Bio120 Chapter 10 (A - 3 Statements)Female Reproductive System<br />Presented By: <br />Mahendra Kafle<br />Professor R. Abdullah<br />
Female Reproductive System<br />The female reproductive system consists of (a) primary sex organs-the ovaries; (b)secondary sex organs-those that are essential for sexual reproduction,characterized by latent development; and (c) secondary sex characteristics-features that are sexual attractants, expressed after puberty.<br />
<ul><li>The study of the female reproductive system is the medical specialty of gynecology (GYN). The physician is called the gynecologist. </li></li></ul><li>Fig. 1 Female Reproductive system in Posterior view<br />
Various Organs<br />1. Two ovaries are internal genitalia located each side of uterus and produce ova and female sex hormones<br />2. The fallopian tubes (uterine tubes or oviducts) propel the ovum from the ovary after ovulation to uterus so that it can implant. The fertilization or conception normally takes place within the upper one half of the fallopian tubes.<br />3. The uterus has three sections; fundus, corpus, and cervix (Cx). Cx opens into the vagina.<br />
Contd.<br />4. The vaginais a muscular tube which serves as outer opening for menstrual flow and receives the semen containing sperm through male penis during intercourse.<br />5. The vulva is term for external genitalia and is danger area for infection. The clitoris contains sensitive erectile tissue which stimulates and corresponds to male’s penis. <br />6. The breastsor mammary glands produce milk through a process called lactation to nourish the newborn. <br /><ul><li>The time required for the development of the fetus is called asPregnancyor gestation.</li></li></ul><li>Labor & its stages<br />Labor is the actual process of propelling of the fetus from the uterus and through the vagina. <br /><ul><li>The three stages of labor and delivery are the dilation stage, the expulsion stage, and the placental stage.</li></li></ul><li>Fig 2. The three stages of Labor<br />
Contd…<br />1. Dilation stage: <br /><ul><li>The first stage begins with the onset of uterine contractions, and is the process of reaching full cervical dilatation and it is the longest phase of labor.
The contractions become more frequent, stronger, and gain regularity, and most of the change of the cervix involves thinning, or effacement.
Most rapid cervical dilatation follows. For most women this is from 3 to 4 centimeters of dilatation until 9 to10 centimeters of dilatation. After complete dilation, second stage starts.</li></li></ul><li>2. Expulsion Stage: <br /> The second stage is the delivery of the infant. During this stage, mom actively pushes out the baby. For first time mothers, this can take two to three hours, so it's important to save your energy and pace yourself. For second babies and beyond, the second stage often lasts less than an hour and sometimes, only a few minutes. Normally, head of the baby appears first and is termed as crowning and breech presentation if buttocks appears first.<br />
3. Placental Stage<br />The third stage of labor is the passage of the placenta, which can be immediate, or take up to thirty minutes. The process may be sped up naturally by breastfeeding (which releases oxytocin), or medically by administering a drug called Pitocin.<br />