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Suffixes

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Transcript

  • 1. SUFFIXES
  • 2.
    • COMMON NOUN SUFFIXES
    • ADJECTIVES SUFFIXES
    • VERB SUFFIXES
    • OTHER SUFFIXES THAT CAN HELP YOU RECOGNISE THE WORD CLASS
  • 3. COMMON NOUN SUFFIXES
    • “ -er” is used for a person who does an activity.
    • e.g. Writer, worker, shopper, teacher.
    • Sometimes this suffix is written as
    • “ -or” instead of “-er”.
    • e.g. Actor, operator, sailor, supervisor.
  • 4.
    • “ -er/or” are also used for things which do a particular job.
    • e.g. Pencil-sharpener, grater, projector.
    • “ -er” and “-ee” contrast in meaning: “person who does something” (“-er”) and “person who receives or experiences the action” (“-ee”).
    • e.g. Employer/ee, sender/addressee .
  • 5.
    • “ -(t)ion” is used to make nouns from verbs.
    • e.g. Complication, pollution, reduction.
    • “ -ist” (person) and “-ism” (activity or ideology). They are used for people’s politics, beliefs and ideologies, and sometimes their profession.
    • e.g. Marxism, Budhism, journalism, anarchist, physicist, terrorist.
  • 6.
    • “ -ist” is also often used for people who play musical instruments.
    • e.g. Pianist, violinist .
    • “ -ness” is used to make nouns from adjectives.
    • e.g. Goodness, happinesss, sadness, weakness.
  • 7. ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES
    • “ -able/-ible” with verbs, means “can be done”.
        • e.g. Drinkable, washable, readable, recognizable,
        • edible (can be eaten), flexible (can be bent).
  • 8. VERB SUFFIXES
    • “ -ise (or ize)” makes verbs form adjectives.
    • e.g. Modernise, commercialise, industrialise.
  • 9. OTHER SUFFIXES
    • “ -ment”: (nouns) excitement, enjoyment.
    • “ -ity”: (nouns) flexibility, productivity.
    • “ -hood”: (abstract nouns esp. Family terms) childhood, motherhood .
    • “ ship”: (abstract nouns esp. status) friendship, partnership, membership .
    • “ -ive”: (adjectives) passive, productive .
    • “ -al”: (adjectives) brutal, legal, arrival .
  • 10.
    • “ -ous”: (adjectives) delicious, outrageous, furious.
    • “ ful”: (adjectives) forgetful, hopeful, useful.
    • “ -less”: (adjectives) useless, harmless, cloudness.
    • “ -ify”. (verbs) beautify, purify, terrify.
    • NOTE: the informal suffix “-ish” that can be added to most common adjectives, ages and times to make them less precise.
    • e.g. She’s thirtish. She has reddish hair.
  • 11.
    • THE END