Medical terminology chap 11


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Medical terminology chap 11

  1. 1. Medical Terminology Chapter 11<br />Presented by: <br />Mahendra Kafle<br />Bio120<br />Professor: R. Abdullah <br />
  2. 2. 1. Hematuria<br />2. Hyperglycemia<br />
  3. 3. Introduction: <br />Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells (RBCs) in the urine. In microscopic hematuria, the urine appears normal to the naked eye, but examination with a microscope shows a high number of RBCs. Gross hematuria can be seen with the naked eye—the urine is red or the color of cola.<br />Hematuria<br />
  4. 4. The most common causes includes: <br />Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia<br />Kidney stones and bladder stones<br />Kidney Diseases<br />Medications (e.g., quinine, rifampin, phenytoin)<br />Prostate infection or inflammation (prostatitis)<br />Trauma (e.g., a blow to the kidneys)<br />Tumors and/or cancer in the urinary system<br />Causes:<br />
  5. 5. Urinary tract blockages<br />Viral infections of the urinary tract and sexually transmitted diseases, particularly in women<br />There are rare diseases and genetic disorders that also cause hematuria. Some of these are:<br />Sickle cell anemia (inherited blood disorder)<br />Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus; chronic inflammatory disorder of connective tissue)<br />von Hippel-Landau disease (hereditary disease in which benign tumors form on the spinal cord, kidneys, testicles, and other organs)<br />Causes Contd. <br />
  6. 6. Blood in the urine is the main sign<br />Symptoms include: <br />Abdominal pain<br />Decreased urinary force, <br />hesitancy,<br />incomplete voiding<br />Fever<br />Frequent urination (polyuria)<br />Pain during urination (dysuria)<br />Pain in the flank or side<br />Urinary urgency<br />Signs & Symptoms<br />
  7. 7. Dipstick Test:<br />Physician performs this in a chemically treated strip by taking a sample of mid-stream urine. The chemical changes color if blood in the urine. <br />Cystourethroscopy or Cystoscopy:<br />is performed with local anesthesia, and a small, rigid or flexible fiber-optic instrument is inserted into the urethra. The physician can visually inspect the urethra, bladder, and prostate through the cystoscope. The procedure takes about 10 minutes. <br />Hematuria Tests<br />
  8. 8. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) :<br />It is a special x-ray procedure in which a colorless dye containing iodine is injected into a vein in the patient's arm. The dye collects in the urinary system and provides enhanced contrast for a series of x-rays taken over 30 minutes. <br />Hematuria Differential Diagnosis<br />When no specific cause can be found, bladder and kidney stones, cancer, and other life-threatening diseases can be ruled out. Men over the age of 50 with no clear diagnosis should have a yearly prostate specific antigen (PSA) test to screen for prostate cancer. <br />Hematuria test contd..<br />
  9. 9. Treatment ranges from antibiotic therapy to surgery, depending on the underlying cause.<br />Benign Prostatic hyperplasia: Treated in many ways. Diet restricting on foods and beverages and counter medications. If it is worse, surgical removal of all part or the gland may be recommended. <br />Kidney & Bladder stones: <br /> Typically require procedures that remove or break up the stones, as well as measures to prevent their recurrence.<br />Hematuria treatment contd.<br />
  10. 10. Kidney disease is treated according to diagnosis. In severe cases, dialysis may be necessary.<br />Medications (e.g., quinine, rifampin, phenytoin) that cause hematuria are discontinued<br />Trauma-induced hematuria (e.g., a blow to the kidneys) is treated according to the severity of the injury, ranging from bed rest and close clinical observation to surgical repair or, in extreme cases, removal of the damaged tissue or organ.<br />Hematuria Treatment contd.<br />
  11. 11. Cancerous tumors found in the kidney, ureters, prostate, or bladder may be treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.<br />Urinary tract blockages are treated with correction or removal of the blockage.<br />Viral infections of the urinary tract and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), particularly in women, are treated with medication.<br />Hematuria Treatment Contd.<br />
  12. 12. Hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose (sugar), is a serious health problem for those with diabetes. Hyperglycemia develops when there is too much sugar in the blood. In people with diabetes, there are two specific types of hyperglycemia that occur:<br />Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as a blood sugar greater than 90-130 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) after fasting for at least 8 hours<br />Postprandial or after-meal hyperglycemia is defined as a blood sugar usually greater than 180 mg/dL. In people without diabetes postprandial or post-meal sugars rarely go over 140 mg/dL but occasionally, after a large meal.<br />Hyperlycemia<br />
  13. 13. The main causes of hyperglycemia are:<br />Excess supply<br />A decrease in physical activity<br />Lack of insulin and / or oral medications (dosing error)<br />Physical stress (illness, surgery, infection, etc..) Or psychological (bereavement, new job, moving, etc..)<br />Taking certain medications (like cortisone)<br />Causes <br />
  14. 14. Hyperglycemia symptoms are the following:<br />Fatigue and sleepiness<br />Frequent urination<br />Increased thirst<br />Excessive hunger<br />Thinning<br />Blurred vision<br />Infections<br />Slow healing of wounds<br />Symptoms of hyperglycemia<br />
  15. 15. Dry skin and itching<br />Irritability<br />Presence of ketones in the urine<br />Nausea, vomiting<br />Abdominal<br />Fruity breath<br />Confusion<br />Rapid breathing<br />Contd. <br />
  16. 16. Hyperglycemia Treatment<br />In the presence of dympyomdof hyperglycemia, the diabetic should follow the next hyperglycemia treatment:<br />Measure the blood glucose<br />If blood glucose is less than 14mmol / L, the person with type 1 diabetes must check for ketones in the urine or blood<br />Drink plenty of water<br />Identify the cause<br />
  17. 17. Correct the cause, if possible<br />Contact a doctor or go to the emergency: If blood glucose exceeds 20 mmol / L ; If the presence of ketones in the urine is moderate to high; It is impossible to keep ingested liquids<br />Treatment contd.<br />