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  1. 1. POLYMERS<br />JuanjoArbona<br />Maria Clérigues<br />Daniela Hurtado<br />Aitor Marquez<br />Maria Medina<br />Daniel Rodriguez<br />
  2. 2. Whatisapolymer?<br />Polymers are organic macromolecules formed by the union of monomers in a chemical process called polymerization. <br />
  3. 3. Typesofpolymers<br />There are natural and synthetic polymers<br />
  4. 4. LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE:<br />Low density polyethylene is an "addition polymer", formed by repeating units of ethylene.<br />
  5. 5. Properties<br /><ul><li> Good thermal and chemical resistance.
  6. 6. Good impact resistance.
  7. 7. It can be transparent, depending on its thickness.
  8. 8. It can be processed by the methods used for forming thermoplastics.
  9. 9. It is more flexible than HDPE.
  10. 10. It presents difficulties to print, paint or paste on it.</li></li></ul><li>Applications<br /><ul><li> Plastic bags.
  11. 11. Film for greenhouses and other agricultural uses.
  12. 12. Toys.
  13. 13. Household items : cups, plates, cutlery ...
  14. 14. Bottles.
  15. 15. Stretch film to pack pallets.
  16. 16. Cable sheathing.</li></li></ul><li>high-density polyethylene<br />It’s a thermoplastic polyethylene made by petroleum. It takes 1.75 kilograms of petroleum to make one kilogram of HDPE. <br />
  17. 17. Properties<br /><ul><li> It has stronger intermolecular forces.
  18. 18. More tensile strength than low-density polyethylene.
  19. 19. It is harder and more opaque than low-density polyethylene.
  20. 20. Can withstand higher temperatures.
  21. 21. HDPE contains the chemical elements carbon and hydrogen.</li></li></ul><li>Applications<br /><ul><li> Arena board.
  22. 22. Portable basketball system bases.
  23. 23. Bottle caps.
  24. 24. Breast implants.
  25. 25. Telecom ducts.
  26. 26. Ballistic plates.</li></li></ul><li>POLYPROPYLENE:<br />Is a thermoplastic polymer, partially crystalline, obtained from the polymerization of propylene. It belongs to the group of polyolefin and it is used in a wide variety of applications. <br />
  27. 27. Properties<br /><ul><li>Low density
  28. 28. High softening temperature
  29. 29. High resistance to stress cracking
  30. 30. Great tendency to be oxidized (problem usually solved by the addition of antioxidants)
  31. 31. It has a degree of crystalline intermediate between the high-density polyethylene and low density.</li></li></ul><li>Applications<br /><ul><li>Molding of a wide variety of items; toys, bumpers of cars…
  32. 32. Blow molding hollow containers: bottles, fuel tanks…
  33. 33. Thermoformed food containers for applications that require resistance to high temperatures (microwave) or low temperature (frozen).
  34. 34. Fiber production
  35. 35. Extrusion profiles, sheets and tubes
  36. 36. film production
  37. 37. Medical or pharmaceutical applications</li></li></ul><li>POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE:<br />"PET" is a type of plastic obtained by a polycondensation reaction between terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. Belongs to the so-called synthetic polyesters.<br />
  38. 38. Properties<br /><ul><li> High transparency, but can be tinted</li></ul>• High stiffness<br />• High resistance to wear and corrosion.<br />• Good chemical and thermal resistance.<br />• Excellent barrier to CO2, O2 and acceptable moisture barrier.<br />• Recyclable.<br />• It can be in contact with food.<br />• Good electrical insulator<br />
  39. 39. Applications<br /><ul><li>Bottles
  40. 40. Rigid cans
  41. 41. Industrial fiber: ropes, fabrics…
  42. 42. Films for food packaging
  43. 43. Films for motors isolation </li></li></ul><li>POLYVINYL CHLORIDE<br />Known member of the family of thermoplastics. <br />It is a polymer derived from two natural raw materials: <br />sodium chloride and petroleum.<br />
  44. 44. Properties<br /><ul><li> Very good electrical resistance.
  45. 45. Ductile and tenacious.
  46. 46. High resistance to abrasion.
  47. 47. Stable and inert.
  48. 48. It can last up more than sixty years.
  49. 49. Low cost of installation.</li></li></ul><li>Applications<br /><ul><li> Construction: portable water pipes, windows, doors, electrical conduit and telecommunications, wall papers…
  50. 50. Water bottles
  51. 51. Films : candy, foods…
  52. 52. Jars: food, cosmetics…
  53. 53. Blisters: drugs, sundries…
  54. 54. Parts of electrical appliances
  55. 55. Plugs
  56. 56. Insulation of wires</li></li></ul><li>POLYSTYRENE<br />It is a thermoplastic polymer that is obtained of the polymerization of the styrene. There are four types of polystyrene: the PS crystal, the polystyrene of high place in the environment, the expanded polystyrene and the polystyrene extrudate.<br />.<br />
  57. 57. Properties<br /><ul><li>It presents the lowest thermal conductivity of all the thermoplastics.
  58. 58. It hasn’t got resistance to the temperature.
  59. 59. The polystyrene has very low electrical conductivity.
  60. 60. It can float in the water.</li></li></ul><li>Applications<br /><ul><li> It’s a material very cheap.
  61. 61. It is in use like insulating thermal and acoustic.
  62. 62. It uses as thermal isolation in soils
  63. 63. It is used for the production of disposable packings.</li></li></ul><li>QUESTIONARY ANSWERS<br />1. Which are the main characteristics of a polymer?<br /><ul><li>Organic
  64. 64. High molecular weight
  65. 65. Changeable shape</li></ul>2. We know that an element is organic because it is formed by carbon.<br />
  66. 66. 3. Which of those polymers are natural? Which are synthetic?<br />Natural<br />Natural<br />Natural<br />Natural<br />Synthetic<br />Synthetic<br />Synthetic<br />Synthetic<br />4. Write two differences between low-density polyethylene and high-density polyethylene:<br /><ul><li>High-density polyethylene is harder than low-density polyethylene
  67. 67. Low-density polyethylene is more flexible than high-density polyethylene</li></ul>THERE ARE MORE THAN THOSE POSSIBILITIES<br />5. High-density polyethylene is made by petroleum.<br />
  68. 68. 6. Polypropylene is obtained from the polymerization of propylene.<br />7. Are those affirmations about the propylene true or false?<br />8. “PET” is a type of plastic obtained by a polycondensation reaction between terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. <br />9. Write two applications of polyethylene terephthalate:<br /> - Films for food packaging <br /><ul><li> Films for motors isolation </li></ul>THERE ARE MORE THAN THOSE POSSIBILITIES<br />
  69. 69. 10. Polyvinyl chloride is derived from sodium chloride and petroleum.<br />11. Write some principal uses of the polyvinyl chloride are: <br />Construction, Films, Jars, Blisters, Plugs…<br />12. Which are the four types of polystyrene?<br />PS crystal, Polystyrene of high place in the environment, Expanded polystyrene and Polystyrene extrudate.<br />13. Some properties of polystyrene are… <br />(Choose the correct answers).<br />a)It can float in the water<br />d) It hasn’t got resistance to high temperatures<br />