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This includes manufacturing, advantages, disadvantages and recycling of plastic.

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  1. 1. Manufacturing of plastics Types of Plastics:1. Thermoplastics 2. Thermosetting plastics  Advantages of Plastics  Disadvantages of Plastics  Recycling of Plastics
  2. 2. The production of plastics can be roughly divided into four categories: 1. Acquiring the raw material or monomer. 2. Synthesizing the basic polymer. 3. Compounding the polymer into a material that can be used for fabrication. 4. Molding or shaping the plastic into its final form.
  3. 3. A thermoplastic , or thermosoftening , is a polymer that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature , and returns to a solid state upon cooling . Most thermoplastics have a high molecular weight . The polymer chains associate through intermolecular forces , which permits thermoplastics to be remolded because the intermolecular interactions increase upon cooling and restore the bulk properties . In this way , thermoplastics differ from thermosetting polymers which form irreversible chemical bonds during the curing process . Thermosets often do not melt , but break down and do not reform upon cooling .
  4. 4. Polythene is the most common plastic. The annual global production is approximately 80 million tones. Its primary use is in packaging (plastic bag, plastic films, containers including bottles, etc.). Many kinds of polyethylene are known, with most having the chemical formula (C2H4)nH2. Thus it is usually a mixture of similar organic compounds. Poly(vinyl chloride), commonly abbreviated PVC, is the third-most widely produced plastic. PVC is used in construction because it is more effective than traditional materials such as copper, iron or wood in pipe and profile applications. It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is also used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, inflatable products and many applications in which it replaces rubber
  5. 5.    Polystyrene is a synthetic aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid petrochemical. Polystyrene can be rigid or foamed. General purpose polystyrene is clear, hard and brittle. It is a very inexpensive resin per unit weight. It is a rather poor barrier to oxygen and water vapor and has a relatively low melting point. . Polystyrene can be naturally transparent, but it can be colored with colorants. It is used in protective packaging (such as packing peanuts and CD and DVD cases), containers (such as "clamshells"), lids, bottles, trays, tumblers, and disposable cutlery. Perspex is a transparent thermoplastic, often used as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. Teflon is used as a non-stick coating for pans and other cookware. It is very non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds and so it is often used in containers and pipe work for reactive and corrosive chemicals. Where used as a lubricant, PTFE reduces friction, wear and energy consumption of machinery. It is also commonly used as a graft material in surgical interventions.
  6. 6.   Bakelite is one of the first plastics made from synthetic components, It was used for its electrical non conductivity and heat-resistant properties in electrical insulators, radio and telephone casings, and such diverse products as kitchenware, jewellery, pipe stems, and children's toys. Formica laminate is a brand of composite materials manufactured by New Zealand-based Formica Group. Formica Group, a division of the New Zealand company. In common use, the term Formica refers to the company's classic product, a heat-resistant, wipe-clean, plastic laminate of paper or fabric with melamine resin.
  7. 7.         1. Generally plastic items like toys, bags can be reused in various ways such as in the manufacturing of fashionable accessories and other plastic goods. No doubt the recycling of plastic consume more energy and effort compare to its manufacturing but it is a good alternate to prevent the plastic pollution in environment. 2. Plastic materials are light in weight, unbreakable, odourless and can be easily moulded. 3. They have excellent finishing; possess good shock absorption capacity, high strength as well as toughness. 4. The plastics materials are corrosion resistant and these are inert as far chemical or changes due to atmospheric oxygen goes; besides these have low thermal expansion of co-efficient. Therefore they possess good thermal and electrical insulating property. 5. Plastics have water resistant property and possess good adhesiveness. They are strong, durable, good and cheap to produce. 6. It is possible to recycle plastic; therefore no decomposition required which is much more expensive and hazardous than recycling. 7. Plastic can be used in building, construction, electronics, packing and transportation industries.
  8. 8.         8. Plastic can be used to produce other product and reduce soil and wind erosion. Because of nonconductive nature of plastic, they can be easily use in electrical installations. 9. Plastic is strong, good and cheap to produce. 10. Plastic is a recycling process and it does not decompose. 11. Plastic bottles can be reused and restored over again and again. 12. Advantages of plastic are used to produce another product. 14. Advantages of plastic are corrosion resistant and chemically inert. 15. They possess good shock absorption capacity. 16. They are also used to make - Water bottles, pens, plastic bags, cups etc.
  9. 9.   The four disadvantages are:- 1. Flammable – This is definitely an advantage in that they can be melted down, however smoldering plastics can release toxic fumes into the environment. 2. Cost of Recycling – While recycling is a plus, recycling is a very costly endeavor. 3. Volume – In the United States 20% of our landfill is made up of plastics. As more products are being made of plastics, where will this lead us in the future? 4. Durability – This is an advantage as well as a disadvantage. Plastics are extremely durable, which means that they last a long time. Those plastics in the landfill will be there for years. Plastics make our lives easier, however is their cost on the environment worth it?
  10. 10. Environmental damage Threat to animal life Suffocation Pollution Fumes Non renewable
  11. 11. Environmental Damage Plastic bags have been known to cause a lot of environmental damage. A single plastic bag can take up to 1000 years, to decay completely. This makes the bags stay in environments longer, in turn leading to great build-up on the natural landscape (much more than degradable materials like paper). In other words, the more plastic bags you use, the greater the chances of environmental damage. Threat To Animal Life As per Marrickville Council of Australia, as many as 100,000 whales, turtles and birds die have been reported to die every year, mainly because of plastic in their environment. Plastic bags not only have adverse effects on our natural habitats, but have also been found to be responsible for the death of many animals, mainly on account of the suffocation encountered on eating them.
  12. 12. Suffocation Not only animals, infants and young children have also been reported to have lost their life, on account of plastic bags. Since plastic bags are thin and airtight as well, children often end up blocking their mouths and nostrils with them. In case they are not being monitored by an adult, this leads to suffocation and, in some cases, even death. Pollution There are various ways on how plastic bags can harm the health of humans and the entire environment. Two major methods that release toxic chemicals of plastic bags are by burning and throwing. Whether you burn or throw plastic bags, all the chemicals are released which can cause harm to the society.
  13. 13.  Fumes Since plastic bags are not bio-degradable, the only way to get rid of them is to burn them up. Though lighting a match to them is easy, it has more than its fair share of disadvantages. The biggest of them is that smoldering plastics can release toxic fumes into the environment, in turn taking the air pollution to much higher levels. Non-renewable One of the main disadvantages of plastic bags is that they are not renewable. The reason behind this is that they are made of petrochemicals, a non-renewable source of energy. They can be recycled, but not as easily as paper bags. Plastic bags can last for as much as hundred of years. In other words, long after you are no more, the plastic bag used by you will be in existence.
  14. 14. Done by: Shriam,Soundarya,Srinath ,Vaibhav, Varsha,Varshini and Vigasini