OPHTHALMOLOGY THE STUDY OF THE EYE
• The eye is a well known organ commonly known as one of our 6 senses.
• The eye provides a vision of objects and color.
• Despite it’s size there are many departments that play an important part to
• Major departments are the eyeball, muscles of the eye, eyelids, conjunctiva
and lacrimal apparatus.
MEDICAL ABBREVIATIONS IN OPHTHALMOLOGY
Left eye- OS Right eye-OD
Oculus (eye) Sinister (left) Oculus (eye) Dexter (right)
Extraocular Movement (EOM)
Extra = outside of ocul/o = eye -ar = pertaining to
These movements all pertain to the muscles of the eyes:
-Oblique muscles- 2 muscles that are on angle and produce
diagonal eye movement.
-Rectus muscles- meaning straight pull the eye up and down.
Extraocular movement is tested by having the patient follow and
object with their eyes without moving their head. They are being
tested to see if they experience any blurred or double vision.
A basic well known eye examination is the Visual Acuity also abbreviated VA.
VA test the sharpness of a patient’s vision in how well they can see in regards
• A common tool in this examination is the Snellen Chart.
• 20/20- means you can see at a normal average standard range from
20 feet away. 6/6 will be in meters for a normal average standard
Emmetropia (EM) is the state of normal vision.
Emmetr/o = correct, proper -opia = vision condition
Exo- = inward -tropia = turned condition
Exotropia is the outward turning of the eye; also called wall-eyed.
• Exotropia is commonly cause by strabismus which is muscle weakness of the eye.
• Exotropia accounts for 25% of all ocular misalignment in early childhood.
• Most commonly seen in 1-4 years of age.
• Examinations to diagnosed are VA, Cycloplegic refraction, Retina examination, external or slit lamp
exam and complete eye exam.
• Treatment can involve medication, therapy and surgery.
OTOLOGY (OTO) THE STUDY OF THE EAR
• The ear is another well known organ that is also part of our 6 sense.
• The ear is responsible for two senses the hearing and equilibrium.
• Hearing and equilibrium sensory information is carried to the brain by the vestibulocochlear
The ear is subdivided in to three areas:
1. External ear
2. Middle ear
3. Inner ear
MEDICAL ABBREVIATIONS OF THE EAR
• The human body consist of two ears. When referred together they’re abbreviated AU.
Bone conduction (BC) is the sound conduction through the bones of the skull.
• There are two types of bone conduction recognized:
1. Compressional bone conduction which are high
pitched sounds that cause the segments of the skull to
2. Inertial bone conduction are low pitched sounds
that vibrate the entire skull.
• Abnormal BC can cause conductive hearing lost.
-Example of a BC surgical procedure is cochlear implant where a mechanical device is surgically placed under
the skin behind the outer ear (pinna) that converts sound signals into magnetic pulses.
Ot/o = ear -itis = inflammation
• Otis media is very common in children but it can be seen in any age.
• Commonly referred to as a middle ear infection.
• Often preceded by an upper respiratory infection
during which pathogens move from the pharynx to
the middle ear via the Eustachian tube.
• Fluid accumulates in the middle ear cavity.
• Common symptoms are fever, headaches, irritation, loss of appetite, vomiting and diarrhea.
• Otoscopy examination of the ear canal, ear drum and outer ear using an otoscope is the
standard examination for OM
• Antibiotics are used to treat OM.
PRESSURE EQUALIZING TUBE
PE tube is a small tube surgically placed in a child’s eardrum to assist in
drainage of trapped fluid and to equalize pressure between the middle ear
cavity and the atmosphere.
EYES, EARS, NOSE &THROAT
The eyes, ears, nose and throat are interconnected organs.
We commonly feel and see their connection under a cold.
-The eyes can be watery, ears can feel blocked or a buzz in some cases earaches are present and can
lead or be symptoms of a ear infection or sore throat. The nose can experience high volume of mucus
In the case of seasonal allergies we can see
the nose and eyes interact with constantly
Sneezing and runny watery eyes.