- Placed in seven splendid niches between two Corinthian columns the used to be the seven gods linked to the worship of planets, or considered to be such: the Sun, the Moon, Venus, Saturn, Jupiter, Mercury and Mars. With the advent of Christianity, some of them were used for small altars dedicated to Christian Martyrs.
- The columns were transported by wooden sledges to the Nile, barged to Alexandria, and put on vessels for a trip across the Mediterranean to the port of Ostia. From there the columns came up the Tiber by barge.
- The base was mostly built with basalt, top pumice
Holes may still be seen where the clamps which held the sculpture in place were fixed.
-The Roman Pantheon seems to exist independent of religious rule - more a tribute to the past than any specific spiritual figures.
The Pantheon Rome, Italy <ul><li>Drew Matthews and Cassi Lau </li></ul>
The Pantheon <ul><li>One of the wonders of the ancient world and one of Rome’s most popular tourist attractions </li></ul><ul><li>It was once used as a temple to honor all gods and now used as a Roman Catholic church </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheon in Greek means “to honor all gods” </li></ul><ul><li>The inscription on the Pantheon reads: " M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT ” which translates to "'Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, Consul for the third time, built this” </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Pantheon sits on the southern edge of the Piazza Della Rotonda, one of the city's most famous plazas </li></ul><ul><li>At the center of the plaza is a towering obelisk, which Pope Clement XI placed in the early 1700s </li></ul>
The Piazza della Rotonda with its beautiful fountain designed by Giacomo Della Porta. The Piazza della Rotonda is a lively square filled with cafes, bars, and restaurants.
History <ul><li>Pantheon was first built by Augustus’s general Marcus Agrippa in 27 BC and later reconstructed by Emperor Hadrian in 125 AD </li></ul><ul><li>In 608 AD the Byzantine Emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who converted it to a Christian church, that was dedicated to “St. Mary and the Martyrs” </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 17 th Century, Pope Urban VIII removed the bronze beams of the portico, using the bronze to construct the canopy that covers the altar at St. Peter’s Basilica </li></ul>
History <ul><li>Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been used as a tomb </li></ul><ul><li>The building houses the tombs of two 19 th Century kings Victor Emmanuel II and Umberto I </li></ul><ul><li>And also serves as the burial place of the painter Raphael </li></ul>
<ul><li>The most striking thing about the Pantheon is the unity of the building </li></ul><ul><li>It is a marvel of architectural harmony and proportion </li></ul>Architecture
<ul><li>Beneath the light and between the granite Corinthian columns, seven sculptures stand </li></ul><ul><li>These Roman gods correspond to each of the seven planets (at the time) and remain in their original spots </li></ul>Architecture
Columns <ul><li>The ranks of columns consist of eight in the first row, and two groups of four behind </li></ul>The massive columns supporting the portico weigh 60 tons. Each is 39 feet tall and 5 feet in diameter They were made from stone quarried in Egypt
Oculus <ul><li>The opening at the top of the Pantheon, the oculus, is nearly 30 feet in diameter and was the temples only source of light </li></ul><ul><li>The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method </li></ul>
Rotunda <ul><li>The concrete dome is 4,535 metric tons </li></ul><ul><li>The top of the rotunda wall features a series of brick relieving arches, visible on the outside and built into the mass of the brickwork </li></ul>
Portico <ul><li>A rectangular structure links the portico with the rotunda. In the walls at the back of the portico were niches for statues of Caesar, Augustus and Agrippa </li></ul>
<ul><li>The pediment was decorated with a sculpture in bronze showing the Battle of the Titans </li></ul><ul><li>The building was originally approached by a flight of steps. The ground level in the surrounding area has risen considerably since antiquity </li></ul>
Interior <ul><li>The interior of the Pantheon was painted by Giovanni Paolo Panini in the 18th century </li></ul><ul><li>Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme. As a result, the interior decorative zones do not line up. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Circles and squares form the unifying theme of the interior design. The checkerboard floor pattern contrasts with the concentric circles of square coffers in the dome </li></ul>
Religion <ul><li>It’s possible that the Pantheon had an impact on Western religion </li></ul><ul><li>the Pantheon appears to be the first temple built with general public access in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Temples of the ancient world were generally limited only to specific priests </li></ul><ul><li>The Pantheon existed for all the people </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Pantheon is still used as a church today </li></ul><ul><li>Masses are celebrated there on important Catholic days of obligation and weddings </li></ul>