wireless electricity and power transmission


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wireless electricity and power transmission

  1. 1. SUBMITTED TO:-Mr Ram Bhagat ,Assistant professor(Dept of Electrical Engineering)
  2. 2. The transmission of energy from one place to another without using wires  Conventional energy transfer is using wires ,which results in large Copper loss.  But, the wireless transmission is made possible by using various technologies based on Resonant frequency ,Inductive coupling etc.
  3. 3.  Near Field Techniques  Inductive Coupling  Resonant Inductive Coupling  Far Field Techniques  Laser power Transmission  Microwave Power Transmission  Solar power Satellite(SPS)
  4. 4. INDUCTIVE COUPLING It is based on the FARADAY’S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION Make use of coils. The coils are not connected through wire or any other kind of material. Transfer of energy is due to mutual induction. Its based on the concept :- that an oscillating electric field produces magnetic field and an oscillating magnetic field produces oscillating electric field
  5. 5. Same inductive coupling(EMI) concept but the coils here operate at their resonating frequency. Inductance induces current. Resonance makes both the coil to operate at same frequency. Fields are non-radiative in nature.
  6. 6. RIC is highly efficient RIC has much greater range than inductive coupling RIC is directional when compared to inductive coupling RIC can be one-to-many. but usually inductive coupling is one-to-one Devices using RIC technique are highly portable
  7. 7. ADVANTAGES OF NEAR FIELD TECHNOLOGY  For short range transmission  Aims low power transmission  Need for battery is eliminated  Efficient energy transfer using RIC  Harmless, if field strengths under safety levels  Maintenance cost is less
  8. 8. DISADVANTAGES OF NEAR FIELD TECHNOLOGY  Distance constraint  Field strengths have to be under safety levels  Initial cost is high  In RIC, tuning is difficult  High frequency signals must be the supply
  9. 9. APPLICATION OF NEAR FIELD TECHNNOLOGY  Electric automobile charging  Consumer electronics  Industrial purposes  Sharing information
  10. 10. FAR FIELD ENERGY TRANSMISSION  Aims high power transmission  For long range of transmission  Require line of sight  Radiative in nature
  11. 11.  Microwave Power Transmission (MPT)  LASER Power Transmission  Solar power Satellite(SPS)
  12. 12. MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION (MPT) Transfers high power from one place to another.  Two places being in line of sight usually. Electrical energy converted to microwave energy using magnetron. Capturing microwave using retina. Conversion of microwave energy into electrical energy. Transmission of electrical energy.
  13. 13. LASER POWER TRANSMISSION LASER is highly directional and coherent But, gets attenuated when it propagates through atmosphere Simple receiver Photovoltaic cell Cost-efficient
  14. 14.  Satellites are placed in geostationary orbit  Solar energy is captured using photocells  Each SPS may have 400 million photocells  Transmitted to earth in the form of microwaves/LASER  Using rectenna/photovoltaic cell, the energy is converted to electrical energy  Efficiency exceeds 95% if microwave is used.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGE OF FAR FIELD TECHNIQUE  Efficient,Easy  Need for grids, substations etc are eliminated  More effective when the transmitting and receiving points are along a line-of- sight
  16. 16. DISADVANTAGES  Needs line-of-sight  Initial cost is high  When LASERs are used,  conversion is inefficient  Absorption loss is high  When microwaves are used,  interference may arise  Needs positioning and GPS systems.
  17. 17. WITRICITY Transmission of electrical energy from one object to another without the use of wires is called as WiTricity.  Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. HOW WITRICITY WORK???  Near-field inductive coupling through magnetic fields  It makes use of resonating frequency to transmit energy.
  18. 18. THE FORGOTTEN INVENTION IS REBORN IN 2007 In 2007,6 MIT members headed by Marin Soljacic were able to successfully transmit power to a bulb within a distance of 2m at a frequency of 9.9MHz using concepts of non radiative mid range energy transfer. Resonance inductive coupling Efficiency at that point was just approximately 43%
  19. 19.  To fulfil the ever increasing demand of nation.  It is efficient and reliable.  Its application are eco-friendly.  Safe for humans.  Low maintenance cost.  Fast  Can be used for short-range and long-range transmission.  Wireless technology is a non-radiative mode of energy transfer, relying instead on the magnetic near field.
  20. 20. WHY WIRELESS OR WHY NOT WIRES ?  Conventional medium of transferring electrical energy is wires.  So most of losses occurs during transmission.  Globally on an average about 30%.  In India its about 40% or more.  Billions, trillions of $ is spend on wires and in their installation.  Waste management a challenge in 21 century.  40 billion disposal batteries added to e-waste every year.  PVC is non-biodegradable.
  22. 22. RESONANCE INDUCTIVE COUPLING  Two objects having same resonating frequency and in Magnetic resonance at Strongly coupled regime tend to exchange energy , while dissipating relatively little energy to the extraneous off-resonant objects.  The equipment used is sometimes called a resonant or resonance transformer.
  23. 23. APPLICATION  Automatic Wireless Power Charging :- When all the power a device needs is provided wirelessly, and no batteries are required. This mode is for a device that is always used within range of its WiTricity power source. When a device with rechargeable batteries charges itself while still in use or at rest, without requiring a power cord or battery replacement. This mode is for a mobile device that may be used both in and out of range of its WiTricity power source.  Consumer Electronics  Automatic wireless charging of phones, laptops, game controllers in home, car, office, Wi-Fi hotspots.  Direct wireless powering of stationary devices like flat screen TV's, digital picture frames, home theatre accessories, wireless loud speakers etc ,eliminating expensive custom wiring, unsightly cables and "wall-wart" power supplies.  Direct wireless powering of desktop PC peripherals: wireless mouse, keyboard, printer, speakers, display, etc. eliminating disposable batteries and awkward cabling.
  24. 24. Industrial  Direct wireless power and communication interconnections across rotating and moving "joints" (robots, packaging machinery, assembly machinery, machine tools) . eliminating costly and failure-prone wiring.  Direct wireless power and communication interconnections at points of use in harsh environments (drilling, mining, underwater, etc.) ... where it is impractical or impossible to run wires.  Direct wireless power for wireless sensors and actuators, eliminating the need for expensive power wiring or battery replacement and disposal..
  25. 25.  Transportation:-  Automatic wireless charging for existing electric vehicle classes: golf carts, industrial vehicles.  Automatic wireless charging for future hybrid and all-electric passenger and commercial vehicles, at home, in parking garages, at fleet depots.
  26. 26. MAY BE IN FUTURE