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Paper Final do Seminário de NPICPD - Novos Paradigmas da Informação e Comunicação através de Plataformas Digitais.

Paper Final do Seminário de NPICPD - Novos Paradigmas da Informação e Comunicação através de Plataformas Digitais.



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    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 THE CURRENT MULTI-PLATFORM TELEVISION MARKET IN PORTUGAL (FROM HISTORIC ISSUES TO THE CURRENT BUSSINESS PHENOMENA – PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS) Luís Miguel da Cruz Pato Arte & Communication Department - University of Aveiro, Portugal ABSTRACT In this paper we intend to make a short analyses and survey about the actual Portuguese television Market in the ever-growing multi-platform scenario. We intend to discuss how the new media technologies are changing the television markets. This paper also discusses the impact of regulatory issues and the subsequent consequential new challenges in the television programs, business’s, grids and contents. KEY WORDS Digital Terrestrial Television, Broadcasting, Internet, IPTV, Regulation, New Media, Multiplatform TV, Analogue, Digital 1 – INTRODUCTION Because of today’s public needs and technological developments, nowadays, in the television markets we can observe that the idea of the need of digitalization of TV contents is thought to be a future certainty (Suroweiki, 2007: 299). It is believed that in this issue we can also see a direct response to the ever-growing need of personalization of video contents and consumption. Dan Tapscott considers that these developments are a direct response to the implementation of new consumer habits that can be found in
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 a new type of consumer. Like in Suroweiki’s social-economical theory about the: “Wisdom of Crowds”, we can see that Tapscott defines these same “crowds” in a technological perspective as: “Net Generation” (Tapscott, appud., Correia 1997: 97).Regarding this issue, we can observe that today’s publics have registered dramatic changes in the needs that they have towards a traditional medium like television. In this reality we can see that this once traditional family media event was changed into an omni-present communication need. Today it is observable that the resolution of this topic is still considered a very big question (Cádima, 2006). We can see that this aspect is due to the fact that today’s television market is largely characterized through innumerous experiences in grids and television programs on a global scale (Murdock, appud., Baltruschat 1996: p. 107). Nevertheless, we can see that today’s demands towards the existence of a very big diversity of options and possibilities have made the aspect: “function” more important then the issue: “form”. From the consumer point of view, Christian Rosen defines these media interactions as: “Egocasting” (Ibid., 2005: 51). In this theory we can see that today’s multiple media consumption actions are due to all the existing software and technologies that characterize today’s media realities. Due to the eventual changes of roles that have happened between the parts that are portrayed between producers and consumers, we can observe that this issue is becoming a gradual problem. Regarding this scenario, Gillmour tells us that, besides the point of the existence of huge technological developments, today’s public feels that their desire of equal authorship still hasn’t been corresponded (Gillmour, 2004: 229). So, we can understand why some conclusions point out that: the existing prototypes can’t justify a concrete medium offer. Some studies point out that these markets can be considered as “false communication offers” because they lack the accuracy and the consistency to be considered full media realities (Knoche, 2007). However, this aspect hasn’t made company interests vanish. As we will see, in the following topic, with the Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) developments, throughout the world, there’s been a growing interest in these areas and this issue justifies
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 the existing multi-platform diffusion that has characterized the emergent markets (Carlsson, 2007: 01). 2 – MULTI-PLATFORM TELEVISION MARKETS IN EUROPE 2.1 FROM ANALOG MARKETS TO THE EMERGENT TERRESTRIAL DIGITAL TELEVISION REALITIES FROM THE ANALOGUE SWITCHOVER TO THE DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TELEVISION (R)EVOLUTION In 2006, on a paper called “Television and Globalization” John Hartley argues that due to today’s digitalization, TV range has become increasingly wider. According to this author, this aspect is one of the key issues for today’s media debate (Hartley, 2006). Francisco Rui Cádima tells us that: “now we’ve got the unique opportunity to re-use the valuable contents that have been emitted throughout Europe’s media history” (Cádima, 2007: 134). So, here, we can understand why its believed that Europe’s television future is: digital. 2012 - was the year chosen by the European Commission to be set as the deadline for the occurrence of the “analogical switch-off”. But what is this reality, and why is it so desired? According to the European Community Commission, this scenario, that can also be called “digital switch-over ” or “analogue switch- off”, is the cross-European process of conversion of analogue broadcast television into digital television. The main motivation behind this scenario resides in the fact that that due to the digitalization of analogue diffusion and content will free up more space for other services (SEC, 2003: 4). Before talking about DTT, we should see what’s the “Digital Switch- over”. According to Petros Iosifidis, “Analogue turn-off’ or ‘switch-off’ refers to the termination of analogue broadcasting, which is considered to be possible when most households are equipped to receive digital signals” (Iosifidis, 2006). However, we can see that this megalomaniacal idea has problems. In 2002, the “BIPE Consulting Study for the European
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 Commission” showed us that the obstacles and challenges that will have to be overcomed are the following aspects: a) Investments in transmission networks; b) Equip all current analogue receivers; c) Find key functions (Killer applications); d) Modify national and international frequency planning; e) Promote and implant a sustainable development of digital television across the European Union; f) Technical difficulties regarding reception and receiving contents in interaction moments. Here, like the authors of the referred document, we also believe that the achievement of success in issues regarding: “quality of an Interaction and its relation in the conception of innovative contents for new gadgets” is also a crucial aspect. Regarding this aspect, in this paper we believe that the aspect: “Affordance” – promoted by Donald Norman – should be included in this reality 1. So, we can understand why Robert Picard and Allan Brown consider that the: “Timetable for this transition is uncertain and different projections have been made for virtually every country in the world” (Ibid., 2005). We can see this issue on the following table and image:
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 Table 1 - DTT Switch-off Dates – Europe (2005) 2 Image 1 - DTT in Europe (May, 2008) (Source: Digital Switchover in Europe) (Source: Obercom Flash Report 2008) DTT Coverage No DTT Coverage When we look at regulatory issues like the following items, its possible to conclude that achieving success in the implementation of this reality is a: “centerpiece of many government’s policies towards (…) new information and communication technologies” (Picard, Brown, 2005). REGULATORY DOCUMENTS REGARDING DTT ISSUES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD - Green Book about Convergence and its regulatory issues - European Commission – 1997; - Federal Communications Commission – USA – 2007; - Finland will switch over to all digital television – Finnish Ministry of Transport and Communications – Finland – 2007;
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 - Fact Sheet on Switchover – Australian Government Digital Switchover Taskforce – Australia – 2008; “With its promises of crystal clear images and interactive capabilities”, we think that this sentence defines why there’s a desire for DTT (Olmsted, Chang, 2006: 774). But, what is DTT3? According to the North American newspaper: “The Boston Globe”, DTT is the usage of digital technology for the emissions of a larger number of channels with better sound and image qualities (Bray, 2007). However, if we’d like to see its empirical functions, we can see that DTT is transmitted trough radio frequencies and through airways that are slightly different from the ones that are used by classical analog television emissions (Grotticelli, 2002: 233 - 243). However, we can observe that its ability to receive multiple channels on a single frequency is believed to be its main difference from any other system. Francisco Cádima calls this the: “multiplex issue” because with this reality there exists a privileged platform for: “on-line commerce and for most of the contents that exist in the World Wide Web” (Cádima, 2006: 138). Regarding this commercial aspect, the theoretician Phillip Schlesinger tells us that: “ in the United States audiovisual commerce is considered to be just a business and in the European panorama at the same it is also a business but when needed its also a cultural question” (Schlesinger, appud., Cádima,2007: 129). We can see that besides the content, that this system’s main advantages are: a) The inclusion of a whole lot more channels (better usage of the spectrum); b) Interactivity can be solved; c) High Definition Television Content and better and faster reception; d) Reduced Costs in diffusion and reception; e) Better applications for the disabled; f) Data emissions; g) Greater flexibility of operations in general (Marsden, Ariño, 2005: 3-4).
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 Here, regarding this last issue, we’d like to make a parenthesis and point out the important role-play that “portable media” are having in today’s market. Simpson and Greenfield point that in nowadays market: “Media has gone Mobile, Everyone wants to be a Producer, Podcasting is official and everyone’s free to placeshift – move content among several viewing devices” (Simpson, Greenfield, 2007: xvi). According to OfCom’s report: “The Future of Digital Television – Enabling new services for viewers” Digital Terrestrial Television’s (DTT) long term development aims for the inclusion of mobile phones and other television platforms – the authors of this report call this reality a: “virtuous circle ” (Ofcom, 2007: 87). So, as an end-note we can conclude that, today, with all these technological developments, its believed that Mcluhan’s theories of the “extensions of man” are passing from a theoretical reality to a empirical practice (Gil, 2007: 50). In the past years there’s been a very big change in the media landscape. The traditional division – telecommunications, broadcasting and information technology has become very diminished (Tadayoni, Skouby, 1999: 176). However, when we look at the regulatory issues that the actual progressive digitization needs, we can observe that for a successful change to happen there’s a crucial need to: “ understand the developments in the communication landscape as well as the ongoing process of convergence between the traditional separate forms of communication” (Ibid., 1999: 176). However, is there a desire for the technologies that Digital Terrestrial Offers? To answer this question, we’ve decided to review two essential points of view. First, when we talk about communication we mustn’t forget that visual communication is a human specification. Nowadays, according to Cameron Sanders, creating and diffusing these contents has become more important then it has ever been (Sanders, 2002: 141). The second issue that we think is important is what Chan et. al., call the “Personality Traits” - these aspects refer to the cognitive and affective structures that happen when we adopt new products (Chan, et. al., 2006). According to these authors they are the following scenarios:
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 - venturesomeness; - cosmopolitanism; - social integration; - social mobility; - privilegedness; - self-confidence in problem-solving issues; - interest. So, when we think about convergence and the wider offer of quality contents and services, we can see that these issues will be answered and solved (Candel, 2007: 200). In the past years we’ve seen that there’s been a very big change in the media landscape. The traditional division – telecommunications, broadcasting and information technology has become very diminished. However, when we look at the regulatory issues that the actual progressive digitization needs, we can observe, through the studies of Tadayoni and Skouby, that for a successful change to happen there’s a crucial need to: “understand the developments in the communication landscape as well as the ongoing process of convergence between the traditional separate forms of communication” (Tadayoni, Skouby, 1999: 176). As an endnote, we believe that today, with the growth and implementation of self-media, our society is living gradually the antitheses of what Karl Popper called an: “Open Society”. This philosopher’s thesis considered that: this type of community happens when each individual has to take decisions that affect the group (Popper, 1995: 75-76). According to Anderson, today’s realities are connected to the DIY (Do it yourself) scenarios were our decisions affect our media issues (O’Reilly, appud., Anderson, 2006: 58).
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 3 –THE IPTV TRANSITION? When we see authers like Roel concluding that: “the change to digital technology is not an option but an obligation” (ibid., 2008: 106), we wonder how is this going to occurre? Like Maria Luisa Ribeiro, in this paper we believe that the answers can be found in the past (Ribeiro, 2007)! Regarding this aspect, if we recall that the examples of “Pay TV” scenarios – like the IPTV4 development phenomenon – are blooming in the current digital age. At this stage, we should make a parenthesis to remember the first examples of paid television services. Here, can observe the examples of, “how” and “why” Cable TV business has endured over the past decades. Regarding this aspect, historically, we can see that Cable TV results from a private financial entertainment phenomenon that has no governmental participation. Luísa Ribeiro tells us that its success is due to the “power of choice” that backs up its mediatic reality since it was created. Here, through Oz Shy’s studies we can see that he believes that the aspect: “Social Desirable” is responsible for the success of this TV alternative and the fact that this reality is not driven by governmental interests helped them answer the audience’s needs (Ibid., 2001: 154). Regarding this issue, we could remember that it is considered that Cable TV has the ability to become a successful multiplatform media source. This aspect is due to its ability to merge and diffuse other media sources through an easy mediatic processes for the companies and for responding to the public’s needs (Ribeiro, 2007: 33). Nowadays, its believed that this need of a multi-platform TV media concepts are due to all new existing video attributes that are part of the multimedia developments and its consequential interactive realities. Regarding this issue, we can observe that, nowadays, there exists the conceptualization of new tendencies for distribution and consumption of television (Chorianopoulos, 2007). Referring to this last aspect, we can
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 observe the following statistical data from “The Accenture Global Content Study 2008”: 5 Figure – 1 Means of TV and actual tendencies in this medium’s usage (Source: The Accenture Global Content Study 2008 - The Challenge of Change: Perspectives in the Future for Content Providers) However, before referring Portugal’s multi-platform reality we believe that it would be important to see how the European Markets are answering to these shifts in media consumption and audiences specifications. Nevertheless, before we start our analyses we mustn’t forget that nowadays in Europe there exists a big approach through broadband multimedia multi- platform projects via terrestrial. This aspect isn’t registered in the US markets because in this country this same approach is made through satellite distribution (Ribeiro, 2007: 271). We can see the European growth on the following graphics: Graphic – 2 Growing Competition Between Broadcasting Infrastructures6 (Source: The Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry Working Party on Telecommunication and Information Services Policies – Policy Considerations for Audio-visual Content Distribution in a Multiplatform Environment) However, we can’t forget the basic importance and specifications in the actual multi-platform realities come from: “convergence”. Regarding this issue, we can observe that, historically, Englund talks about four classical convergent scenarios. He points out that this issue in: network, equipment, service and on a market level (Englund, 2007: 02). So we can conclude that: today there’s a deconstruction of classic separated telecommunications
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 industry in every way, shape and form. However we believe that there-se a consolidated idea in distribution realities. Regarding this issue, we can see a belief in the fact that: IPTV services are the next upcoming successful business model – some call it the: “future norm” (Cooper, Lovelace, 2006: 51). But we can see that some specialists consider that besides the point of considering that this TV reality can change the paradigm of television production and distribution, they also believe that the creation and successful usage of regulatory aspects are crucial. Here, regarding this aspect, Guido Tripaldi and Eugenio Prosperetti consider that: “regulation plays an essential role” (Tripaldi, Prosperetti, 2007: 22). But, before continuing with this issue, we should know what is IPTV, it’s function and where its developments are heading? Here we can see that on an empirical point of view through this system we can observe that the broadcast television programs are emitted through classical channels and then these same contents are passed through networks that are used by desktops, laptops and mobile communications (Bria, Andersson, et. al., 2007). So like Simpson and Greenfield, we can say: “with this communication model there’s always something to see!” (Ibid., 2007, 201). However, besides the reality in which this sentence can be based, we can also conclude that there exists an eventual need to define the authenticity and uniqueness of these emergent media markets. For instance, through the “Audiovisual Without Frontiers Directive Proposal (AWFDP)” we can observe that they’ve approached the IPTV scenery more to classical broadcast television than electronic communication aspects (EUC, 2005). This is why there’s a need to over-come the technological barriers and base the competitiveness aspects on issues that regard on providing users with “the best content on a common interoperable platform” (Tripaldi, Prosperetti, 2007: 22). So, through this issue, we can understand why today there’s the existence of a concrete need to break the barriers that have been upheld by re-utilization of former broadcast content to create specific new media contents (Erdal, 2007: 56). And – regarding this issue – today, we can see that the developments in the adaptation of video content are one of the
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 essential problems of this reality (Chen, Fan, et. al., 2003). Nevertheless, besides all these problems, nowadays, this system seems to be the most promising business model that exists (Zeeman, Atgeld, 2003). 3.1 – THE IMPORTANCE OF BROADBAND - IPTV SERVICES, TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS When we talk about European media markets we can see that this communication model is still in an experimental moment (Cardoso, Espanha, 2006: 21). Nevertheless, in the following images, we can observe that it is growing in a considerable rate: Image – 3 Comparative IPTV growth rate between 2003 and 20057 (Source: Sonae Data) 2003 2005 The growth of the IPTV phenomenon is due to the growth of the percentage of broadband subscribers that is registered in Europe (Tadayoni, Sigurdsson, 2006). When we talk about IPTV, we can’t forget the commercial reality behind this business. Here, besides the referred Pay TV model (Cable TV), we can observe that this form of television transmission owes its success to the growth of subscribers of Broadband ADSL8 services and the subsequent “triple play” realities that followed.9 Regarding this aspect, in Prosperetti and Tripaldi’s studies, about “Telecom Italia”, we can observe that: “current trends show that in the next years Broadband lines in West Europe will exceed the number of phone lines” (Tripaldi, Prosperetti, 2007: 08). This achievement can be seen on the next tables:
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 Table 2– Broadband Subscribers per 100 inhabitants – July 2005 10 (Source: IPTV market development and regulatory aspects) Nevertheless, like Kotler, we could say that this success is due to the: “Theory of Bundling” that this service permits (Kottler, appud., Poutanen, 2006: 41). Traditionally IPTV services a fundamentad on a “Head-End” user system (DSTI/ICCP/CISP, 2007). Here, on a empirical point of view, we can observe that this media model is based on the following aspects (Ibid., 2007): a) – Networks can be copper, satellite, fiber or broadband; b) – The Costumer represents the delivery point; c) – Operators function as content receivers and distributors; d) – IPTV’s economical model is based on the classical “Pay TV” scenarios; e) – These services can be streamed or downloaded to subscribers. Regarding this last aspect, we can see that IPTV service providers often provide bundle their media services and deliver them at a set price (Kottler, appud., Poutanen, 2006: 41). It is considered that IPTV’s meteoric development is a direct result of this specification (Hervé, 2008: 185). According to Zeeman and Atgeld, Historically, IPTV services are defined by the following models (Ibid., 2003):
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 a) – Video on Demand (VoD) – a reality that works like a Virtual Video Store; b) – Value added Internet Service Provider; c) – Enhanced Television Provider; d) – Triple Play. Here, we can refer that this last aspect is responsible for the fact that, nowadays, IPTV services are considered to be the most promising business model (Ibid.,2003). Here we can see that the concept of combining broadband Internet resources, VoIP (telephone – voice over Internet Protocol) and broadcast television can be considered appealing to most costumers. Here, regarding this last aspect, we can conclude we’ve achieved the opportunistic moment to explore broadband’s ability to emit broadcast television and movie contents in the same way that online services have incremented and mutated publishing’s moments in the Internet (Cooper, Lovelace, 2006: 50). According Tadayoni (et. al.) this growing interest in triple-play services is due in the past few years, we’ve assisted to the growth of a large number of “on demand” realities. Here, this author describes that these aspects and desires have passed from the classical television screen to the Internet reality and TV and Video services will be huge issues in these broadband markets (Tadayoni, Henten, 2007). Nevertheless, besides the success that’s induced in the triple play reality’s future we can see that it has problems to be solved. Here we can observe many of its technologies are still being developed and investigation is still necessary (Xiao, Du, 2007). Besides this issue we can still point out that regulatory aspects are still a problem in the implementation of this reality. Here, due to the existence of classical perceptions, where on one side we can see broadcast television regulatory issues, and on the other aspects related to electronic diffusion – the market is still very immature (Mardsen, Cave, et. al., 2006: 22). But, in the European case we can observe that, due to the TVWF11 Directive, the future of IPTV is assured because since 2002 these countries commission has made
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 many efforts expand this reality and digitalize their TV grids (Tadayoni, Sigurdsson, 2006). 4 – THE EUROPEAN MULTIPLATFORM TV MARKETS In Europe, unlike what we see in the United States, we’ve registered that the development of IPTV business models has endured various moments and speeds. According to Ludovic Copéré, this happens because besides being a continent, development rates have had various scenarios (Copéré, 2005: 2). This issue can be seen in the following examples. Here we’ve chosen three European countries from equal parts of this continent (North, Central, South) – Austria, France and Spain: a). Austria For example, we can see that in the Austrian reality, in March 2006 “Telekom Austria” launched “aonDigitalTV” with a package of 40 basic channels, 10 premium channels and 150 Video on Demand movies (DSTI/ICCP/CISP, 2007); b) France Here we can observe that this country has the Free ADSL – that has adapted an integrated “Triple Play” service. “France Télékom” has developed spit services. On one end there’s the IPTV service called: “MaLigne TV” ( this reality is separate from broadband approaches. “Neuf-Télécom” also has a IPTV service – We can see PC-based offer on “Club- Internet” ( In 2005 “Cegetel” ( approached the IPTV reality with the ambition of High Definition emissions (Copéré, 2005: 94).
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 c. Spain Regarding the spannish experiences we can talk about the “Imagenio” project in 2004 12. So, we can observe that in these different countries, all the approaches are made in different timings but we believe the aim is the same – IPTV in full functional power. Regarding this issue, if we look at the data of Figure 1 of our work, where we show some Countries that have announced the Analog Switch – Off. Here, it is possible to observe that one of the reasons of the registration of these different development rhythms may de due to the different “digital switch-over” dates (Jakubowizc, 2006). Here, we can see that France’s change is due in 2011, while Spain and Austria’s alterations are due in 2010. Besides all these problematic aspects, it would be important to see what type of programs and services are being emitted in these multiplatform TV realities. When we look at the English models we can see that the existing contents on the web are still reduced to classical aspects like sports, politics and other classical news services but in a return to classical press but placed on the internet with hyperlinks to other reports. Multimedia contents aren’t a prime issue in these web-pages (Ibid., 2006: 21). However, we can see that in what is referred to the IPTV reality (and forms of digital distribution of content) there’s been an increasingly higher penetration of this reality because of the role that has been given to Internet and its role in the distribution of multimedia contents. Here we can see this on the following graphic from Ofcom – “Office of Communications 2008”:
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 13 Table – 3 Digital communications service availability – 2006 and 2007 (Source: Ofcom Research Document - 14 August 2008) On this item we can observe the growth of the digital communications service availability. And if we look at that growth rate of Digital Television realities we can observe that the average percentage growth clearly justifies the interest in IPTV phenomenon that has been seen in the United Kingdom. BBC’s Mark Gawlinski tells us, that besides all the developments of technological diffusion realities, nowadays, multi-platform contents in England and some countries in the rest of Europe are being emitted through systems that are a direct result of the merging of analogical e digital systems for the common terrestrial emissions. This author calls this reality: “Piggyback Diffusion” (Gawlinski, 2003: 43). Here he tells that nowadays there exists a simultaneous analogue and digital transmission of video contents. According to Gawlinski these aspect is due to the fact that platform operators and consumers simply don’t have the ability to change all their equipments from analogue to digital at the same time. Nevertheless, we can see that classical analogue and digital systems occupy different frequencies, so as analogue systems close down extra bandwidth is freed and digital channels and interactive services occupy this space (Gawlinski, 2003: 57). We can observe that in Europe the French market has had this service developed for some time and it has served as an example for other markets (Ibid., 2008: 185). Nevertheless, according to authors: Simpson and Greenfield, viewing habits haven’t changed with this new technology they
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 remain the same because the corporate interests have caused “mirror broadcasts” of classical television emissions (Simpson, Greenfield, 2007: 09). Well, but what has happened to the business issues regarding this reality? Have the classical corporate models changed because of these large-scale alterations? When we look at the commercial reality in TV and other media companies in Europe we can see that there has been an overwhelming growth in the number of “commercial multiplexes”. Here we can see that for some analysts – like Francisco Rui Cádima – these strategies of concentration that can be observed in media companies are essential role-players for the intentions of achieving a unique and specific medium model between the multiple players (Cádima, 2006: 145). Others think that the need for this reality can be justified through a possible achievement of better efficiency levels between all the companies that are involved in this commercial scenario (Valente, appud., Ribeiro, 2007: 151). In practical terms, we can simply observe that once classical media realities – that were separated with very clear lines are now bundled up services. For example, hypothetically we could conclude that traditional public broadcasting services aren’t equipped to deal with this reality like private companies are. Nevertheless, we can observe through the studies Karol Jakubowicz what changes should occur for the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) to survive. Regarding the BBC example this author considers that this PBS shouldn’t consider itself as an emitter of Radio, TV and small percentages of multimedia contents. According to Jakubowizc the idea should be PBS in any place, time and on any gadget (Ibid., 2006). So, through this point of view, we can conclude that: the gap between PBS and private corporate media projects is thinned and the survival in the emerging multi-platform reality depends on the achievement of consumption and production realities on a new scale. But, what about the contents for these multi-platform realities, is there a need for specification? As far as content is concerned, Lucy Kűng’s theory: “Old” Media Content versus “New” Media Content (Ibid., appud., Jakubson, 2006).Here
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 we can observe that when these two realities are compared old media was due to the hard-work of professionals. Nowadays it is possible to see anybody use the Internet to upload his or her contents. Like Jakubsen says: “according to old assumptions, ‘content is king’. According to new ones, content may be king, but access to customers and brands are just as important as content” (Ibid., 2006). Here, as problem we could underline the sub sequential issues that have happened between the difference of the “Communication” and “Information” realities. Dominique Wolton tells us that the main difference in these realities is that in the first case we have media phenomenon that has its contents contextualized in place, time and other cultural aspects; in what regards the second issue we can see that this reality is based on mere data specifications and achievements in distributing and receiving contents (Wolton, 2000). We can see these issues debated on the following image: Table – 4 Specifications and differences between Old Media and New Media (Source: Kűng appud., Jakubsen, 2006) Characteristic “Old” Media Content “New” Media Content Core customer Information, education, Synthesis of information, proposition entertainment communication and service Basic commu- One-to-many, mass Two-way, personalized, nication para- interactive, on-demand digm Relationship Message not medium Message and medium between content and technology What is quality “Quality” content fulfils Quality content keeps users exalted goals and has on the site and is intellectual and artistic constantly refreshed and merits updated Who produces Experts dictate Customer in the driving content? • Content-generation relies seat on artistic expertise and • Decides what, when, discriminating minds and in which form • The end of “journalist knows best” • Successful content often
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 generated by users Relationship Content and commerce Content and commerce with commercial strictly separated and clearly inextricably linked elements labeled Structure Linear, narrative, on or off, Molecular orientated around pre-selected or packaged, 3-D hierarchical matrix fixed schedule Locus of Intellectual and artistic Information engineering creativity elements Historically, it is believed that media development has a cumulative growth because when new media realities are developed the previous ones aren’t substituted. Regarding this aspect, Henten and Tadayoni tell us that during the course of history various media forms complement each other. So – and regarding this specific issue – the fact that the actual multi-platform reality is based on recycling of programs from classical broadcast realities can be understood (Ibid.,2002). Here we can also see that another aspect could be related to economic issues because its faster and cheaper to re-use previous contents to respond to the ever-growing needs of a very demanding public (Bria, Andersson, et. al. 2007). So, we can conclude that these realities could be considered as the main justification to justify the fact that today’s multi-platform television markets have grids consisted by the re-use of former broadcast television contents (Ibid., 2007). By regarding this fact we can understand the many doubts that have characterized and still define the: Web TV and Mobile TV concepts and empirical realities (Carlsson, 2007). However, besides all these issues – that are already considered historical problematic questions – we can see that the news genres are thought to be the most appropriate contents for these new television realities (Södergard, 2001: 01). Here, as an example, we can observe that New York Post’s Nick Ascheim tells us that “breaking news” are seen more often in this newspaper’s site are. He point’s out that nowadays one of the main concerns of this newspaper can be found in the speed in which a news report can be placed on the NY Post’s site (Ascheim, appud., Bryant,2006). The Finnish market has this model implemented in their Mobile TV market. Here we can see that the content production model is based on the fact that the duration
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 of each Mobile TV program can’t pass a 10 Minute duration barrier. So the genre are: news, sports cartoons and documentaries (Carlsson, Puhakainen, 2006). Nevertheless, besides all this innovative approaches we can see that today this type of television development is still considered to be an alternative video mean if a failure is registered in classical broadcast emissions (Bria, Andersson, et. al., 2007). We could also say that this aspect is due to the fact that: “Television is one of the last media technologies to become disconnected from a fixed place like home.” (Vangneck, et. al., 2008, 122). However there’s a factual need of specifications of these emerging multi-platform markets (Ibid., 2007). 4.1 – THE PORTUGUESE REALITY IN THE EUROPEAN PANORAMA FROM THE IPTV EXPERIENCE TO MOBILE AND WEB TV PROTOTYPES After our brief revision of the literature and empirical realties were we saw what specifications are believed to justify the hope on the success of a system like IPTV. Here, regarding this topic, and before going any further in our study, we believe it would be important to explain what’s “Web TV” and “Mobile TV” in an objective manner. Regarding this last issue, we can observe that this aspect is a service that is delivered through mobile telecommunication networks. We can see the combination and the transition of television services to the mobile communication reality (Kumar, 2007: 6). These services, via cellular networks, are different from traditional TV because, besides the inherent mobility, this type of television is fundamentad on a variety of services including, pay TV, traditional and live TV programs (Ibid., 2007). “Web TV” (or Internet TV) is television content that is emitted using the Internet’s technological specifications. According to Odlyzko, this type of televisions permits viewers to choose the contents that they want to watch from a library of shows ( Ibid., 2001). Through Octavio Islas’s studies, we can observe that the current services for Internet television are based on the possibility of interaction (Ibid.,2006 ).
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 In Portugal – like in the rest of the European reality – we can observe that, besides the huge developments in Web, the implementation of convergence and sub sequential IPTV services are believed to be the solution to solve the current multi-platform problems. Regarding this last aspect we can look at the statistic data in the following graphic: 14 Graphic – 3 TV Consumption Typology in Portugal (Source: Obercom 2008) Regarding this issue, can see the examples of MEO – launched in 2007 - that has all the aspects that we can see on this image. Here, we can see that this “triple play” service has 110 channels, the possibility to record up 140 hours of contents, pause TV, Video on Demand (VoD) and channels that have High Definition Images15. Currently, its developers are working on its mobile version that will be distributed through DVB-T16. Another example of an national IPTV service can be seen through the “SmarTV” project. “Clix” a “Sonaecom” company launched this service in March 2006. It was one of Portugal’s first IPTV triple play systems. It has 100 channels, Interactive Menus, VoD, Radio, Games, and the possibility to record contents17. However, unlike other European countries, we can observe that the national channel and the company “Produções Fictícias” launched in April 2007 a exclusive Mobile TV format weekly magazine called: “Quinze”. This magazine’s duration short duration (15 minutes), close shot video language and genre (information) were thought to be the most appropriate for the small screen’s that come on the cell phone’s interface18. Hendrick Knoche and his team tell us that quick fixes and medium shots might be more enjoyable
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 and especially more acceptable for the “Quality of Experience” (QoE) in a Mobile TV reality (Knoche, 2007). In 2008, these companies produced and emitted the program “Hotspot”19; but this program besides being specifically produced for Mobile TV it was also thought for Web TV emissions. In this program, in narrative terms, we can observe that it follows a: “Long Tail Logic” (Anderson, 2004). This idea is due to the fact that this program has its narrative based on a main theme that is worked on through various reports with different approaches – just like what we can see with Anderson’s theory and by the logic that’s used by “Amazon”. In Europe, Finish developments in this area consider that this specification isn’t crucial bet, nevertheless, in 2003 a study referring the specifications of “Technological and user experiences” showed us that the interviewees consider that the – eventual – development of these TV contents should be based on simple forms of reality television (Södergård, 2003: 66). In 2005, the German Mobile TV industries studied the Mobile TV scenario and their case study was based on the South Korean Model: “TUMedia”. This Asian media company intended to be able to launch one of the worlds first Mobile TV Services - emitted through satellites. Here, in what regards contents we can also conclude that because of reduced screen size, a narrative based on close-up shots with short durations would be better indicated for this emerging reality (Trefzger,2005: 4). Nevertheless, we mustn’t forget that when we talk about television, besides its informative and entertainment character, we can’t forget that this medium’s basic functionality is: “storytelling”. So, besides any functional aspect, besides any existing technological developments, Television is, and will always be, based on two basic aspects: “Narrative and Visual Structure” (Block, 2001: 173). As an end-note and regarding this issue, we can see that today there’s a problem related to the lack of “identity” that characterizes all new media projects (Ryan, 2001: 01-02). MIT’s Kevin Brooks concludes that: nowadays
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 we have to overcome the historic problem related to a lack of a “story structure” for the transmission of cultural issues through the next generations (Ibid., 2000). However, we can conclude that nowadays we all believe that there exist a mutating audiovisual scenario that characterizes television. Here, because the look for specific multiplatform TV hasn´t yet reached a final point, Filder calls these times a “mediamorphesis” era (Ibid., 1997). 5 – CONCLUSION Based on current available data, we cannot argue that there exists market for multi-platform television realities. However, there are indicators that come from: a new form of TV consumption, Digital Terrestrial Television developments, new audiences and the “Television Without Frontiers Commission” that tell us this reality will happen. This scenario warrants content producers and TV company owners to apply un-thought efforts to respond to these ever-growing needs. Regarding this last issue, during this work we’ve seen that because of the high percentage of ADSL distribution, the IPTV reality is being considered to be the best multi-platform system in today’s markets. There are some limitations to this study because in the first place the actual IPTV, Mobile TV and Web TV experiment set-ups don’t have enough consistency to be studied in an objective form. Nevertheless, the referred statistical data shows us that the choices of TV approach are changing rapidly and the need for specific content is real. Here we can see that there are many doubts regarding the linear specifications and the new non-linear realities but the prototyping reality shows that there’s a growing interest in these approaches. But, several studies show that multi-platform television genre we’ve seen that information is considered to be the most indicated type of program for these emergent realities but fictional content has also been experimented. However, when we think that, because of all these developments, “broadcast television ” may end. RTP’s Lopes Araújo tells us: “no”! He believes that the secret resides in finding the “equilibrium
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 point” between mass media and self-media because the public’s desires are very floatable aspects (Lopes Araújo, 2008)20. As an endnote for all this television mutation that we’ve seen in this paper, we mustn’t forget that in 1974, German Criticist, Theodor Adorno said that: “one can’t foresee what is going to happen to television: what it is today doesn’t depend on its discovery, not even on the specific forms that were found to explore it in a commercial term, but in the miracle in which it can be placed” (Adorno, 2003: 170). 5.1 – FINAL QUESTIONS AND FUTURE WORK A few years ago, there was television, movies, audiovisual and other image formats. Today, with the digitization of contents, we can observe that there’s “content” – “a stream of bits providing superior picture and audio quality” (McKernan, Rice, 2002). However, like we’ve seen on this paper, this promising reality is far from consensus. Its scenario is mainly consisted with doubts, obstacles and challenges that are in a desperate need to be overcomed. So, due to this fact we’ve that new media rhetoric issues are dramatically modifying old media aspects. Eugenia Siapera considers that this era can be related to a “radical break” regarding conservative and classical mediatic realities. Like this author, because of the lack of innovative contents and public awareness, we believe that, besides all its developments, television has just expanded its reality to online scenarios (Siapera, 2004: 155). We believe that the starting point for the following questions – that we think are essential – should be based on the belief that: “Globalization is changing the video panorama in every aspect”. QUESTIONS a) How will regulatory issues comply, will the answer be fast enough? b) What’s the final destination for public media services?
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 c) Is commercial sensibleness a possibility so corporate funds can help the innovations and experiences that are needed for the multi- platform markets? d) What types of contents and narratives can be used in these new markets? e) How can these new television markets be specified?
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 6 – BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, C., (2006). A Cauda Longa – Do Mercado de massa para o mercado de nicho, Brasil, Campus. ___(2004). The Long Tail. Wired Magazine Issue 12.10 October 2004. Adorno, T., (2003). Sobre a Indústria da Cultura, Coimbra, Angelus Novos Ed. Baltruschat, D., (2002). Globalization and International TV and Film Co- productions In Search of New Narratives, Media in Transition2: Globalization and Convergence, MIT – Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. In: BIPE (2002). Consulting Study for the European Commission (Directorate General Information Society). In: cuments/digital_switchover_in_broadcasting_executive_summary_120402_en. pdf. Block, B., (2001). The Visual Story, , MA – USA, Focal Press. Bray, H., (2007). FCC – rule requires all new TV’s to be digital The Boston Globe. Online at: equires_all_new_tvs_to_be_digital/. Bria, A., Andersson, Karrberg, P., (2007). TV in the Mobile or TV for the Mobile Challenges and Changing the Value Chain. Em: The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC'07), In: 94185&count=895&index=201. Brooks, K., (1999). Metalinear Cinematic Narrative:Theory, Process, and Tool, PhD Theses, Media Arts & Sciences - Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Em: . Brown, A., Picard, R., G., (2005). Digital Terrestrial Television in Europe, Routledge, USA.
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    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 END NOTES: 1 Donald Norman says that the: “word ‘affordance’ was originally invented by the perceptual psychologist J. J. Gibson (1977, 1979) to refer to the actionable properties between the world and an actor (a person or animal). To Gibson, affordances are a relationship. They are a part of nature: they do not have to be visible, known, or desirable. Some affordances are yet to be discovered. Some are dangerous. I suspect that none of us know all the affordances of even everyday objects. 2 Iosifidis, P., (2006). Digital Switchover in Europe, In: International Communications Gazette. Available at: 3 Or DTTV – Digital Terrestrial Television 4 IPTV – Internet Protocol Television 5 The Accenture Global Content Study 2008 - The Challenge of Change: Perspectives in the Future for Content Providers. Em: 6 The Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry Working Party on Telecommunication and Information Services Policies – Policy Considerations for Audio-visual Content Distribution in a Multiplatform Environment. Em: 7 Pato, L., M., (2006). Cross-Media – A Morte do Canais Generalistas? - Grupo de trabajo: Cibercultura y nuevas tecnologías de la información. IX Congreso IBERCOM. In: 8 ADSL – Asymetric Digital Subscriber Line 9 Triple Play – One Line, three services – Data, Television and Telephone. 10 Tadayoni, R., Sigurdsson, H., (s/d) IPTV market development and regulatory aspects. Em: 11 Television Without Frontiers Directive.
    • University of Aveiro ARTE & COMUNICATION DEPARTMENT 2008 12 Researched in the Internet on the site:,,entrada%2Brd_i magenio%2Bv_segmento%2BAHOG%2Bv_idioma%2Bes%2Bmenu_izq%2B1%2Bme nu_cab_sup%2Btelevision%2BambitoAcceso%2Bpub,00.html?v_segmento=AHOG&v _idioma=es. 13 Ofcom – Office of Communications 2008 – Research Document - 14 August 2008, Communications Market Report. Em: 14 Obercom (2008), Flash Report - Perspectivas da Implementação da Televisão Digital em Portugal, Novas Tecnolologias, Novos Consumos? Em: 15 For more informations please see the site: 16 Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial 17 Available on the following site: 18 For more informations please see the site: 19 Para mais informações consulte o sítio: (Consultado na Internet em 27/05/2008). 20 Presentation “ Programar e Produzir na Era Digital ” – University of Aveiro – 10/17/2008. APAN.pdf.