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  • 1. BIO120Chapter 13ABBREVIATIONS
    Submitted by:
    Mahendra Kafle
    Professor R. Abdullah
  • 2. Terms with Abbreviations:
    Pressure Equalizing Tube: PE Tube
    • Small tube surgically placed in a child’s eardrum to assist in drainage of trapped fluid and to equalize pressure between the middle ear cavity and the atmosphere.
    2. Eye, ear, nose and throat:EENT
    • When ears, nose and throat is named, it is ENT and when head is added to eyes, ears, nose and throat, then it will be HEENT. The specialist for Ear is Otologist, and A general ear, nose, throat doc is called an otolaryngologist or sometimes otorhinolaryngologist.
  • 3. Bone conduction: BC
    • The conduction of sound to the inner ear through the bones of the skull is bone conduction. Bone conduction is the reason why a person's voice sounds different to him/her when it is recorded and played back.
    4. Both ears: AU
    • Latin abbreviation for both ears; left ear; right ear are AU, AS & AD respectively.
  • 5. Otitis media: OM
    • It is inflammation of the middle ear, or a middle ear infection. It occurs in the area between the tympanic membrane and the inner ear, including a duct known as the eustachian tube. It is one of the two categories of ear inflammation that can underlie what is commonly called an earache, the other being otitis externa. 
    6. emmetropia: EM
    • It is the state of normal vision. This condition of the normal eye is achieved when the refractive power of the cornea and the axial length of the eye balance out, which focuses rays exactly on the retina resulting in perfect vision. An eye in a state of emmetropia requires no correction.
  • 7. exotropia: XT
    • It is a form of strabismus where the eyes are deviated outward. It is the opposite of esotropia. People with exotropia often experience crossed diplopia.
    8. Left eye: OS
    • OS is an abbreviation for the Latin oculus sinister, meaning left eye.
    9. Extraocular movement: EOM
    • Eye movements are controlled by muscles innervated by cranial nerves III, IV and VI. In this chapter, the testing of these cranial nerves will be discussed. The most common symptom of damage to these nerves is double vision. The oculomotor nerve has the additional function of control of the pupil.
  • 10. Visual acuity: VA
    • It is the measurement of the sharpness of a patient’s vision. Usually, a Snellen chart is used for this test in which the patient identifies letters from a distance of 20 ft.