Re-urbanization is the increasing number of people moving back into inner urban areas having previously lived in the suburbs or outside the urban area.
The causes of reurbanisation are:
The population pressure and lack of resources in rural areas so more people move to the urban areas for abetter standard of living
The urban areas are expanding faster so people are moving from the rural area to the urban areas because they is more places to work.
Also they is better health care in urban areas so less people die which means more people are moving to the urban areas to get a better and healthier life style.
The port of Manchester
In 1984 the docks in Manchester closed and Salford Quays development plan came into action. Six years later the derelict inner-city are has been transformed.
Manchester grew rapidly during the nineteenth century as Lancashire’s cotton textile industry, but by 1870’s business began to decline which meant factories and warehouses closed and unemployment was a major problem.
Many of these factories were moving closer towards Liverpool as they could benefit from the access to the ocean-going ships. If the factories stayed in Manchester then they would have to pay huge amounts for the transport to and from Liverpool.
It was essential to make Manchester accessible to ships to stop further decline. And they was plans put forward to build a Manchester ship canal from the Mersey estuary to Manchester which was completed in 1894 and was opened by Queen Victoria.
Once the port was built it was Britain’s third major port and the most modern and well-equipped in the world
The docks were very successful and grew rapidly, handling goods from many countries.
This meant that businesses reached a peak in the 1950’s
In 1968,the trade began to decline the reasons for this was
Bigger boats were being built and they could not travel as far up as Manchester.
The canal journey became to slow.
The port was to slow to respond to the new techniques.
They was growing competition from abroad, which was threatening Lancashire’s traditional industries.
The docks were soon neglected and the warehouses became infested with rats and the water became polluted.
The community which depended on the docks lost there jobs and they became poor.
The landscape became an area suffering from inner-city decline with caused derelict housing and vandalism.
Trafford park industrial estate was the first industrial estate to be built and the largest in Britain. Because of dock decline many places and businesses were closing down and moving away.
After this, it was said that Urban renewal needed to take place, and make massive investments in industry and offices, transport, housing, shops and cultural leisure facilities.
The new Salford Quays
Before redevelopment began in 1985 some important steps were taken:
1981 162 hectares of land which was near the Manchester ship canal were designated an enterprise zone as it was in the need of development. The enterprise zone was given advice, grants and incentives to encourage the renewal.
1981 Salford city council brought 91 hectares of the docks from the Manchester ship canal company.
1983 SCC and Urban Waterside Ltd produced a mixed land scheme for 9 hectares.
1984 More development plans were drawn up and the new area was re-named Salford Quays.
1985 The plan was set which gave new guidelines for the location of roads, services, housing, and commercial. The department of the environment approved the scheme.
The Salford Quays became important for investments for housing and offices
July 1989 They was 53.34sq metres of new offices and 300 new homes. They was also new shops and restaurants.
Salford Quay and the community
The work created more than 400 jobs and that when the jobs had been completed they was over 6,000 jobs for the local people
The only houses that were being built are for private ownership, which has exclude local people from buying the new homes.
Old ships and two cranes have been remained there for example of the old docks.
The redevelopment will make Salford Quays attractive place to live, work and visit. The social economic benefits will be felt all over Greater Manchester and the north-west.
Gentrification is when the status of an inner urban area, which has become unfashionable and neglected, is upgraded as wealthier people move back in. They have sufficient financial resources to improve properties and thereby increase the area’s status again.
Gentrification and reurbanisation are connected because without reurbanisation happening then gentrification would not happen. As the people would not be moving back so they would not be able to upgrade the inner urban area and they would still be unfashionable and neglected.