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Many attempts at VoIP were tried – stream initiation, TINS, etc. None of them worked very well.
Google launched their XMPP network with voice support, then joined the standards effort to define Jingle.
Covered by several XMPP extensions: XEP-166: Jingle XEP-167: Jingle Audio via RTP XEP-176: Jingle ICE Transport XEP-177: Jingle Raw UDP Transport XEP-180: Jingle Video via RTP XEP-181: Jingle DTMF XEP-183: Jingle Telepathy Transport Method XEP-208: Bootstrapping Implementation of Jingle XEP-215: STUN Server Discovery for Jingle
Problem: the internet was running out of IPv4 addresses Whoops. In the same category as the fake Bill Gates quote: ”640K ought to be enough for anybody”
Solution: group a bunch of computers behind a single IP address using Network Address Translation You don’t know your public IP when behind a NAT. The NAT device dynamically assigns ports to internal hosts to keep all the network traffic going to the right places
Better Solution: IPv6 – bigger addresses (not being adopted worldwide anytime soon) 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 addresses, or enough to give multiple IP addresses to every grain of sand on the planet. Could run into problems when humans conquer multiple galaxies?
Step 1: use a STUN server to find your public IP address
Me: Hey STUN server, I don’t know my IP Address. Can you help? NUTS (the STUN server): Looking at the packet you sent me, I see that the IP address of your NAT device is AAA.BBB.CCC.DDD Me: Sweet!
Step 2: figure out more stuff using the STUN server
Me: Ok, now I want to check to see what my NAT device does with ports. Does the public port change when I connect to different IP addresses? NUTS: Well, good question. I have another IP address you can connect to in order to try that. Me: Awesome, I tried that out and now I know more about my NAT device. Based on my local addresses, what you told me, plus what the other guy told me, I now have have a bunch of address/port options I can try with the other party. NUTS: No problem, glad to help! Buh-bye.
Step 3: connectivity checking to try to create a hole
Me: Can you hear me on this IP/port? You: … [Silence] Me: Hmm, the last one didn’t work. How about this one? You: … [Silence] Me: This is taking awhile… arg! How about this one? You: I hear you, I hear you! Yay, we found a hole.