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DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TELEVISION
Sanez Cuervo Edberg Andrei
Instituto Tecnológico de Tuxtepec
Febrero 2014
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ABSTRACT
In this research we will know all the details about the introduction of digital
terrestrial television, note that the HD TV is not the same as DTT our country ,
since its first broadcasts to the new reforms that consist of making the switch from
analog to digital the analog switch so controversial , with full coverage in the
country by the end of 2015 , just know that you need to have access to this service
and operation. We'll have a better use of bandwidth so that it leads to more
channels and therefore at a greater range of television programming. Digital
terrestrial television is the most radical technological change in the television
industry, after the appearance of the color TV. Introduction of new services such as
mobile TV, interactive television, a la carte... promise to join these media into one
and make the TV a multimedia terminal apparatus best features.
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INDICE DE CONTENIDO
Contenido
RESUMEN........................................................................................................................2
PALABRAS CLAVE.....................................................................................................................6
INDICE DE CONTENIDO....................................................................................................4
INDICE DE TABLAS...........................................................................................................5
INTRODUCCIÓN……………………………………………………………………………………………………………Er
ror! Bookmark not defined.
MÉTODOS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Er
ror! Bookmark not defined.
1. Historia de la television
digital……………………………………………………………………………..Error! Bookmark not defined.
2 Mayor límite de calidad de imagen y
sonido...........................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.5
2.1. Mayor numero de emisiones de
television…………………………………………………….Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.1.1. Mayor flexibilidad de las emisiones y servicios
adicionales………………………………Error! Bookmark not defined.6
3. Períodos trianuales para la transición a la TDT…………………………………………………….20
4. LA INCERTIDUMBRE DEL APAGÓN..........................................................................23
5. repercusiones económicas...............................................................................................24
6. Liberacion del espectro................................................................................................25
7. HDTV.....................................................................................................................................25
4
REFERENCIASError! Bookmark not
defined.……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
KEYWORDS
blackout
reforms
TDT
5
INTRODUCTION
Television has been since the early 70’s, the means of mass communication with
more impact and has blamed him of the biggest cultural changes in large scale
(positive and negative), followed surpassed even in recent times online. This
impact can be increased far from diminishing and transformed with the emergence
of new technologies: digital television. Digital television is one in which it transmits,
receives and processes audio signals and discreetly video (1s and 0s), in contrast
with the continuous form used by the analog TV.
Until now, the introduction of digital terrestrial television in Mexico, has been
addressed only from a technical point of view, it is a good start to identify patterns
and strategies to be followed by television operators, as established by the "
Agreement which the Standard Digital Terrestrial Television Technology was Adopts
Policy and the Transition to Digital Terrestrial Television Sets in Mexico “, published
in the Official Gazette on July 2, 2004.
At this point in the country is beginning to make the transition from analogue to
digital TV , and that is why this project is done , to publicize this major change to
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publicize the new age of television in the country and likewise disclose data and
statistics to understand this change.
METHODS
To address the issue begins with a documentary analysis, examining the literature
in the area, from digital documentary sources ; in order to build a conceptual
framework related to the topic of social networks and the impact resulting
therefrom .
In this sense , the methodology used was a search for information on the Internet ,
because it relied on information from previous studies , books and magazines.
Methodological procedure performed
The sample size in research presents no rules and it depends on what you are
looking for ( M. Patton , 1990) in this regard is to establish a theoretical sample ,
negotiating between breadth and depth .
A purposive sample of theoretical nature , taking into account the contributions of (
A. & Glaser , 1967) led to the emergence of the theory , since " only this sampling
maximizes the benefits of simultaneous selection of cases , we used the data
collection and analysis thereof . "
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1. HISTORY OF DIGITAL TELEVISION
In the late 1980s they began to develop scanning systems. Digitization on
television has two distinct parts. On one side is the digitization of production and on
the other the transmission.
Regarding production several scanning systems were developed. The first of them
were based on digitized composite video signal which was unsuccessful. The
approach of digitizing components of the video signal, that is, the luminance and
color differences , which was proved most suitable . Initially signal systems in
parallel , with thick cables a wire needed for each bit , the wire is suddenly
replaced by the multiplexed transmission time corresponding to each of the signal
components are developed words also this system allowed include audio,
embedding it in the information provided, and a number of utilities.
To maintain the quality required for the production of TV Studio Quality standard
CCIR -601 was developed. While the development of other less demanding
standards for light field production (EFP) and electronic news gathering (ENG )
allowed .
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The difference between the two fields, the quality of production and study of ENG
as the magnitude lies in the bit stream generated in the digitization of the signals.
Reducing the bit rate of digital video signal resulted in a series of algorithms, all
based on the discrete cosine transform both the spatial domain and in the
temporal, that reduced this flow enabling team building more accessible. This
allowed them access to small production companies and TV broadcast leading to
the rise of local television.
As for the transmission, digitization of the same was made possible by the
compression techniques that reduce the flow achieved within 5 Mbit/s, we must
remember that the original flow signal quality paper is 270 Mbit/s. This
compression is the MPEG-2 streams call occurs between 4 and 6 Mbit/s without
appreciable loss of subjective quality.
Digital TV transmissions are three major areas depending upon the form thereof
even if they are similar in technology. Transmission is via satellite, cable and
satellite terrestrial radio, this is known as TDT.
The advance of information technology, both in terms of hardware and software led
to the computer -based signal processing TV production systems. Storage systems
such as tape recorders, became replaced by computer servers and video files
passed to save your information on hard drives and data tapes. Video files include
metadata is information concerning its contents. Access to information is from the
computers themselves where they are video editing programs so that the resident
information in the file is accessible in real time by the user. Actually the files are
structured in three levels, the on line, for that information very frequent use that
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resides on server hard disks, the near line, frequently used information that resides
on data tapes and they are in large bookstores automated , and deep file where
the information that is out of line is accurate and the system incorporating manual .
All this is controlled by a database where entries include information resident in the
system.
The incorporation of information is performed by system function called intake. The
sources can be generated and or computer formats are converted using video
converter to computer files. Deposits made in the field by teams ENG or EFP
recorded in formats compatible with the storage using different media to magnetic
tape , existing technologies are DVD blue ray ( Sony ) recording memories ram (
Panasonic ) and hard disk recording ( Ikegami ) .
The existence of the video server enables automation of releases and
informational programs by performing Emission lists.
Digital terrestrial television (DTT), also called open digital television (TDA) is the
transmission of moving pictures and associated audio (TV) via a digital signal
(binary encodin) and through a network of terrestrial repeaters. The digital
information coding provides several advantages. Notable among them are first, the
ability to compress the signal. Can make more efficient use of radio spectrum. After
completing its multiplexing, can be issued more channels - digital system that are
renamed " digital programs " - in space before one employee , now called " digital
multi-channel " or " multiplex " . The number of programs transmitted in each
multiple channel depends on the relationship (ratio) of compression used. On the
other han, you can spend the extra spectrum for other uses. The compression has
also viable television signals broadcast in high definition (HD or high definition),
which require higher bandwidth than standard definition.
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It is noteworthy that the digital signal is more robust than analog, ie not more
resistant to interference. Both are electromagnetic signals of the same kind, and
capable of being distorted by electric or magnetic fields, weather conditions, etc. .
The difference, as discussed, is the manner of encoding information . Digital
coding is then logical algorithms to identify and correct errors .
DTT transmission is done using the different technical parameters established by
technology standards. There are several and use by state responds to its ability to
create standards, its geographical location and its membership in the sphere of
influence of the creators state standards. Thus, the ATSC is used in North America:
Canada, United States and Mexico, and countries related to its developer : South
Korea, Honduras , El Salvador and Dominican Republic . The Japanese standard
ISDB -T is used in Japan , the Philippines and most countries in Central and South
America: Brazil, Bolivia , Peru , Argentina , Paraguay , Chile, Venezuela , Ecuador ,
Costa Rica , Nicaragua , Guatemala and Uruguay ( with the exception of Colombia
, Panama , Guyana , Suriname, Honduras and El Salvador ) . The European DVB -
T is used in the EU, Australia, South Africa, Namibia, Panama, Colombia and
Turkey Union. In China DTMB used (formerly DSM-T/HDSM
The analog TV technology only allows the transmission of a single television
program each UHF channel (either6 MHz, 7 MHz or 8 MHz bandwidth). Also
adjacent channels to an issue that occurs must be free to prevent interference.
Digital coding of programs allows the available bandwidth in a single UHF channel
can transmit several programs similar to that of a DVD or one or two quality HD
quality. The number of concurrent programs depends on the image quality and
desired sound, although at present is five programs, with regular use of four, which
gives good quality images with slow movements, although scenes more action can
be seen easily distorted image areas, which are called artifacts (anomalies)
(artifacts, in English ) due to digital MPEG- 2 (or MPEG -4) low speed .
However, the great flexibility of the MPEG -2 or MPEG -4 encoding can change
these settings at any time, users transparent manner. The block of four or five
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channels emission emitted by a conventional UHF channel called MUX (multiple).
The bitstream is MUX multiplexing channels that compose it. The flowrate of each
multiplexed channel can be adjusted at will, which is equivalent to regulate the
quality of the same. You can assign a high flow to a movie or sporting event
payment flow subtracting the other channels that make up the MUX and can be
open issue. As the flow depends on the image content, many variations and detail
of an image much more flow occur. The optimal use of MUX, when all its
components have the same commercial importance, is performed using a
statistical flow control. An intelligent system estimates the flow of each MUX
channel composed at all times and will assign more or less bandwidth according to
the identified need. Logically, one can determine, channel by channel a minimum
bandwidth as discussed above.
2.- HIGHER LIMIT IMAGE QUALITY AND SOUND
Due to the better utilization of bandwidth, TDT emissions may consist of higher
visual quality. The terrestrial television transmission is affected by energy
dispersion, reflections shaded areas and causing echoes. In analog transmission
these problems manifest as snow, image noise, ghosting, poor color and poor
sound quality. In digital transmission, the signal of logic and not to have
proportionally coded, the receiver can correct, to some extent, the distortions
caused by interference. However, when the receiver is not able to correct certain
errors - this can happen when the interference signal has substantially changed -
the freezing of parts of the image or sound interruption may occur. When the error
level exceeds a certain limit, the receiver is able to reconstruct the signal. That's
when the screen features an image in black with no sound. The fact that this limit
exists given error, not a progressive loss of quality (as usual in analogue
transmissio ) is called digital divide (digital cliff in English ) .
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The picture, sound and data associated with a DTT broadcast digitally encoded. To
do this in standard resolution, is usually used the MPEG -2 standard. Can also be
used, among others, the H.264 standard, which by allowing a higher compression
ratio , it is suitable for HD broadcasts or to increase the number of digital programs
in each multiple channel.
The echo problem is solved by applyin, in the case of DVB -T COFDM modulation.
DTT In the resulting bitstream to encode the image, sound and program data is
transmitted through thousands of carriers between the radiation energy is
distributed. The carriers maintain orthogonality in the frequency domain, its energy
is at the zero crossing of any other, which facilitates the modulation.
Method efficient channel occupancy, the audio and video are divided into small
groups, each group being modulated separately with different carrier frequency
very close to each other. This means that the radio channel is divided into
subchannels cyclically transmitting the signal assigned to each of them. The
transmission speed of the carriers is low with long periods between each
transmitted signal allowing it to be transmitted in urban environments.
2.1. Highest number of television broadcasts
Offering the best bandwidth utilization, DTT can transmit more number of signals
on the same channel.
Since the bandwidth used for analog channel can now transmit several digital
programs, digital broadcasting involves significant energy savings per channel.
This means reduced costs for broadcasters.
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2.1.1 . Greater flexibility in emissions and additional services
In every single radio channel MPEG- 2 stream, which can contain an arbitrary
number of streams of video, audio and data is output. Although several operators
to share the use of a multiplex channel (multiplex), everyone can manage the
bandwidth that corresponds to deliver the content you want. You can ( for example)
to deliver a video stream , two audio ( for example, in two languages at once) ,
multiple data (subtitles in three languages , subtitles for the deaf, in a match
information with the statistics of the players, a race car or timing information and
positions , etc .).
The use of this information by the user is possible thanks to the various
applications available to the DTT receiver, broadly in line with industry standard
called MHP (Multimedia Home Platform). Operators may develop applications that
provide the desired services to their customers, and they will be installed in DTT
receiver to provide access to such services.
One such application is the EPG (Electronic Program Guide), or electronic program
guide , which allows the user to view information about programs the stations (and
times), eventually will give the possibility (depending on the complexity of the
receiver) program recording programs , see the description thereof , actors, etc. .
Among the many services including digital platform is an entire chapter on pay per
view. Digital television allows encryption and therefore any possibility of pay-TV.
The Digital Terrestrial Television, after stages of experimentation in the United
States, begins to be gradually introduced on a pilot basis in Mexico, but as a
consumer country .
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In Mexico an Advisory Committee on Digital Broadcasting Technologies (CCTDR)
was created, according to the secretarial agreement published in the Official
Gazette on July 20, 1999. Publication on the Internet of the Directorate General of
the Ministry of Radio and television shows that this Committee is to establish:
The basis for the study, evaluation and development in Mexico of digital
technologies in broadcasting, to encourage better development of services in the
public user. The CCTDR has six members; three of whom are appointed by the
Ministry of Communications and Transport (SCT) and three by the National
Chamber of Industry of Radio and Television (CIRT), notwithstanding that they may
be invited to meetings of the CCTDR people or institutions that it deems necessary.
The DVB, ATSC, and ISDB were evaluated for introduction into Mexico, however,
the CCTDR determined using the system of U.S. origin ATSC A/53 and found the
system to operate with MPEG -2 compression , H.264 (ATSC 2.0) .29
One reason responds to the importance of the media / economic exchange for
broadcasters Mexican residents on the northern border, since our country to have
a border of more than 3,500 km. with the United States, the market for potentiates
both sides of national boundaries.
Until now, the introduction of digital terrestrial television in Mexico, has been
addressed only from a technical point of view, it is a good start to identify patterns
and strategies to be followed by television operators, as established by the "
Agreement which the Standard Digital Terrestrial Television Technology was Adopts
Policy and the Transition to Digital Terrestrial Television Sets in Mexico ", published
in the Official Gazette on July 2, 2004.
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The analogue switch-off date was scheduled for December 31, 2021, but in the
Fourth Report of the government of President Felipe Calderon Hinojosa said limit
for 2015 forward. Accordingly we have developed a schedule of obligations for
dealers and television licensees transiting DTT, in which six periods, which will
initially be for signs, so that in the next step replication service is archieved
understood. To carry out the transition from analogue to DTT requires the
temporary assignment of additional channels to ensure continuity of service to the
public, to raise the quality of the signals and promote convergence. This is
essential to improve the quality of the signals and bring them to levels of high
definition (HDTV for its acronym in English ) , according to the model established
DTT policy . Additional channels may be requested by licensees and permittees
that have expressed their commitment in terms of policy DTT, according to the
procedure published in Federal Register of Formalities and Services Federal
Regulatory Improvement Commission. The first television broadcasts began with
DTT are Multimedios airwaves in 2006 , Televisa and TV Azteca in 2006 starting in
2008 in Mexico City , Guadalajara , Monterrey , Tijuana , Mexicali , Ciudad Juarez ,
Leon , Queretaro , Nuevo Laredo , Matamoros and Reynosa. Later followed with
Channel Eleven in 2011 and in 2012 Project 40 was aired throughout the country
only for DTT to like teveunam has also started with and IngenioTV. Currently
already has more than 100 cities already have air DTT transmissions (See: List of
digital television channels in Mexico). There is also a company that offers
multichannel digital terrestrial television called HI -TV, launched by Grupo Salinas
and pay television services Cablevision, Sky, Dish, and Cablecom Megacable
already have digitized their channels.
3. Triennial periods for the transition to DTT:
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DTT policy establishes a gradual and progressive transition in six three-year
periods from 2004 to 2021. Periods have been designed based on the population
density and the economic capacity of the country and consider a transition that can
be started with presence digital signal . This means that you can start with low
power transmissions to cover at least 20% of the service area of the station in
question , so that, at a later stage to replicate at least 90% , the service offered
with analogue television station .
PERIOD Cities
first period
(July 5, 2004 to
December 31, 2006)
Mexico City, Guadalajara, Jal., Monterrey, Tijuana, Mexicali, BC, Ensenada, BC,
Ciudad Juarez, Chih., Nuevo Laredo, Tamps., Matamoros, Tamps. and Reynosa,
Tamps., with the presence of at least two commercial digital signals.
second period
(January 1, 2007 to
December 31, 2009)
Digital replica of the trading signals of the first period.
Presence of commercial digital signals in coverage areas of a million and a half
people on.
third Period
(January 1, 2010 to
December 31, 2012)
Replica digital signals of the second period.
Presence of non-commercial digital signals in coverage areas of a million and a half
people on. Presence of commercial digital signal coverage in areas of one million
onwards.
fourth
(January 1, 2013 to
December 31, 2015)
Digital replica of the digital signals of the third period.
Presence of non-commercial digital signal coverage in areas of one million onwards.
Presence of commercial digital signal coverage in areas of 500,000 onwards.
fifth
(January 1, 2016 to
December 31, 2018)
Replica digital signals of the fourth period.
Presence of non-commercial digital signal coverage in areas of 500,000 onwards. Presence of
commercial digital signal coverage in areas of 150,000 onwards.
sixth
(January 1, 2019 to
December 31, 2021)
Digital replica of all analog channels in all coverage areas served by analog TV.
With the Decree of September 2, 2010 the end of analog TV era in Mexico , to
shorten this period to 2015 Lead ; therefore the previous calendar transition
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periods should be adjusted to the new date of analogue switch already undertaken
cities.
The May 28, 2013 , in Tijuana was the first city in Latin America to perform the
analog switch , but was delayed until July 18 because it was election season that
city , apart from the claims of the families before the action . Currently , there is no
analog signal in that city ; and for those families that did not have receptaran digital
signal devices in their TVs , can count for those poor families by the Mexican
government, a digital decoder for free ; and so will continue with the cities that
follow when implementing the blackout.
The dates for the analog switch as Cofetel in Mexico are:
DATE CITIES
July 2013 Tijuana
May 2014 Ciudad Juarez, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, Matamoros and Monterrey.
November
2014
Mexicali, Torreon, Mexico City, Celaya, León, Guadalajara, Jocotitlan,
Cuernavaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Villahermosa, Veracruz,
Xalapa and Merida
November
2015
The rest of the country
NOTE: Can they change the dates and cities as they move signals infrastructure.
In 2000 began operating the first commercial platform Digital Terrestrial Television
(DTT) in Spain, QuieroTV; payment platform that did not reach the expected return
and ceased separate issues on June 30, 2002. After nearly 3 years in which
national public and private broadcasters were broadcasting its analog supply also
in digital, although this was only received by those who had a missing receptor
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QuieroTV, the November 30, 2005 saw the re-launch of DTT project. For this, new
licenses for operating frequencies were awarded QuieroTV abandoned. Were also
carried out various promotional campaigns and a package of legislative measures
were adopted.
4. UNCERTAINTY OF BLACKOUT
• As the population extends between cable television or pay, local TV stations are
at a disadvantage in coverage; the blackout is a reason for forcing these channels
to be updated to issue DTT; furthermore, to analog signals, usable bandwidth to be
used by more TV band is released.
• The lack of a large fleet of equipment capable of receiving and processing the
TDT signal causes the planned dates for performing such blackout remain in
doubt. The marketing of external tuners, instead of including them in TV receivers
and recorders, has created uncertainty about the viability of the deadlines above.
• First, the number of receptors (such as tape recorders or other devices that
incorporate an old analog tuner) that exists in every home is usually more than one
and each requires its own digital tuner. Moreover, there is the inability of the
external tuner can be commanded by the recorder. This has resulted which has not
been extended, as would have been desirable, the set of receivers (or external
tuners) DTT.
The obligation of the suspension of Analog broadcasting is compromised because
of the risk of a significant loss in the number of viewers, a loss that can influence
trade chains base their advertising revenue and audience.
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5. ECONOMIC IMPACT
• The economic impacts are very high. The main actors involved in the transition to
DTT tuners are manufacturers of televisions and antennas, content producers,
broadcasters, network operators, installers, property managers and of course the
spectators.
• Manufacturers are the top earners, since the obligation to adapt to DTT requires
all teams both home, professional and infrastructure are changed. Thus, from the
first broadcasts in digital, sales of these companies have continued to climb.
• companies have appeared parallel installation and maintenance of new
infrastructure .
• Content producers have to adapt to a new much more competitive for capturing
an increasingly diverse audience to the increase in the supply market. This in turn
will benefit the viewers with more TV content.
• The emergence of thematic channels facilitates the entry of new advertising
agents specializing in niche market much more homogeneous.
• Private general channels have lost hearing in favor of thematic channels, a fact
that has resulted in major stock losses.
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• The local television broadcast may be jeopardized by not being able to face
competition from many new channels, which is known as audiovisual bubble.
Moreover many of them are illegal regime with uncertain future. Moreover, he was
forced to digital broadcasting in local television long before the state.
• Network operators also gain as the new backbone network can provide more
quality services and gives them flexibility for selective dissemination. They also
have the advantage over cable or satellite operators for better knowledge of local
markets and the system is much more portable and cheaper for spectators.
6. Liberalization SPECTRUM
One of the reasons why they chose to move to digital television is the future
availability of bandwidth currently used for analog broadcasts. Consequently many
sectors are interested in acquiring part of the digital dividend, including mobile
telecommunications operators, service providers broadband in rural areas,
television, etc.
This part of the spectrum would be useful to telecom operators for two reasons. At
these frequencies can provide more coverage and penetration inside buildings is
better, so that they require less antennas and therefore lower investment.
Moreover more bandwidth they can offer data services as third generation mobile
television or access to broadband.
By 2015, governments are planning to use the 60-69 channels for mobile
communications (broadband, 3G, WiMax,) down leaving 60 channels for DTT. All
this will mean a new organization of spectrum in the years following the blackout.
7. HDTV
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Another reason to make the jump to DTT is the possible transmission of high
definition television (HDTV) , the evolution of the Internet and the creation of Smart
TVs .
RESULTS
Based on the study conducted during the development of this project the following
results encotraron based on research of the Advisory Committee on Digital
Broadcasting Technologies (CCTDR ).
Assembly stations and concession permisionadas television, June 30, 2012 , it had
231 channels Freeview (Annex 1 ), which corresponds to 31.5 % of the 734
stations in the country that operate with analog technology. Channels are 213
dealers and 18 licensees . 9 Furthermore, we have granted licenses to operate
digital channels without an analog channel (Annex 3 ) . In this sense it has 240
channels Freeview infrastructure in a licensed 743 stations , representing 32.3 %
of the authorized channels can be transmitted with Freeview.
At June 30, 2012, 91 stations had reported the installation works have been
completed , so are in operation , of which 92.2 % are auto and 7.8 % to permittees
. These 91 stations representing 39.4% of already authorized and 12.2 % of all
analog television stations in the country.
22
As for the 240 authorized channels, there are 90 different locations, of which 36
have only one channel , while the most prominent locations that already have a
digital equivalent to the analog supply the cities of Mexico , Tijuana and Juárez but
not supplemental coverage transmitters shadow zone .
At 30 June 2012 the number of channels on DTT operation in major cities was as
follows: 11 in Mexico City, Monterrey 9, 7 in Guadalajara, Tijuana -Tecate 6, 3 and
7 in Juarez Reynosa- Matamoros.
Note: The values in this chart were updated based on the administrative changes
(withdrawals, expiration, etc.) For each additional DTT channels authorized.
Figure 3 presents the maximum coverage achieved from 30 transmitter sites in the
country. Note that the scale is set to observe the effect of hedges sites, noting that
the maximum coverage achieved in stations for the City of Mexico is 17.5 million
people.
25
33
63 63
117
224
240
24 32 36
48 55
84 91
0
50
100
150
200
250
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012-1
Figura1 Canales TDT autorizados y en operación
Autorizados En operación
23
Note: The case of Mexico City is no scale to facilitate visualization of the remaining
cases. The estimated coverage of Mexico City is 17,458, 036 people.
Investments in transmission
Investment information reported refers to equipment intended for the transmission
of DTT and generally do not include other types of investment in program
production.
During the first half of 2012, investments of approximately 214.2 million pesos, of
which 11.1 million correspond to permittees , reaching a cumulative total of 1179.6
million ( see Figure 4) were performed .
24
Representatives of the National Chamber of the Radio and Television Industry (
CIRT ) in CCTDR point out that under current transition scheme , investments have
been made to install new digital transmission equipment operating and maintaining
analog and digital infrastructure . However , the levels of penetration of DTT are
low and do not have programs that encourage this penetration by the public .
It should be noted that according to the data reported in the area of investment
expenses not double operation is required to operate with analog and digital
transmissions is contemplated. Such are the cases of :
. 1 - Duplication of infrastructure and pay satellite segment ;
. 2 - Duplication of links - floor studio ;
3 - Increased power consumption . ;
. 4 - Maintenance of transmission equipment ;
. 5 - Increased operating personnel , among others.
222.9 222.9 243.5
295.4
534.7
965.4
1179.6
0.0
200.0
400.0
600.0
800.0
1,000.0
1,200.0
1,400.0
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012-1
Figura 4 Inversiones acumuladas
(millones de pesos de 2012-1)
25
Note: The amounts listed are the sum of the amounts reported by licensees and
permit the reporting period. To convert the current figures in constant pesos,
investment levels were deflated with the National Consumer Price Index published
by the INEGI.
DISCUSSION
This new system will allow the networks have " subchannels " and to offer
additional programming. For example, if there are channels 2 , 4, 5 , 7 and 13 , to
name a few , and there may also be 5.5 or 7.5 (this is called multi - transmission).
Nor should we ignore the fact that the digital television offers a considerable
improvement in audio and video.
However, one disadvantage of this change is only possible in recent television
models . According to several experts, the problem is that in Mexico most TVs are
not ready for change , and a change so radical is only recommended in developed
countries where the population has the means to upgrade their equipment or buy
new TVs .
So , from one system to another , televisions receive analog signals simply stop
working. These users will have these options :
Connect the TV to an easily adaptable converter. So any analog equipment can
receive the digital signal. According to the Secretariat of Communications and
Transportation (SCT ) , the Ministry of Social Development ( SEDESOL) give
financial support to people to buy a converter, or , they will provide a free decoder
per household ( this will depend on each zone the country).
26
Hiring a cable TV service , which provide digital signal by default .
Buy a TV tuner digital.Y is that according to INEGI, only 13% of national
households could see the new signal.
27
REFERENCES
von Ardenne, Manfred (1938). «Das Elektronen-Rastermikroskop.
Theoretische Grundlagen» (en German). Zeitschrift für Physik 109 (9–
10): pp. 553–572
INSTITUTO FEDERAL DE TELECOMUNICACIONES, MÉXICO -
ALGUNOS DERECHOS RESERVADOS © 2013
http://www.eumed.net/libros-
gratis/2010a/664/Introduccion%20de%20la%20TDT%20en%20Mexico
.htm
http://mexico.cnn.com/nacional/2013/07/18/el-apagon-analogico-
regresa-a-tijuana-tras-terminar-el-proceso-electoral
http://www.tdt.mx/tdt/

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Television digital terrestre version inlges

  • 1. 1 DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TELEVISION Sanez Cuervo Edberg Andrei Instituto Tecnológico de Tuxtepec Febrero 2014
  • 2. 2 ABSTRACT In this research we will know all the details about the introduction of digital terrestrial television, note that the HD TV is not the same as DTT our country , since its first broadcasts to the new reforms that consist of making the switch from analog to digital the analog switch so controversial , with full coverage in the country by the end of 2015 , just know that you need to have access to this service and operation. We'll have a better use of bandwidth so that it leads to more channels and therefore at a greater range of television programming. Digital terrestrial television is the most radical technological change in the television industry, after the appearance of the color TV. Introduction of new services such as mobile TV, interactive television, a la carte... promise to join these media into one and make the TV a multimedia terminal apparatus best features.
  • 3. 3 INDICE DE CONTENIDO Contenido RESUMEN........................................................................................................................2 PALABRAS CLAVE.....................................................................................................................6 INDICE DE CONTENIDO....................................................................................................4 INDICE DE TABLAS...........................................................................................................5 INTRODUCCIÓN……………………………………………………………………………………………………………Er ror! Bookmark not defined. MÉTODOS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Er ror! Bookmark not defined. 1. Historia de la television digital……………………………………………………………………………..Error! Bookmark not defined. 2 Mayor límite de calidad de imagen y sonido...........................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.5 2.1. Mayor numero de emisiones de television…………………………………………………….Error! Bookmark not defined. 2.1.1. Mayor flexibilidad de las emisiones y servicios adicionales………………………………Error! Bookmark not defined.6 3. Períodos trianuales para la transición a la TDT…………………………………………………….20 4. LA INCERTIDUMBRE DEL APAGÓN..........................................................................23 5. repercusiones económicas...............................................................................................24 6. Liberacion del espectro................................................................................................25 7. HDTV.....................................................................................................................................25
  • 5. 5 INTRODUCTION Television has been since the early 70’s, the means of mass communication with more impact and has blamed him of the biggest cultural changes in large scale (positive and negative), followed surpassed even in recent times online. This impact can be increased far from diminishing and transformed with the emergence of new technologies: digital television. Digital television is one in which it transmits, receives and processes audio signals and discreetly video (1s and 0s), in contrast with the continuous form used by the analog TV. Until now, the introduction of digital terrestrial television in Mexico, has been addressed only from a technical point of view, it is a good start to identify patterns and strategies to be followed by television operators, as established by the " Agreement which the Standard Digital Terrestrial Television Technology was Adopts Policy and the Transition to Digital Terrestrial Television Sets in Mexico “, published in the Official Gazette on July 2, 2004. At this point in the country is beginning to make the transition from analogue to digital TV , and that is why this project is done , to publicize this major change to
  • 6. 6 publicize the new age of television in the country and likewise disclose data and statistics to understand this change. METHODS To address the issue begins with a documentary analysis, examining the literature in the area, from digital documentary sources ; in order to build a conceptual framework related to the topic of social networks and the impact resulting therefrom . In this sense , the methodology used was a search for information on the Internet , because it relied on information from previous studies , books and magazines. Methodological procedure performed The sample size in research presents no rules and it depends on what you are looking for ( M. Patton , 1990) in this regard is to establish a theoretical sample , negotiating between breadth and depth . A purposive sample of theoretical nature , taking into account the contributions of ( A. & Glaser , 1967) led to the emergence of the theory , since " only this sampling maximizes the benefits of simultaneous selection of cases , we used the data collection and analysis thereof . "
  • 7. 7 1. HISTORY OF DIGITAL TELEVISION In the late 1980s they began to develop scanning systems. Digitization on television has two distinct parts. On one side is the digitization of production and on the other the transmission. Regarding production several scanning systems were developed. The first of them were based on digitized composite video signal which was unsuccessful. The approach of digitizing components of the video signal, that is, the luminance and color differences , which was proved most suitable . Initially signal systems in parallel , with thick cables a wire needed for each bit , the wire is suddenly replaced by the multiplexed transmission time corresponding to each of the signal components are developed words also this system allowed include audio, embedding it in the information provided, and a number of utilities. To maintain the quality required for the production of TV Studio Quality standard CCIR -601 was developed. While the development of other less demanding standards for light field production (EFP) and electronic news gathering (ENG ) allowed .
  • 8. 8 The difference between the two fields, the quality of production and study of ENG as the magnitude lies in the bit stream generated in the digitization of the signals. Reducing the bit rate of digital video signal resulted in a series of algorithms, all based on the discrete cosine transform both the spatial domain and in the temporal, that reduced this flow enabling team building more accessible. This allowed them access to small production companies and TV broadcast leading to the rise of local television. As for the transmission, digitization of the same was made possible by the compression techniques that reduce the flow achieved within 5 Mbit/s, we must remember that the original flow signal quality paper is 270 Mbit/s. This compression is the MPEG-2 streams call occurs between 4 and 6 Mbit/s without appreciable loss of subjective quality. Digital TV transmissions are three major areas depending upon the form thereof even if they are similar in technology. Transmission is via satellite, cable and satellite terrestrial radio, this is known as TDT. The advance of information technology, both in terms of hardware and software led to the computer -based signal processing TV production systems. Storage systems such as tape recorders, became replaced by computer servers and video files passed to save your information on hard drives and data tapes. Video files include metadata is information concerning its contents. Access to information is from the computers themselves where they are video editing programs so that the resident information in the file is accessible in real time by the user. Actually the files are structured in three levels, the on line, for that information very frequent use that
  • 9. 9 resides on server hard disks, the near line, frequently used information that resides on data tapes and they are in large bookstores automated , and deep file where the information that is out of line is accurate and the system incorporating manual . All this is controlled by a database where entries include information resident in the system. The incorporation of information is performed by system function called intake. The sources can be generated and or computer formats are converted using video converter to computer files. Deposits made in the field by teams ENG or EFP recorded in formats compatible with the storage using different media to magnetic tape , existing technologies are DVD blue ray ( Sony ) recording memories ram ( Panasonic ) and hard disk recording ( Ikegami ) . The existence of the video server enables automation of releases and informational programs by performing Emission lists. Digital terrestrial television (DTT), also called open digital television (TDA) is the transmission of moving pictures and associated audio (TV) via a digital signal (binary encodin) and through a network of terrestrial repeaters. The digital information coding provides several advantages. Notable among them are first, the ability to compress the signal. Can make more efficient use of radio spectrum. After completing its multiplexing, can be issued more channels - digital system that are renamed " digital programs " - in space before one employee , now called " digital multi-channel " or " multiplex " . The number of programs transmitted in each multiple channel depends on the relationship (ratio) of compression used. On the other han, you can spend the extra spectrum for other uses. The compression has also viable television signals broadcast in high definition (HD or high definition), which require higher bandwidth than standard definition.
  • 10. 10 It is noteworthy that the digital signal is more robust than analog, ie not more resistant to interference. Both are electromagnetic signals of the same kind, and capable of being distorted by electric or magnetic fields, weather conditions, etc. . The difference, as discussed, is the manner of encoding information . Digital coding is then logical algorithms to identify and correct errors . DTT transmission is done using the different technical parameters established by technology standards. There are several and use by state responds to its ability to create standards, its geographical location and its membership in the sphere of influence of the creators state standards. Thus, the ATSC is used in North America: Canada, United States and Mexico, and countries related to its developer : South Korea, Honduras , El Salvador and Dominican Republic . The Japanese standard ISDB -T is used in Japan , the Philippines and most countries in Central and South America: Brazil, Bolivia , Peru , Argentina , Paraguay , Chile, Venezuela , Ecuador , Costa Rica , Nicaragua , Guatemala and Uruguay ( with the exception of Colombia , Panama , Guyana , Suriname, Honduras and El Salvador ) . The European DVB - T is used in the EU, Australia, South Africa, Namibia, Panama, Colombia and Turkey Union. In China DTMB used (formerly DSM-T/HDSM The analog TV technology only allows the transmission of a single television program each UHF channel (either6 MHz, 7 MHz or 8 MHz bandwidth). Also adjacent channels to an issue that occurs must be free to prevent interference. Digital coding of programs allows the available bandwidth in a single UHF channel can transmit several programs similar to that of a DVD or one or two quality HD quality. The number of concurrent programs depends on the image quality and desired sound, although at present is five programs, with regular use of four, which gives good quality images with slow movements, although scenes more action can be seen easily distorted image areas, which are called artifacts (anomalies) (artifacts, in English ) due to digital MPEG- 2 (or MPEG -4) low speed . However, the great flexibility of the MPEG -2 or MPEG -4 encoding can change these settings at any time, users transparent manner. The block of four or five
  • 11. 11 channels emission emitted by a conventional UHF channel called MUX (multiple). The bitstream is MUX multiplexing channels that compose it. The flowrate of each multiplexed channel can be adjusted at will, which is equivalent to regulate the quality of the same. You can assign a high flow to a movie or sporting event payment flow subtracting the other channels that make up the MUX and can be open issue. As the flow depends on the image content, many variations and detail of an image much more flow occur. The optimal use of MUX, when all its components have the same commercial importance, is performed using a statistical flow control. An intelligent system estimates the flow of each MUX channel composed at all times and will assign more or less bandwidth according to the identified need. Logically, one can determine, channel by channel a minimum bandwidth as discussed above. 2.- HIGHER LIMIT IMAGE QUALITY AND SOUND Due to the better utilization of bandwidth, TDT emissions may consist of higher visual quality. The terrestrial television transmission is affected by energy dispersion, reflections shaded areas and causing echoes. In analog transmission these problems manifest as snow, image noise, ghosting, poor color and poor sound quality. In digital transmission, the signal of logic and not to have proportionally coded, the receiver can correct, to some extent, the distortions caused by interference. However, when the receiver is not able to correct certain errors - this can happen when the interference signal has substantially changed - the freezing of parts of the image or sound interruption may occur. When the error level exceeds a certain limit, the receiver is able to reconstruct the signal. That's when the screen features an image in black with no sound. The fact that this limit exists given error, not a progressive loss of quality (as usual in analogue transmissio ) is called digital divide (digital cliff in English ) .
  • 12. 12 The picture, sound and data associated with a DTT broadcast digitally encoded. To do this in standard resolution, is usually used the MPEG -2 standard. Can also be used, among others, the H.264 standard, which by allowing a higher compression ratio , it is suitable for HD broadcasts or to increase the number of digital programs in each multiple channel. The echo problem is solved by applyin, in the case of DVB -T COFDM modulation. DTT In the resulting bitstream to encode the image, sound and program data is transmitted through thousands of carriers between the radiation energy is distributed. The carriers maintain orthogonality in the frequency domain, its energy is at the zero crossing of any other, which facilitates the modulation. Method efficient channel occupancy, the audio and video are divided into small groups, each group being modulated separately with different carrier frequency very close to each other. This means that the radio channel is divided into subchannels cyclically transmitting the signal assigned to each of them. The transmission speed of the carriers is low with long periods between each transmitted signal allowing it to be transmitted in urban environments. 2.1. Highest number of television broadcasts Offering the best bandwidth utilization, DTT can transmit more number of signals on the same channel. Since the bandwidth used for analog channel can now transmit several digital programs, digital broadcasting involves significant energy savings per channel. This means reduced costs for broadcasters.
  • 13. 13 2.1.1 . Greater flexibility in emissions and additional services In every single radio channel MPEG- 2 stream, which can contain an arbitrary number of streams of video, audio and data is output. Although several operators to share the use of a multiplex channel (multiplex), everyone can manage the bandwidth that corresponds to deliver the content you want. You can ( for example) to deliver a video stream , two audio ( for example, in two languages at once) , multiple data (subtitles in three languages , subtitles for the deaf, in a match information with the statistics of the players, a race car or timing information and positions , etc .). The use of this information by the user is possible thanks to the various applications available to the DTT receiver, broadly in line with industry standard called MHP (Multimedia Home Platform). Operators may develop applications that provide the desired services to their customers, and they will be installed in DTT receiver to provide access to such services. One such application is the EPG (Electronic Program Guide), or electronic program guide , which allows the user to view information about programs the stations (and times), eventually will give the possibility (depending on the complexity of the receiver) program recording programs , see the description thereof , actors, etc. . Among the many services including digital platform is an entire chapter on pay per view. Digital television allows encryption and therefore any possibility of pay-TV. The Digital Terrestrial Television, after stages of experimentation in the United States, begins to be gradually introduced on a pilot basis in Mexico, but as a consumer country .
  • 14. 14 In Mexico an Advisory Committee on Digital Broadcasting Technologies (CCTDR) was created, according to the secretarial agreement published in the Official Gazette on July 20, 1999. Publication on the Internet of the Directorate General of the Ministry of Radio and television shows that this Committee is to establish: The basis for the study, evaluation and development in Mexico of digital technologies in broadcasting, to encourage better development of services in the public user. The CCTDR has six members; three of whom are appointed by the Ministry of Communications and Transport (SCT) and three by the National Chamber of Industry of Radio and Television (CIRT), notwithstanding that they may be invited to meetings of the CCTDR people or institutions that it deems necessary. The DVB, ATSC, and ISDB were evaluated for introduction into Mexico, however, the CCTDR determined using the system of U.S. origin ATSC A/53 and found the system to operate with MPEG -2 compression , H.264 (ATSC 2.0) .29 One reason responds to the importance of the media / economic exchange for broadcasters Mexican residents on the northern border, since our country to have a border of more than 3,500 km. with the United States, the market for potentiates both sides of national boundaries. Until now, the introduction of digital terrestrial television in Mexico, has been addressed only from a technical point of view, it is a good start to identify patterns and strategies to be followed by television operators, as established by the " Agreement which the Standard Digital Terrestrial Television Technology was Adopts Policy and the Transition to Digital Terrestrial Television Sets in Mexico ", published in the Official Gazette on July 2, 2004.
  • 15. 15 The analogue switch-off date was scheduled for December 31, 2021, but in the Fourth Report of the government of President Felipe Calderon Hinojosa said limit for 2015 forward. Accordingly we have developed a schedule of obligations for dealers and television licensees transiting DTT, in which six periods, which will initially be for signs, so that in the next step replication service is archieved understood. To carry out the transition from analogue to DTT requires the temporary assignment of additional channels to ensure continuity of service to the public, to raise the quality of the signals and promote convergence. This is essential to improve the quality of the signals and bring them to levels of high definition (HDTV for its acronym in English ) , according to the model established DTT policy . Additional channels may be requested by licensees and permittees that have expressed their commitment in terms of policy DTT, according to the procedure published in Federal Register of Formalities and Services Federal Regulatory Improvement Commission. The first television broadcasts began with DTT are Multimedios airwaves in 2006 , Televisa and TV Azteca in 2006 starting in 2008 in Mexico City , Guadalajara , Monterrey , Tijuana , Mexicali , Ciudad Juarez , Leon , Queretaro , Nuevo Laredo , Matamoros and Reynosa. Later followed with Channel Eleven in 2011 and in 2012 Project 40 was aired throughout the country only for DTT to like teveunam has also started with and IngenioTV. Currently already has more than 100 cities already have air DTT transmissions (See: List of digital television channels in Mexico). There is also a company that offers multichannel digital terrestrial television called HI -TV, launched by Grupo Salinas and pay television services Cablevision, Sky, Dish, and Cablecom Megacable already have digitized their channels. 3. Triennial periods for the transition to DTT:
  • 16. 16 DTT policy establishes a gradual and progressive transition in six three-year periods from 2004 to 2021. Periods have been designed based on the population density and the economic capacity of the country and consider a transition that can be started with presence digital signal . This means that you can start with low power transmissions to cover at least 20% of the service area of the station in question , so that, at a later stage to replicate at least 90% , the service offered with analogue television station . PERIOD Cities first period (July 5, 2004 to December 31, 2006) Mexico City, Guadalajara, Jal., Monterrey, Tijuana, Mexicali, BC, Ensenada, BC, Ciudad Juarez, Chih., Nuevo Laredo, Tamps., Matamoros, Tamps. and Reynosa, Tamps., with the presence of at least two commercial digital signals. second period (January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009) Digital replica of the trading signals of the first period. Presence of commercial digital signals in coverage areas of a million and a half people on. third Period (January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012) Replica digital signals of the second period. Presence of non-commercial digital signals in coverage areas of a million and a half people on. Presence of commercial digital signal coverage in areas of one million onwards. fourth (January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015) Digital replica of the digital signals of the third period. Presence of non-commercial digital signal coverage in areas of one million onwards. Presence of commercial digital signal coverage in areas of 500,000 onwards. fifth (January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018) Replica digital signals of the fourth period. Presence of non-commercial digital signal coverage in areas of 500,000 onwards. Presence of commercial digital signal coverage in areas of 150,000 onwards. sixth (January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2021) Digital replica of all analog channels in all coverage areas served by analog TV. With the Decree of September 2, 2010 the end of analog TV era in Mexico , to shorten this period to 2015 Lead ; therefore the previous calendar transition
  • 17. 17 periods should be adjusted to the new date of analogue switch already undertaken cities. The May 28, 2013 , in Tijuana was the first city in Latin America to perform the analog switch , but was delayed until July 18 because it was election season that city , apart from the claims of the families before the action . Currently , there is no analog signal in that city ; and for those families that did not have receptaran digital signal devices in their TVs , can count for those poor families by the Mexican government, a digital decoder for free ; and so will continue with the cities that follow when implementing the blackout. The dates for the analog switch as Cofetel in Mexico are: DATE CITIES July 2013 Tijuana May 2014 Ciudad Juarez, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, Matamoros and Monterrey. November 2014 Mexicali, Torreon, Mexico City, Celaya, León, Guadalajara, Jocotitlan, Cuernavaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Villahermosa, Veracruz, Xalapa and Merida November 2015 The rest of the country NOTE: Can they change the dates and cities as they move signals infrastructure. In 2000 began operating the first commercial platform Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) in Spain, QuieroTV; payment platform that did not reach the expected return and ceased separate issues on June 30, 2002. After nearly 3 years in which national public and private broadcasters were broadcasting its analog supply also in digital, although this was only received by those who had a missing receptor
  • 18. 18 QuieroTV, the November 30, 2005 saw the re-launch of DTT project. For this, new licenses for operating frequencies were awarded QuieroTV abandoned. Were also carried out various promotional campaigns and a package of legislative measures were adopted. 4. UNCERTAINTY OF BLACKOUT • As the population extends between cable television or pay, local TV stations are at a disadvantage in coverage; the blackout is a reason for forcing these channels to be updated to issue DTT; furthermore, to analog signals, usable bandwidth to be used by more TV band is released. • The lack of a large fleet of equipment capable of receiving and processing the TDT signal causes the planned dates for performing such blackout remain in doubt. The marketing of external tuners, instead of including them in TV receivers and recorders, has created uncertainty about the viability of the deadlines above. • First, the number of receptors (such as tape recorders or other devices that incorporate an old analog tuner) that exists in every home is usually more than one and each requires its own digital tuner. Moreover, there is the inability of the external tuner can be commanded by the recorder. This has resulted which has not been extended, as would have been desirable, the set of receivers (or external tuners) DTT. The obligation of the suspension of Analog broadcasting is compromised because of the risk of a significant loss in the number of viewers, a loss that can influence trade chains base their advertising revenue and audience.
  • 19. 19 5. ECONOMIC IMPACT • The economic impacts are very high. The main actors involved in the transition to DTT tuners are manufacturers of televisions and antennas, content producers, broadcasters, network operators, installers, property managers and of course the spectators. • Manufacturers are the top earners, since the obligation to adapt to DTT requires all teams both home, professional and infrastructure are changed. Thus, from the first broadcasts in digital, sales of these companies have continued to climb. • companies have appeared parallel installation and maintenance of new infrastructure . • Content producers have to adapt to a new much more competitive for capturing an increasingly diverse audience to the increase in the supply market. This in turn will benefit the viewers with more TV content. • The emergence of thematic channels facilitates the entry of new advertising agents specializing in niche market much more homogeneous. • Private general channels have lost hearing in favor of thematic channels, a fact that has resulted in major stock losses.
  • 20. 20 • The local television broadcast may be jeopardized by not being able to face competition from many new channels, which is known as audiovisual bubble. Moreover many of them are illegal regime with uncertain future. Moreover, he was forced to digital broadcasting in local television long before the state. • Network operators also gain as the new backbone network can provide more quality services and gives them flexibility for selective dissemination. They also have the advantage over cable or satellite operators for better knowledge of local markets and the system is much more portable and cheaper for spectators. 6. Liberalization SPECTRUM One of the reasons why they chose to move to digital television is the future availability of bandwidth currently used for analog broadcasts. Consequently many sectors are interested in acquiring part of the digital dividend, including mobile telecommunications operators, service providers broadband in rural areas, television, etc. This part of the spectrum would be useful to telecom operators for two reasons. At these frequencies can provide more coverage and penetration inside buildings is better, so that they require less antennas and therefore lower investment. Moreover more bandwidth they can offer data services as third generation mobile television or access to broadband. By 2015, governments are planning to use the 60-69 channels for mobile communications (broadband, 3G, WiMax,) down leaving 60 channels for DTT. All this will mean a new organization of spectrum in the years following the blackout. 7. HDTV
  • 21. 21 Another reason to make the jump to DTT is the possible transmission of high definition television (HDTV) , the evolution of the Internet and the creation of Smart TVs . RESULTS Based on the study conducted during the development of this project the following results encotraron based on research of the Advisory Committee on Digital Broadcasting Technologies (CCTDR ). Assembly stations and concession permisionadas television, June 30, 2012 , it had 231 channels Freeview (Annex 1 ), which corresponds to 31.5 % of the 734 stations in the country that operate with analog technology. Channels are 213 dealers and 18 licensees . 9 Furthermore, we have granted licenses to operate digital channels without an analog channel (Annex 3 ) . In this sense it has 240 channels Freeview infrastructure in a licensed 743 stations , representing 32.3 % of the authorized channels can be transmitted with Freeview. At June 30, 2012, 91 stations had reported the installation works have been completed , so are in operation , of which 92.2 % are auto and 7.8 % to permittees . These 91 stations representing 39.4% of already authorized and 12.2 % of all analog television stations in the country.
  • 22. 22 As for the 240 authorized channels, there are 90 different locations, of which 36 have only one channel , while the most prominent locations that already have a digital equivalent to the analog supply the cities of Mexico , Tijuana and Juárez but not supplemental coverage transmitters shadow zone . At 30 June 2012 the number of channels on DTT operation in major cities was as follows: 11 in Mexico City, Monterrey 9, 7 in Guadalajara, Tijuana -Tecate 6, 3 and 7 in Juarez Reynosa- Matamoros. Note: The values in this chart were updated based on the administrative changes (withdrawals, expiration, etc.) For each additional DTT channels authorized. Figure 3 presents the maximum coverage achieved from 30 transmitter sites in the country. Note that the scale is set to observe the effect of hedges sites, noting that the maximum coverage achieved in stations for the City of Mexico is 17.5 million people. 25 33 63 63 117 224 240 24 32 36 48 55 84 91 0 50 100 150 200 250 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012-1 Figura1 Canales TDT autorizados y en operación Autorizados En operación
  • 23. 23 Note: The case of Mexico City is no scale to facilitate visualization of the remaining cases. The estimated coverage of Mexico City is 17,458, 036 people. Investments in transmission Investment information reported refers to equipment intended for the transmission of DTT and generally do not include other types of investment in program production. During the first half of 2012, investments of approximately 214.2 million pesos, of which 11.1 million correspond to permittees , reaching a cumulative total of 1179.6 million ( see Figure 4) were performed .
  • 24. 24 Representatives of the National Chamber of the Radio and Television Industry ( CIRT ) in CCTDR point out that under current transition scheme , investments have been made to install new digital transmission equipment operating and maintaining analog and digital infrastructure . However , the levels of penetration of DTT are low and do not have programs that encourage this penetration by the public . It should be noted that according to the data reported in the area of investment expenses not double operation is required to operate with analog and digital transmissions is contemplated. Such are the cases of : . 1 - Duplication of infrastructure and pay satellite segment ; . 2 - Duplication of links - floor studio ; 3 - Increased power consumption . ; . 4 - Maintenance of transmission equipment ; . 5 - Increased operating personnel , among others. 222.9 222.9 243.5 295.4 534.7 965.4 1179.6 0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1,000.0 1,200.0 1,400.0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012-1 Figura 4 Inversiones acumuladas (millones de pesos de 2012-1)
  • 25. 25 Note: The amounts listed are the sum of the amounts reported by licensees and permit the reporting period. To convert the current figures in constant pesos, investment levels were deflated with the National Consumer Price Index published by the INEGI. DISCUSSION This new system will allow the networks have " subchannels " and to offer additional programming. For example, if there are channels 2 , 4, 5 , 7 and 13 , to name a few , and there may also be 5.5 or 7.5 (this is called multi - transmission). Nor should we ignore the fact that the digital television offers a considerable improvement in audio and video. However, one disadvantage of this change is only possible in recent television models . According to several experts, the problem is that in Mexico most TVs are not ready for change , and a change so radical is only recommended in developed countries where the population has the means to upgrade their equipment or buy new TVs . So , from one system to another , televisions receive analog signals simply stop working. These users will have these options : Connect the TV to an easily adaptable converter. So any analog equipment can receive the digital signal. According to the Secretariat of Communications and Transportation (SCT ) , the Ministry of Social Development ( SEDESOL) give financial support to people to buy a converter, or , they will provide a free decoder per household ( this will depend on each zone the country).
  • 26. 26 Hiring a cable TV service , which provide digital signal by default . Buy a TV tuner digital.Y is that according to INEGI, only 13% of national households could see the new signal.
  • 27. 27 REFERENCES von Ardenne, Manfred (1938). «Das Elektronen-Rastermikroskop. Theoretische Grundlagen» (en German). Zeitschrift für Physik 109 (9– 10): pp. 553–572 INSTITUTO FEDERAL DE TELECOMUNICACIONES, MÉXICO - ALGUNOS DERECHOS RESERVADOS © 2013 http://www.eumed.net/libros- gratis/2010a/664/Introduccion%20de%20la%20TDT%20en%20Mexico .htm http://mexico.cnn.com/nacional/2013/07/18/el-apagon-analogico- regresa-a-tijuana-tras-terminar-el-proceso-electoral http://www.tdt.mx/tdt/