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Pantheon Rome

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The Pantheon is the oldest building in the world, which is in continue use for about 2000 years. It also highlighted Roman engineering advances.

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Pantheon Rome

  1. 1. Pantheon, Rome Pantheon It was built in 118-125 AD, nearly 2000 years ago. The poet Shelley called it “The unmeasured dome of Heaven.” A Roman MasterpieceAll rights reserved. Rights belong to their respective owners. Availablefree for non-commercial and personal use. First created. 6 Sep 2010. Version 2.0. 28.3.12. London. Jerry Tse
  2. 2. Timeline of the Roman world
  3. 3. Roman world under Hadrian During the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD), the Roman Empire stretched all the way from Scotland to the Persian Gulf. All the lands bordering the Mediterranean sea were part of the Roman Empire. During his time the empire was relatively at peace with its neighbouring tribes. The only formidable enemy was the Parthian Empire, in now Iran, on the Eastern frontier.
  4. 4. Roman constructions Coffered vaultThe Roman invented concretewhich was forgotten after thecollapse of the empire. Togetherwith bricks, these werecommonly used in construction.The Roman also used archesextensively. Many of itsbuildings used curves in theirconstruction. The Coliseum andthe Pantheon are two well-known Concrete vaultexamples. Rubble Wall Central heating Arch
  5. 5. Interior The Roman Pantheon The Pantheon was built as a temple, just outside Rome. On the original building the dome was with sheets of bronze giving it a shinny golden surface. The lower part of the external wall were covered with marbles. It also had a bronze door.
  6. 6. A marvel of Roman engineering
  7. 7. Pantheon
  8. 8. Pantheon - HistoryIn 27-25 BC, it was the siteused by Agrippa, who wantedto dedicate it to AugustusCaesar, his father-in-law.When Augustus declined thehonour, it was dedicated tothe major gods (Mars, Venusetc.) It was rectangular inshape.The current building wasrebuilt between 118 and 125AD, during the reign ofHadrian.It the 609 AD the building wastransform into a church,dedicated to Santa Maria deiMartyri, after the bones ofChristian martyrs werebought here from thecatacombs.
  9. 9. 19C view
  10. 10. Pantheon – A milestone in the history of Architecture.
  11. 11. Pantheon – The Approach
  12. 12. Pantheon – The external brick wall
  13. 13. map Plaza Navona Pantheon
  14. 14. Pantheon – The Portico
  15. 15. Pantheon – A brilliant composition of geometric forms.The main components ofthe building – the portico,the rotunda and the dome.
  16. 16. Oculus Method of Construction Buttressing The ceiling is an unreinforced concrete dome resting on a thick Coffers domePortico circular wall or rotunda. The circular opening at the top of the dome is called the Oculus, providing light and Rotunda ventilation. The Pantheon has a coffered dome. This reduces the material used for Pier, support for span construction and therefore the weight of the ceiling.From the diagram above you can alsosee the cross-section of the roof getthinner as the dome gets higher. 7 recesses for 7 godsVery light stone called pumice, whichfloat on water, were used as the rawmaterial with the concrete. It furtherreduce the weight of the dome. Piers Portico
  17. 17. The giant doorway
  18. 18. Pantheon – The concrete ceiling
  19. 19. The Oculus – only source of lightThe diameter of the dome is 43.3 meters (142 ft). It remained the largest dome in theworld for more than a millennium and is still the world’s largest unreinforced concretedome. There are 5 rows of coffers, to reduce the weight of the dome, around the ceiling.
  20. 20. Tomb The statue of St Rasius.
  21. 21. The bust of Sanzio Raphael, at his grave.
  22. 22. Raphael, the painter buries here. There is a small black statue of him on the wall marking his grave. Raphael’s tomb
  23. 23. Pantheon – Seven niches for seven gods.
  24. 24. Interior Pantheon – The oldest building in the world, still in use today. This is the best preserved building of ancient Rome.
  25. 25. The main altar
  26. 26. AltarPantheon – The high altar
  27. 27. The ceiling over the main altar
  28. 28. Pantheon – The high altar
  29. 29. The tomb of the first king of Italy
  30. 30. Pantheon – The entrance
  31. 31. Pantheon – The ceiling of the portico
  32. 32. Pantheon – The portico
  33. 33. Pantheon – The side of the portico
  34. 34. Pantheon – at night
  35. 35. The End Music - Albinoni’s oboe concerto in C Major, op 9 no 57 -All rights reserved. Rights belong to their respective owners. Available 1st movement. Allegrofree for non-commercial and personal use.

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