Introduction to Participles


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Introduction to Participles

  1. 1. The Participle
  2. 2. What is a Participle <ul><li>A Participle is a Verbal Adjective </li><ul><li>What does that mean? </li><ul><li>Participles have characteristics of adjectives (they can modify nouns, etc).
  3. 3. Participles have characteristics of verbs (they have tense and voice, and contain a verbal idea). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. English Participles
  5. 5. Two Main Functions <ul><li>Participles can behave like adjectives: </li><ul><li>“ The man reading by the window dropped his book.”
  6. 6. “ I picked up the dropped book only to discover that it was the latest Dan Brown 'thriller'.” </li></ul><li>Or they can behave like adverbs: </li><ul><li>“ While waiting for the train the train I decided to read the inconceivably popular novel.”
  7. 7. “ After reading &quot;Almost inconceivably, the gun into which she was now staring was clutched in the pale hand of an enormous albino with long white hair,&quot; I dropped the terribly written book into the garbage.” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Verbal side of the Greek Participle <ul><li>The verbal component of a Greek Participle is expressed by: </li><ul><li>Tense (Aspect)
  9. 9. Voice </li></ul><li>Thus, to translate the verbal component of the participle , pay attention to the aspect of the participle and to the relationship between the action described and the word the participle is modifying (the voice).
  10. 10. Also, the participle is part of a verbal (participial) clause, which can have direct objects, indirect objects, prepositional phrases, and anything else a verbal clause can have. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Adjectival Side of the Greek Participle <ul><li>The adjectival component of the Greek Participle is expressed by: </li><ul><li>Case
  12. 12. Gender
  13. 13. Number </li></ul><li>The adjectival component of a participle will be translated by paying attention to the word the participle is modifying and the position of the participle relative to that word (predicate, attributive, substantival).
  14. 14. In this way, participles behave like adjectives: they will agree with their head noun in case, number, and gender. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Forming the Participle <ul><li>The “Ending” column refers to your noun declensions. 3-1-3 means that the masc. and ntr. follow the Third declension noun, and the feminine the First. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Memorize this one. It can double as your “ending” guide for the 3 rd Declension and your endings for the progressive participle. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Parsing the Participle <ul><li>When parsing, give me </li><ul><li>Tense, Voice, “Mood” (use “participle”, though this is technically not a mood), Case, Gender, Number, Lexical Form, Inflected Meaning </li></ul><li>For Tense : Get in the habit of using “Progressive” instead of “Present.” This will help you avoid mistaking time for aspect .
  18. 19. For Inflected Meaning : Use either (1) the lexical definition, (2) an adverbial phrase (“while sleeping” for the progressive, “after sleeping” for the aorist) (3) a relative clause (“the one sleeping”), or (4) an english gerund (“sleeping,” “having slept,” “being read”). </li><ul><li>Its your choice—do whichever is most helpful to you. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Participles and Aspect <ul><li>In translating the verbal component of the participle it is extremely important to have a nuanced understanding of Aspect.
  20. 21. Outside of the Indicative mood (i.e. participles, subjunctives, imperatives, etc.) tense bears no relation to time (and even in the indicative time is a secondary function of tense). Aspect is primary . </li></ul>
  21. 22. Participles and Aspect <ul><li>Do not assume that a “present tense” participle occurs in the present time.
  22. 23. Better, don't think of them as “present” at all. Think of them as progressive . </li><ul><li>Translate progressive participles as a progressive action.
  23. 24. Use “while” for adverbial participles. “While sleeping,” “While he was reading,” etc. </li></ul><li>The aorist participle is perfective , not past.
  24. 25. This distinction will make more since when we get the aorist and when we get more functions for the participle. </li></ul>
  25. 26. How to Translate in Seven Steps <ul><li>Let's translate the following: </li><ul><li>διωκόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ ἄρχοντος προσευχόμεθα τῷ θεῷ </li></ul><li>Step 1 . Find and ignore the participle (find and translate your main clause)! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>προσευχόμεθα τῷ θεῷ
  26. 27. Translate as normal </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. διωκόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ ἄρχοντος προσευχόμεθα τῷ θεῷ Step 2 . Identify the Participle <ul><ul><li>διωκόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ ἄρχοντος προσευχόμεθα τῷ θεῷ </li></ul></ul>Step 2. Parse the Participle. <ul><ul><li>Present M/P Participle Nominative Masculine Plural from διώκω, “being persecuted.” </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. διωκόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ ἄρχοντος προσευχόμεθα τῷ θεῷ <ul><li>Step 3: Identify its Head Noun </li><ul><li>διωκόμενοι </li><ul><li>It is in the nominative , so it modifies either </li><ul><li>(1) another nominative or
  29. 30. (2) an implied subject </li></ul><li>No other Nominative, so... </li><ul><li>προσευχόμεθα
  30. 31. “ we” </li></ul></ul><li>“ We-being-persecuted” </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. διωκόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ ἄρχοντος προσευχόμεθα τῷ θεῷ <ul><li>Step 4. Determine the function of the participle. </li><ul><li>We only know adverbial participles.
  32. 33. But: the lack of the article tells us its probably Adverbial.
  33. 34. “ we-while-being-persecuted” = “While we are being persecuted” </li></ul><li>Step 5. Refine your translation. Pay attention to voice and aspect. </li><ul><li>Progressive Middle/Passive
  34. 35. Is it deponent?
  35. 36. So we stick with our inflected meaning: “we-while-being-persecuted” </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. διωκόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ ἄρχοντος προσευχόμεθα τῷ θεῷ <ul><li>Step 6 . Translate the rest of the participial phrase. </li><ul><li>Are there any objects, indirect objects, prepositional phrase, etc. that go with the participle?
  37. 38. Yes: ὑπὸ τοῦ ἄρχοντος
  38. 39. Translate the whole phrase </li><ul><li>“ While we were being persecuted by the rulers.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. διωκόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ ἄρχοντος προσευχόμεθα τῷ θεῷ <ul><li>Step 7 . Translate the rest of the sentence and put it all together. </li><ul><li>Our main clause reads “We are praying to God.”
  40. 41. Adding our adverbial participial clause we get: </li><ul><li>“ We are praying to God while we are being persecuted by the rulers.” </li></ul><li>And, cleaning it up: </li><ul><li>“ While we are being persecuted by the Rules, we pray to God.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 42. More Practice <ul><li>John 6:59. Ταῦτα εἶπεν ἐν συναγωγῇ διδάσκων ἐν Καφαρναούμ.
  42. 43. Jesus said these things in a synagogue while teaching in Capernaum. </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Mark 1:14 ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν κηρύσσων τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ θεοῦ
  44. 45. Jesus went into Galillee while preaching the gospel of God. </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>Romans 3:21 Νυνὶ δὲ χωρὶς νόμου δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ πεφανέρωται μαρτυρουμένη ὑπὸ τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν
  46. 47. “ Now, apart from the law, the righteousness of God has been revealed, being witnessed but the law and the prophets.” </li></ul>