The Industrial Revolution changed the character of the area. A grid layout of four-storey tenements grew up through the 1900s to house local factory and cotton mill workers. By the 1930s it had a large population and lots of small shops and pubs. Overcrowding and poor maintenance led to the area becoming run-down. Early History
Conditions in the Gorbals <ul><li>Over-crowding </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty stricken </li></ul><ul><li>crime ridden </li></ul><ul><li>filthy and damp </li></ul><ul><li>More than 50% households had no fixed baths & hot water </li></ul><ul><li>many shared an outside toilet </li></ul><ul><li>High unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>very poor standards of healthcare and education </li></ul><ul><li>derelict land and pollution </li></ul>
Activity <ul><li>Explain what event led to the establishment of the Gorbals </li></ul><ul><li>What were conditions like in the Gorbals by 1930? </li></ul>
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/subjects/history/britainsince1930s/society/slum_conditions_3 <ul><li>Short 1min clip interviewing lady on streets of Gorbals just prior to demolition </li></ul>
Images like these paved the way for urban renewal
<ul><li>Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment. </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal has had both successes and failures. </li></ul><ul><li>It involved demolishing the old tenement buildings. </li></ul>What is urban renewal?
After demolition: <ul><li>1. New high rise flats were built in place of the old tenements </li></ul><ul><li>2. Residents were moved out to purpose built estates on the outskirts of the city eg. Castlemilk </li></ul><ul><li>Activity: Can you think of the advantages and disadvantages of both solutions </li></ul>
Streets in the Sky <ul><li>High Rise Flats in Inner City </li></ul><ul><li>Did the people decanted to these ''streets in the sky'' prefer them to the miserable slums from which they had escaped? </li></ul><ul><li>The flats had heating, indoor bathrooms and were warm and dry. </li></ul><ul><li>However they destroyed community spirit, people felt isolated often leading to depression, the tower blocks were poorly designed, vandalism increased and there were pockets of high unemployment and crime </li></ul><ul><li>Housing Estates on the outskirts </li></ul><ul><li>While the residents were at first enchanted by the size of their new homes with their indoor bathrooms, and with the clean air and green fields around the estates, they quickly realised how far they now were from the city centre, and how isolated they had become from friends and families. </li></ul><ul><li>They had to travel to find work and this was expensive. </li></ul>
Out of town estates like Castlemilk and Easterhouse
Solutions to the run-down inner city Out of town New Housing estates (Castlemilk) Innercity Glasgow (gorbals) High Rise flats Disadvantages Advantages
How has urban renewal changed over time? <ul><li>Initially large-scale </li></ul><ul><li>demolition known as </li></ul><ul><li>redevelopment was </li></ul><ul><li>carried out </li></ul>
Renovation of the old tenements since the 1980s <ul><li>More recently, existing buildings have been renovated . This is the new urban renewal. Tenements are modernised - sandblasted, new windows, central heating, bathrooms </li></ul>
<ul><li>Urban regeneration under construction </li></ul>
<ul><li>More traditional streets have been created along with more open spaces </li></ul>
Comprehensive Regeneration in the 21 st Century Recognising the mistakes of the 1960s, the emphasis now is on recreating more traditional streets and open spaces. New developments re-introduce four-storey tenement housing, a new shopping street and large communal back garden areas.
Tackling Unemployment <ul><li>Severe unemployment is being tackled through the Gorbals Initiative , a local enterprise company, which provides access for local people to nearby job opportunities and stimulates the local economy. </li></ul><ul><li>All in all, great efforts have been made to make the Gorbals a vibrant, thriving community. </li></ul>
Activity <ul><li>Why has renovating the old tenement buildings and building similar new ones in the inner city been much more successful? </li></ul><ul><li>What other efforts have been made to regenerate the Gorbals area? </li></ul>
Urban decay in the 1980s By the 1980s , the area had an air of neglect and dilapidation. The redevelopment of the area had stopped and the effects of poor building specification were apparent. The population of the area was 85,000 in 1931. By 1952, this was down to 68,000. In the 1980s it had crashed to 10,000. Shops were difficult to keep going, schools were relocated or closed, and places of worship closed their doors. In 1980 , after a great battle and rent strike, the council bowed to tenant pressure to rehouse remaining tenants from flats riddled with condensation and water penetration. Options to refurbish were dismissed and 759 flats were demolished in 1987 . Once again, the area was in dire need of regeneration . The council had to find an overall strategy to reverse its decline.
The 1990s <ul><li>1990’s </li></ul><ul><li>Glasgow is now recognised as a leader in showing economic and physical renewal can be achieved. The following are examples of its achievements: </li></ul><ul><li>Transport - Glasgow's airport capacity has been increased and a fully integrated transport network has been developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Improvements - cleaning buildings, landscaping and developing parks and play areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Housing - 10,000 new homes built between 1990-1994 and extensive improvements have been made including the replacement of unsuccessful tower blocks and the gentrification of tenement blocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Glasgow has also managed to promote and retain the success of its city centre by developing shopping facilities in the CBD and avoiding out-of-town shopping centres. By investing in people through training and skills, Glasgow has also managed to help reduce unemployment. </li></ul>