

paper presentation on wireless power transmission

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National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of 
Microwave in Industries and Service sector 
Wireless Power Transmission using Microwave: A 
Gen-next Approach 
Hina Saxena, Jyoti Agrawal, Anusha Srivastava 
B.tech 3rd year(ECE), Raj Kumar Goel Institute Of Technology 
Abstract: In this paper, we have discussed 
about the transmission of power without 
using wires in order to abate the cost and 
losses in power transmission. This is called 
Microwave power Transmission. We have 
described an innovative idea to obliterate 
the perilous usage of electric wires that are 
onerous to organize. We also discussed the 
technological developments in Wireless 
Power Transmission (WPT) which are 
required for the improvement. A technique 
including transfer of power through 
microwaves using rectennas is also 
presented. This is particularly suitable for 
long range distances ranging kilometers. 
The applications, advantages and major 
concerns of WPT are also mentioned here. 
Introduction 
Since conventional energy transfer is made 
possible using wires, hence losses that 
occur during the transmission and 
distribution of electrical power are one of 
the major issues in power transmission. 
Most of the energy is lost in transmission, 
on an average 30% and in India it exceeds 
to 40%. The main reason for power loss 
during transmission and distribution is the 
resistance of wires used for grid. By using 
high strength composite over-head 
conductors and underground cables that 
use high temperature super conductor we 
can improve the power transmission up to 
a certain level. But still it remains 
inefficient. 
This problem can be solved by choosing an 
alternative for power transmission that 
could avoid power theft, reduce 
transmission cost and provide much 
efficient power transmission. Wireless 
Power transmission using Microwave is one 
of the promising technologies and may be 
the righteous alternative for efficient power 
transmission. 
Wireless Power Transmission 
‘Nikola Tesla’ he is who invented radio and 
shown us that he is indeed the “Father of 
Wireless”. Nikola Tesla is the one who first 
conceived the idea of Wireless Power 
Transmission and demonstrated “the 
transmission of electrical energy without 
wires" that depends upon electrical 
conductivity as early as 1891. In 1893, Tesla 
demonstrated the illumination of vacuum 
bulbs without using wires for power 
transmission at the World Columbian 
Exposition in Chicago. 
Wireless Power Transmission using 
Microwave: William C. Brown, the pioneer 
in wireless power transmission technology, 
has designed, developed a unit and 
demonstrated to show how power can be 
transferred through free space by 
microwaves. In the transmission side, the 
microwave power source generates
National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of 
Microwave in Industries and Service sector 
microwave power and the output power is 
controlled by electronic control circuits. The 
wave guide ferrite circulator which protects 
the microwave source from reflected power 
is connected with the microwave power 
source through the Coax – Waveguide 
Adaptor. The tuner matches the impedance 
between the transmitting antenna and the 
microwave source. The attenuated signals 
will be then separated based on the 
direction of signal propagation by 
Directional Coupler. The transmitting 
antenna radiates the power uniformly 
through free space to the rectenna. In the 
receiving side, a rectenna receives the 
transmitted power and converts the 
microwave power into DC power. The 
impedance matching circuit and filter is 
provided to setting the output impedance 
of a signal source equal to the rectifying 
circuit. The rectifying circuit consists of 
Schottky barrier diodes converts the 
received microwave power into DC power. 
Key Components of Wireless Power 
Transmission 
The key components of WPT are: 
 Microwave Generator 
 Transmitting Antenna 
 Receiving Antenna or Rectenna 
The details of these are described below: 
Microwave Generator: Microwave 
generator systems are designed to provide 
stable and controllable microwave power 
required by many heating processes and 
industrial applications. Complete microwave 
generator systems are available as an 
integrated unit or with a remote magnetron 
head. Magnetron is widely used for 
experimentation of WPT. The integrated 
microwave generator houses all of the 
generator subcomponents in a single cabinet, 
while the remote head separates the power 
supply and magnetron head by a cable 
assembly. All complete microwave generator 
systems are supplied with a power supply, 
magnetron head, cable assembly, and 
isolator.
National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of 
Microwave in Industries and Service sector 
Transmitting Antenna: The slotted wave 
guide antenna, microstrip patch antenna, and 
parabolic dish antenna are the most popular 
type of transmitting antenna. The slotted 
waveguide antenna is ideal for power 
transmission because of its high aperture 
efficiency (> 95%) and high power handling 
capability. 
Rectenna: The rectenna was invented in 
1964 and patented in 1969 by US electrical 
engineer William C. Brown, who 
demonstrated it with a model helicopter 
powered by microwaves transmitted from 
the ground, received by an attached 
rectenna. 
A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, a special 
type of antenna that is used to 
convert microwave energy into direct 
current electricity. A simple rectenna 
element consists of a dipole antenna with an 
RF diode connected across the dipole 
elements. The diode rectifies the AC current 
induced in the antenna by the microwaves, 
to produce DC power, which powers a load 
connected across the diode. Schottky 
diodes are usually used because they have 
the lowest voltage drop and highest speed 
and therefore have the lowest power losses 
due to conduction and switching. Large 
rectennas consist of an array of many such 
dipole elements. 
Types and Technologies of WPT 
 Near Field Techniques: 
 Inductive Coupling 
 Resonant Inductive Coupling
National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of 
Microwave in Industries and Service sector 
 Air Ionization 
 Far Field Techniques: 
 Microwave Power 
Transmission 
 LASER Power Transmission 
Microwave Power Transfer (MPT) 
In MPT high power from one place to another 
is transferred, two places being in line of 
sight usually. There are the basic steps 
below: 
1. Converting Electrical energy to 
Microwave energy. 
2. Capturing Microwaves using 
rectennas. 
3. Converting Microwave energy to 
Electrical energy. 
Since AC can not be directly converted to 
microwave energy so it is converted into DC 
first. 
DC is converted in microwave energy using 
Magnetron. Transmitted waves are received 
at rectenna which rectifies and gives DC as 
output. Again DC is converted back to AC. 
Applications of WPT 
Wireless power transfer has the ability to 
change the world with all the different 
applications it has to offer. As simple as 
charging a cell phone to supplying the Earth 
with all the energy it needs. The first 
application that consumers are most likely to 
see would be a charging station that will 
range from about one to five meters. This is a 
small box-like object that will be able to 
charge compatible electronics within the 
range of the system. Wireless power transfer 
charging systems are proven to have 
efficiencies near that of conventional 
charging devices. For example, a household 
would need about one transmitter per room 
and allow the house be completely wireless. 
Once wireless power transfer becomes more 
advanced, the scale of applications can begin 
to grow. The range of the electromagnetic 
waves will begin to increase. Once the range 
reaches around twenty meters, entire homes 
will be able to be charged by a single 
transmitter located close to the home. As 
the range expands entire blocks and streets 
will be powered by a single transmitter. Once 
this point emerges, consumers can notice 
cars converting to completely electric with 
the capability of being wireless 
charged. Roads will adapt to have wireless 
chargers spaced so far apart so a car will be 
able to run endlessly. 
The final step in this phase involves outer 
space solar panels. Using the outer space 
solar panels to collect the Sun’s energy, solar
National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of 
Microwave in Industries and Service sector 
powered satellites will beam it back to Earth. 
This will severely reduce our dependence on 
conventional fuels. 
Advantages of WPT 
This mode of wireless power transfer is highly 
efficient over distances ranging from 
centimeters to several meters. 
 Wireless Power Transmission system 
would completely eliminates the 
existing high-tension power 
transmission line cables, towers and 
sub stations between the generating 
station and consumers and facilitates 
the interconnection of electrical 
generation plants on a global scale. 
 It has more freedom of choice of 
both receiver and transmitters. The 
cost of transmission and distribution 
become less and the cost of electrical 
energy for the consumer also would 
be reduced. 
 The power could be transmitted to 
the places where the wired 
transmission is not possible. 
 The power failure due to short circuit 
and fault on cables would never exist 
in the transmission and power theft 
would be not possible at all. 
Major Concerns with WPT 
Wireless power transfer is possible, but when 
trying to sustain a constant power level, 
some problems can occur with the efficiency 
of the transmission. This occurs most 
noticeably in the electromagnetic wave 
system. 
 The problem with radio waves is that 
they scatter the energy in different 
directions through free space 
propagation. This causes the 
efficiency to be much lower than if 
they could be transmitted directly to 
the receiving antennas. 
 If a world-wide electromagnetic wave 
WPT system was used, then free 
space propagation would cause 
numerous problems. The free space 
energy would either go unused or 
would be received by antenna that 
the transmission was not intended 
for. This would pose the most direct 
problem to consumers within the 
WPT grid. 
 Individual consumers would either 
not be receiving their required 
energy, or would be receiving too 
much and paying a much high 
electricity bill. These are some 
problems that are trying to be 
corrected through multiple antennae 
arrays, but high efficiencies have yet 
to be accomplished. 
 Another concern consumers have is 
the safety of free flowing energy and 
its effects on the human body. 
Microwave beams are the main 
concern of wireless power transfer. 
The safety issues are closely related 
to those that involve cell phones, 
radar, and wireless internet. Unlike 
what many consumers think, cancer 
is not the main concern. 
 Typically other problems such as 
severe headaches, sleep
National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of 
Microwave in Industries and Service sector 
disturbances, memory loss, learning 
disabilities, attention deficit disorder, 
and infertility affect a person before 
cancer. So far there has not been any 
reported major health issues related 
directly to microwaves but any 
extended period of EM exposure can 
cause serious health risks. 
Conclusion 
Wireless power transfer has the 
potential to change this planet on so 
many different levels. Whether it is 
charging a handheld device, to 
changing the effect of global 
warming on this planet, wireless 
power transfer has an answer. The 
most commercially viable application 
arising to counter the effects of 
global warming and the increasing 
demand for electricity is WPT 
through microwave transmission 
from space. This application will 
supply limitless power to earth and 
also open up many new 
opportunities for space 
exploration. With WPT through 
resonance and inductive coupling, 
emerging tech companies are able to 
broaden the capabilities of most 
small electronics including cell 
phones, PDAs, and mp3 players. 
With global warming having 
significant impact on this earth by 
2050, alternatives to high polluting 
fossil fuel plants need to be 
created. Earth’s future could be 
dependent entirely on wireless 
power transfer. Even though the 
actual process does not produce any 
energy, the improvements it can 
make to this earth are staggering. 
Only a few examples include 
pollutant free electricity, reduction of 
fossil fuel demand, a solution to the 
oil crisis, increased safety for medical 
procedures, and the mobility of 
having power anywhere at any time. 
Currently wireless power transfer is 
the most marketable and sustainable 
alternative to fossil fuel power 
plants. With advancements in the 
field happening all the time, a 
worldwide wireless power transfer 
system is a possibility in the near 
future. 
References  Peter Vaessen, “Wireless Power 
Transmission”, Leonardo energy, 
September 2009.

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Hina .microwave copy

  • 1. National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of Microwave in Industries and Service sector Wireless Power Transmission using Microwave: A Gen-next Approach Hina Saxena, Jyoti Agrawal, Anusha Srivastava B.tech 3rd year(ECE), Raj Kumar Goel Institute Of Technology Abstract: In this paper, we have discussed about the transmission of power without using wires in order to abate the cost and losses in power transmission. This is called Microwave power Transmission. We have described an innovative idea to obliterate the perilous usage of electric wires that are onerous to organize. We also discussed the technological developments in Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) which are required for the improvement. A technique including transfer of power through microwaves using rectennas is also presented. This is particularly suitable for long range distances ranging kilometers. The applications, advantages and major concerns of WPT are also mentioned here. Introduction Since conventional energy transfer is made possible using wires, hence losses that occur during the transmission and distribution of electrical power are one of the major issues in power transmission. Most of the energy is lost in transmission, on an average 30% and in India it exceeds to 40%. The main reason for power loss during transmission and distribution is the resistance of wires used for grid. By using high strength composite over-head conductors and underground cables that use high temperature super conductor we can improve the power transmission up to a certain level. But still it remains inefficient. This problem can be solved by choosing an alternative for power transmission that could avoid power theft, reduce transmission cost and provide much efficient power transmission. Wireless Power transmission using Microwave is one of the promising technologies and may be the righteous alternative for efficient power transmission. Wireless Power Transmission ‘Nikola Tesla’ he is who invented radio and shown us that he is indeed the “Father of Wireless”. Nikola Tesla is the one who first conceived the idea of Wireless Power Transmission and demonstrated “the transmission of electrical energy without wires" that depends upon electrical conductivity as early as 1891. In 1893, Tesla demonstrated the illumination of vacuum bulbs without using wires for power transmission at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Wireless Power Transmission using Microwave: William C. Brown, the pioneer in wireless power transmission technology, has designed, developed a unit and demonstrated to show how power can be transferred through free space by microwaves. In the transmission side, the microwave power source generates
  • 2. National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of Microwave in Industries and Service sector microwave power and the output power is controlled by electronic control circuits. The wave guide ferrite circulator which protects the microwave source from reflected power is connected with the microwave power source through the Coax – Waveguide Adaptor. The tuner matches the impedance between the transmitting antenna and the microwave source. The attenuated signals will be then separated based on the direction of signal propagation by Directional Coupler. The transmitting antenna radiates the power uniformly through free space to the rectenna. In the receiving side, a rectenna receives the transmitted power and converts the microwave power into DC power. The impedance matching circuit and filter is provided to setting the output impedance of a signal source equal to the rectifying circuit. The rectifying circuit consists of Schottky barrier diodes converts the received microwave power into DC power. Key Components of Wireless Power Transmission The key components of WPT are:  Microwave Generator  Transmitting Antenna  Receiving Antenna or Rectenna The details of these are described below: Microwave Generator: Microwave generator systems are designed to provide stable and controllable microwave power required by many heating processes and industrial applications. Complete microwave generator systems are available as an integrated unit or with a remote magnetron head. Magnetron is widely used for experimentation of WPT. The integrated microwave generator houses all of the generator subcomponents in a single cabinet, while the remote head separates the power supply and magnetron head by a cable assembly. All complete microwave generator systems are supplied with a power supply, magnetron head, cable assembly, and isolator.
  • 3. National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of Microwave in Industries and Service sector Transmitting Antenna: The slotted wave guide antenna, microstrip patch antenna, and parabolic dish antenna are the most popular type of transmitting antenna. The slotted waveguide antenna is ideal for power transmission because of its high aperture efficiency (> 95%) and high power handling capability. Rectenna: The rectenna was invented in 1964 and patented in 1969 by US electrical engineer William C. Brown, who demonstrated it with a model helicopter powered by microwaves transmitted from the ground, received by an attached rectenna. A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, a special type of antenna that is used to convert microwave energy into direct current electricity. A simple rectenna element consists of a dipole antenna with an RF diode connected across the dipole elements. The diode rectifies the AC current induced in the antenna by the microwaves, to produce DC power, which powers a load connected across the diode. Schottky diodes are usually used because they have the lowest voltage drop and highest speed and therefore have the lowest power losses due to conduction and switching. Large rectennas consist of an array of many such dipole elements. Types and Technologies of WPT  Near Field Techniques:  Inductive Coupling  Resonant Inductive Coupling
  • 4. National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of Microwave in Industries and Service sector  Air Ionization  Far Field Techniques:  Microwave Power Transmission  LASER Power Transmission Microwave Power Transfer (MPT) In MPT high power from one place to another is transferred, two places being in line of sight usually. There are the basic steps below: 1. Converting Electrical energy to Microwave energy. 2. Capturing Microwaves using rectennas. 3. Converting Microwave energy to Electrical energy. Since AC can not be directly converted to microwave energy so it is converted into DC first. DC is converted in microwave energy using Magnetron. Transmitted waves are received at rectenna which rectifies and gives DC as output. Again DC is converted back to AC. Applications of WPT Wireless power transfer has the ability to change the world with all the different applications it has to offer. As simple as charging a cell phone to supplying the Earth with all the energy it needs. The first application that consumers are most likely to see would be a charging station that will range from about one to five meters. This is a small box-like object that will be able to charge compatible electronics within the range of the system. Wireless power transfer charging systems are proven to have efficiencies near that of conventional charging devices. For example, a household would need about one transmitter per room and allow the house be completely wireless. Once wireless power transfer becomes more advanced, the scale of applications can begin to grow. The range of the electromagnetic waves will begin to increase. Once the range reaches around twenty meters, entire homes will be able to be charged by a single transmitter located close to the home. As the range expands entire blocks and streets will be powered by a single transmitter. Once this point emerges, consumers can notice cars converting to completely electric with the capability of being wireless charged. Roads will adapt to have wireless chargers spaced so far apart so a car will be able to run endlessly. The final step in this phase involves outer space solar panels. Using the outer space solar panels to collect the Sun’s energy, solar
  • 5. National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of Microwave in Industries and Service sector powered satellites will beam it back to Earth. This will severely reduce our dependence on conventional fuels. Advantages of WPT This mode of wireless power transfer is highly efficient over distances ranging from centimeters to several meters.  Wireless Power Transmission system would completely eliminates the existing high-tension power transmission line cables, towers and sub stations between the generating station and consumers and facilitates the interconnection of electrical generation plants on a global scale.  It has more freedom of choice of both receiver and transmitters. The cost of transmission and distribution become less and the cost of electrical energy for the consumer also would be reduced.  The power could be transmitted to the places where the wired transmission is not possible.  The power failure due to short circuit and fault on cables would never exist in the transmission and power theft would be not possible at all. Major Concerns with WPT Wireless power transfer is possible, but when trying to sustain a constant power level, some problems can occur with the efficiency of the transmission. This occurs most noticeably in the electromagnetic wave system.  The problem with radio waves is that they scatter the energy in different directions through free space propagation. This causes the efficiency to be much lower than if they could be transmitted directly to the receiving antennas.  If a world-wide electromagnetic wave WPT system was used, then free space propagation would cause numerous problems. The free space energy would either go unused or would be received by antenna that the transmission was not intended for. This would pose the most direct problem to consumers within the WPT grid.  Individual consumers would either not be receiving their required energy, or would be receiving too much and paying a much high electricity bill. These are some problems that are trying to be corrected through multiple antennae arrays, but high efficiencies have yet to be accomplished.  Another concern consumers have is the safety of free flowing energy and its effects on the human body. Microwave beams are the main concern of wireless power transfer. The safety issues are closely related to those that involve cell phones, radar, and wireless internet. Unlike what many consumers think, cancer is not the main concern.  Typically other problems such as severe headaches, sleep
  • 6. National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of Microwave in Industries and Service sector disturbances, memory loss, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, and infertility affect a person before cancer. So far there has not been any reported major health issues related directly to microwaves but any extended period of EM exposure can cause serious health risks. Conclusion Wireless power transfer has the potential to change this planet on so many different levels. Whether it is charging a handheld device, to changing the effect of global warming on this planet, wireless power transfer has an answer. The most commercially viable application arising to counter the effects of global warming and the increasing demand for electricity is WPT through microwave transmission from space. This application will supply limitless power to earth and also open up many new opportunities for space exploration. With WPT through resonance and inductive coupling, emerging tech companies are able to broaden the capabilities of most small electronics including cell phones, PDAs, and mp3 players. With global warming having significant impact on this earth by 2050, alternatives to high polluting fossil fuel plants need to be created. Earth’s future could be dependent entirely on wireless power transfer. Even though the actual process does not produce any energy, the improvements it can make to this earth are staggering. Only a few examples include pollutant free electricity, reduction of fossil fuel demand, a solution to the oil crisis, increased safety for medical procedures, and the mobility of having power anywhere at any time. Currently wireless power transfer is the most marketable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel power plants. With advancements in the field happening all the time, a worldwide wireless power transfer system is a possibility in the near future. References  Peter Vaessen, “Wireless Power Transmission”, Leonardo energy, September 2009.
  • 7. National Conference on Recent Trends in Generation and Application of Microwave in Industries and Service sector  David Schneider, “Electrons Unplugged”, IEEE spectrum, May 2010.  M.Venkateswra Reddy, K.Sai Hemnath, “Microwave Power Transmission”, Jan-Feb 2013.  Nikola Tesla, “The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires as a Means for Furthering Peace,” Electrical World and Engineer, Jan 1905.  http://www.engineersgarage.com/c ontribution/wireless-power-transmission Wireless Power Transmission.