Gerund or infinitive


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  • This is very good, but slide 10 has an unusual use; 'She made me to do it?' I don't think that is a common way to say that.
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Gerund or infinitive

  1. 1. Gerund or Infinitive?
  2. 2. We select the –ing from.... <ul><li>To create a NOUN from a verb to express a general idea(Subject of the sentence in most cases): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Paying attention is essential in class” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>After any preposition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am looking forward to hearing from you” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>After certain verbal expressions (can’t stand, can’t help, be/get used to, don’t mind/would mind, it’s no use): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I can’t help getting angry when pupils speak in class” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>As Direct Object of a list of verbs (continue, enjoy, like, love, prefer, suggest, recommend, etc...): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I prefer going to the beach” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. List of verbs followed by –ing form Verbs Followed by a Gerund “ They enjoyed working on the boat”. admit advise appreciate avoid can't help complete consider delay deny detest dislike enjoy escape excuse finish forbid get through have imagine mind miss permit postpone practice quit recall report resent resist resume risk spend (time) suggest tolerate waste (time)
  7. 7. We select Infinitive.... <ul><li>To form the subject of a verb that refers to something specific : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ To answer this question is essential” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>After some adjectives and/or adverbs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am happy to announce my daughter’s wedding” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The wall was too high to jump for young children” </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>After the Indirect Object of certain verbs (advise, invite, warn, teach, ...): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Headmaster warned the student not to do that again” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Verbs of perception(hear, feel,...) ; LET; MAKE  INF in TO: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I heard him enter the house”; “Let me explain”; “She made me to do it”. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. List of verbs followed by Infinitive Verbs Followed by an Infinitive “ She agreed to speak before the game.” agree aim appear arrange ask attempt be able beg begin care choose condescend consent continue dare decide deserve detest dislike expect fail forget get happen have hesitate hope hurry intend leap leave like long love mean neglect offer ought plan prefer prepare proceed promise propose refuse remember say shoot start stop strive swear threaten try use wait want wish
  12. 12. Verbs followed by Object and an Infinitive: Verbs Followed by an Object and an Infinitive “ Everyone expected her to win.” advise allow ask beg bring build buy challenge choose command dare direct encourage expect forbid force have hire instruct invite lead leave let like love motivate order pay permit persuade prepare promise remind require send teach tell urge want warn Note: Some of these verbs are included in the list above and may be used without an object.
  13. 13. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I remember attending to dance classes when I was a child” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Remember to revise the questions before handing out the exam” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ My grandmother forgot to lock the door when she left the house” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I repeated the activity because I forgot doing it last week” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Verbs that can be followed by both “INFINITIVE” or “-ING” <ul><li>No change in meaning: begin, propose, forbid, intend, start.. </li></ul><ul><li>With a difference meaning: REMEMBER, FORGET, REGRET, STOP, TRY... </li></ul><ul><li>REMEMBER/FORGET/REGRET: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ INFINITIVE  Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+ -ing  Past </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Verbs that can be followed by both “INFINITIVE” or “-ING” <ul><li>STOP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ ING  NO (don’t do that anymore) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+ INFINITIVE  YES (do it, indeed) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You have to stop writing at 10 o’clock.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ After five hours of hard work we stopped to have a rest” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>TRY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ING  “experiment” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+ INFINITIVE  “make the effort” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I was trying to open the door but I couldn’t.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Why don’t you try using this key?” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17.