Suffixes

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Suffixes

  1. 1. SUFFIXES
  2. 2. <ul><li>COMMON NOUN SUFFIXES </li></ul><ul><li>ADJECTIVES SUFFIXES </li></ul><ul><li>VERB SUFFIXES </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER SUFFIXES THAT CAN HELP YOU RECOGNISE THE WORD CLASS </li></ul>
  3. 3. COMMON NOUN SUFFIXES <ul><li>“ -er” is used for a person who does an activity. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Writer, worker, shopper, teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes this suffix is written as </li></ul><ul><li>“ -or” instead of “-er”. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Actor, operator, sailor, supervisor. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ -er/or” are also used for things which do a particular job. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Pencil-sharpener, grater, projector. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -er” and “-ee” contrast in meaning: “person who does something” (“-er”) and “person who receives or experiences the action” (“-ee”). </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Employer/ee, sender/addressee . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ -(t)ion” is used to make nouns from verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Complication, pollution, reduction. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ist” (person) and “-ism” (activity or ideology). They are used for people’s politics, beliefs and ideologies, and sometimes their profession. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Marxism, Budhism, journalism, anarchist, physicist, terrorist. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>“ -ist” is also often used for people who play musical instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Pianist, violinist . </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ness” is used to make nouns from adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Goodness, happinesss, sadness, weakness. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES <ul><li>“ -able/-ible” with verbs, means “can be done”. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Drinkable, washable, readable, recognizable, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>edible (can be eaten), flexible (can be bent). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. VERB SUFFIXES <ul><li>“ -ise (or ize)” makes verbs form adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Modernise, commercialise, industrialise. </li></ul>
  9. 9. OTHER SUFFIXES <ul><li>“ -ment”: (nouns) excitement, enjoyment. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ity”: (nouns) flexibility, productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -hood”: (abstract nouns esp. Family terms) childhood, motherhood . </li></ul><ul><li>“ ship”: (abstract nouns esp. status) friendship, partnership, membership . </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ive”: (adjectives) passive, productive . </li></ul><ul><li>“ -al”: (adjectives) brutal, legal, arrival . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>“ -ous”: (adjectives) delicious, outrageous, furious. </li></ul><ul><li>“ ful”: (adjectives) forgetful, hopeful, useful. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -less”: (adjectives) useless, harmless, cloudness. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ify”. (verbs) beautify, purify, terrify. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: the informal suffix “-ish” that can be added to most common adjectives, ages and times to make them less precise. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. She’s thirtish. She has reddish hair. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>THE END </li></ul>

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