• The Parthenon was the largest temple on Greek mainland at that time.
• It was built during the 5th century BC. (447BC. ~ 438BC.).
• It is now one of the most famous heritage in the world.
ATHENA VS POSEIDON
• In the legend in Greek, Athena (daughter of Zeus, God of Intelligent)
and Poseidon (son of Zeus, God of Sea) fought for a city in Greek,
which was the Athens. In the end, Athena won by giving the reason
that she can bring peace and wealth to Athens. And so, the citizens of
Athens started to worship Athena.
• During the 5th century BC., the Ancient Persian Empire attacked
Athens. Athens won the battle for twice but lost at the third time. The
Persians offense the city and destroyed everything.
• At the year of 461BC., Pericles had
safe Athens and grant it a brand new
• Pericles is the most famous
politician of the Ancient Greek.
• Pericles’s period was the most famous
Golden Age among all time of the
• He was also the origin who invented
the system of democracy.
• At that time, Pericles wanted to dedicate a
brand new temple to Goddess Athena.
Hence, he asked three of these people to build
the temple, which is now the Parthenon.
• These three people were Ictinus, Callicrates
• Ictinus and Callicrates were the most
flourished architect during the 5th century
BC., while Phidias was Pericles’s best friend,
one of the greatest Athenian sculptor at that
time, said by the people, he was the artistic
director of the construction of the Parthenon.
• This temple was built
on top of the Athenian
Acropolis was the
highest land of
• In the past, the
Acropolis was the place
where they built their
government building, as
the people said, it was
the highest land in
Athens, hence they
built the most
important building on
top of it. Now, the
Parthenon was built on
• After about 9 years of time,
the most luxurious temple,
Parthenon was finally done
built. The citizens of Athens
dedicated it to the Goddess
Athena during the greatest
‘Panathenaia’. Since that
day, the Athenian live in
peace and happiness.
• The Parthenon was built by costly materials, as the people
mentioned, the reason why Pericles made the Parthenon this
extravagant was to serve it not just as a temple, but also served
it as a national exchequer.
• Yet, days of blissful did not seems
long. 7 years afterwards, Athens
enmeshed into war again.
• 431BC., the Spartans attacked
Athens, Pericles retreated due to the
great disparity of the fighting force.
• Unexpectedly, just after the Athenians
retreated, plague burst in Athens,
most of the Athenians dead, and also
• In the end, Athens fell to Spartans’
• In the next 2000 years, Athens kept fell into the hands of other empire.
• The Parthenon was used as other uses by the people, it became
churches, mosques, and even gunpowder keg.
• 17th century BC., the Parthenon was hit by the artillery from the war
between the Venetians and the Ottomans.
• Parthenon was then left only few groups of pillars and walls.
• Last but not least, at year 1801,
culture ransacked happened.
Lord Elgin from England
ransacked most of the relics of
the Parthenon and brought
them all the way back to
England with the excuse of
protecting the relics.
At the year of 1829, Greek
finally ended the Osman
Military rule after 400 years.
Greek government started to
reclaim the Parthenon relics
from England, but they kept
delaying and even ignored
• Year 1975, the Greek
government hired the
and sculptors, intended
to rebuild the
• Yet, these people did a
mistake that almost
caused the Parthenon
• The rebuild of Parthenon
is still continuing until
• Another question, where is
the Parthenos Athena
• Said by the people, during
the Roman Empire, the
sculpture was brought away
by one of the Roman
Emperor to the
• Yet it was turned out to be
• What about Lord Elgin? He was detained by French and was put into
prison. During that time, the Parthenon relics was found in his cellar.
After Lord Elgin left the prison, he sold all the relic to the England
• The relics were now the most precious collections of The British
• By the way, this is the origin of the word “Elginism”, which means
cultural or historical ransack.
• The Parthenon is an extravagant
temple that Pericles decided to
build and dedicate it to the
Goddess Athena. Besides, he also
intended to make it as a national
exchequer. Hence the materials
used to build this temple was
• The materials used to build the
main structure, which was the
pillars, walls and foundation was
Pentelic marbles and
limestones while for the
materials used for the sculptures
was Parian marbles, gold and
• The Parthenos
was 38 ft. tall, built
by gold and ivory.
The eyes of the
Athena was made by
• The gown of the
Athena alone cost
pounds of gold.
• Besides being a temple, this building was also known as the vital building of
democracy, due to Pericles was the one who decided to build this temple and
he was the one who invented the system of democracy.
• Hence, this building was
designed in Doric order to
show the democracy system
initiated by Pericles.
• Although the temple is Doric
order, a marked counterpoint
Ionian by four columns that are
in order undoubtedly exists after
the goddess and which should
keep the material values that
were the treasure of the
• The measures of its sides, height
and separation columns remain
exactly the same between them.
• The temple itself is fraught
with optical refinements.
This makes the Parthenon
seem even more perfect as
it correct distortions that
inevitably leads to the human
eyes to see.
• The columns are wider in its
central part to correct the
distortions generated by the
human eye to see a slim object
• The base is slightly
curved, stands with
regard to their side
10cm in length and 5 at
its short side. This
makes the feeling to
watch is that of a
• The columns are
slightly inclined to
join a trend in its
top to look at from
beneath the sensation
that they are perfectly
• The radian of the pillar was the
radian of 1 meter away from a
• Besides, the pillars were actually a
stacked up work of few pieces of
• Every piece of the short column is
unique, that they cannot fit
together with other column as
they had their own particular
place to be fit into.
• The gap between the columns
can’t even been stab by knife.
• Besides, this building also shows the golden ration.
• It is a very significant example of all time to show
golden ration on a building.
THE END & THANK YOU!
TAN JINGWEI (0320137 / ARCHI)
DEENIE H’YATT BIIN JUMAT (0319719 / ARCHI)
HAU KAE SHIUN (0322143 / MECH EN)