Roman architecture

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  • Height above river 160’. Width of road bed on lower arcade is 20’.
  • Roman architecture

    1. 1. Roman Imperial Art:Architecture<br />Reading:<br />Stokstad, 168-177<br />Range:<br />200 BCE-400 CE<br />Roman Republican, Roman Imperial<br />Terms/Concepts:<br />axial, aqueduct, arch, arcade, vault, keystone, barrel vault, groin vault, voussoirs, spandrels, engaged column, doric, ionic, corinthian, acanthus, basilica, calderium, frigidarium, tepidarium, bread and circuses, palestra.<br />Key Monuments:<br /><ul><li>Temple, perhaps dedicated to Portunus. Roman Republic, Late second century BCE.
    2. 2. Pont du Gard, Nîmes (France). Imperial Roman, Late first century BCE.
    3. 3. Flavian Amphitheater (the Coliseum). Imperial Roman, 70-80 CE.
    4. 4. Apollodorus of Damascus. Forum of Trajan, Imperial Roman, c. 112 CE.
    5. 5. Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Imperial Roman, c.211 CE.</li></li></ul><li>★Rome is known fundamentally as an urban civilization<br />Mosaic of the Goddess Roma, 1st-2nd Century CE <br />Model of the City of Imperial Rome<br />
    6. 6. Temple (perhaps dedicated to Portunus)In the Cattle Market, Rome. Late second century BCE. <br />
    7. 7. Seen from rear.<br />Temple (perhaps dedicated to Portunus)In the Cattle Market, Rome. Late second century BCE. <br />
    8. 8. Temple (perhaps dedicated to Portunus)In the Cattle Market, Rome. Late second century BCE. <br />
    9. 9. Iktinos and Kallikrates. The Parthenon (seen from northwest). Athens, Greece. 447-438 BCE. <br />Reconstruction of an Etruscan temple, according to description by Vitruvius. <br />
    10. 10. Reconstruction of an Etruscan temple, according to description by Vitruvius. <br />Iktinos and Kallikrates. The Parthenon Athens, Greece, 447-438 BCE. <br />Temple, perhaps dedicated to Portunus,In the Cattle Market, Rome. Late 2nd century BCE<br />
    11. 11. Nîmes<br />
    12. 12. <ul><li> Aqueduct: An artificial channel for transporting water from a distant source</li></ul>Pont du Gard, Nîmes (France). Late first century BCE. <br />
    13. 13. <ul><li>Aqueduct: An artificial channel for transporting water from a distant source</li></ul>Pont du Gard, Nîmes (France). Late first century BCE. <br />
    14. 14. Pont du Gard, Nîmes (France). Late first century BCE. <br />
    15. 15. Pont du Gard, Nîmes (France). Late first century BCE. <br />
    16. 16. <ul><li>Voussoir: A wedge-shaped block used in the construction of an arch
    17. 17. The central voussoir is the keystone</li></li></ul><li>The distribution of weight on an arcade.<br />
    18. 18. FlavianAmpitheater 72-80 CE<br />Vespasian 69-79 CE<br />Titus  79-80 CE<br />
    19. 19.
    20. 20. ★Engaged columns only give the impression of support. The arcades could support themselves.<br />Corinthian<br />Engaged columns<br />Ionic<br />Doric<br />Flavian Amphitheater (Coliseum), Rome, 72-80 BCE. <br />
    21. 21. Groin Vault<br />Flavian Amphitheater (Coliseum), Interior Vaults, Rome, 72-80 BCE. <br />
    22. 22. Diagram of an arch<br />Diagram of a barrel vault<br />Vaults supported the seats and substructure of the Coliseum.<br />
    23. 23. Diagram of a barrel vault<br />Diagram of a groin vault<br />Groin vaults are two crossed barrel vaults.<br />
    24. 24. Flavian Amphitheater (Colosseum) Reconstruction, Rome, 72-80 BCE. <br />
    25. 25. Inaugural festivities by Emperor Titus: 100 days, in which 9,000 animals and 2,000 gladiators were killed.<br />Flavian Amphitheater (Coliseum), Rome, 72-80 BCE. <br />
    26. 26. Flavian Amphitheater (Coliseum), Rome, 72-80 BCE. <br />
    27. 27. Gladiatorial Entertainments, “Zliten Mosaic”, Dar BucAmmera Villa, Zliten, Libya, c. before 80 CE<br />
    28. 28. Musicians and Costumed Performers<br />Gladiatorial Entertainments, “Zliten Mosaic”, Dar BucAmmera Villa, Zliten, Libya, c. before 80 CE<br />
    29. 29. Gladiator vs. Gladiator<br />Gladiatorial Entertainments, “Zliten Mosaic”, Dar BucAmmera Villa, Zliten, Libya, c. before 80 CE<br />
    30. 30. Gladiator vs. Beast<br />Gladiatorial Entertainments, “Zliten Mosaic”, Dar BucAmmera Villa, Zliten, Libya, c. before 80 CE<br />
    31. 31. Beast vs. Beast<br />Gladiatorial Entertainments, “Zliten Mosaic”, Dar BucAmmera Villa, Zliten, Libya, c. before 80 CE<br />
    32. 32. ★ 80 exits to accommodate 50,000 spectators <br />Flavian Amphitheater (Coliseum), Rome, 72-80 BCE. <br />
    33. 33. Forum of Trajan<br />Dacia<br />Rome<br />Trajan  98-117 CE<br />
    34. 34. Forum of Trajan<br />
    35. 35. M a r k e t s<br />Temple to the Divine Trajan<br />Basilica Ulpia<br />Libraries<br />Longitudinal Axis<br />Column of Trajan<br />Apollodorus of Damascus. Forum of Trajan, (reconstruction), Dedicated in 112 CE. <br />
    36. 36. Apollodorus of Damascus, Forum of Trajan (Model), c. 117 CE.<br />
    37. 37. Apollodorus of Damascus, Entrance to the Basilica Ulpia, Forum of Trajan, c. 117 CE.<br />
    38. 38. Apollodorus of Damascus, Basilica Ulpia, Forum of Trajan, c. 117 CE.<br />
    39. 39. *Merchants’ Stalls<br />*Taverns/Food Stalls<br />*Communal Space<br />Apollodorus of Damascus, Markets, Forum of Trajan, c. 117 CE.<br />
    40. 40. The Pantheon<br />Hadrian  117-138 CE <br />
    41. 41. The Pantheon<br />Pantheon<br />
    42. 42. ★Temple dedicated to all the gods (pan=all and theion=gods)<br />dome<br />pediment<br />cylindrical <br />drum<br />porch<br />The Pantheon, Rome, c. 118-125 CE.<br />
    43. 43. Temple, perhaps dedicated to Portunus. In the Cattle Market, Rome. Late second century BCE. <br />The Pantheon, Rome, c. 118-125 CE.<br />
    44. 44. ★20 feet<br />Oculus<br />Coffer<br />★60 feet<br />★ 143 feet<br />The Pantheon, Rome, c. 118-125 CE.<br />
    45. 45. ★Niches once held the statues of gods, but were replaced by saints in 609 by Pope Boniface IV.<br />The Pantheon, Interior, Rome, c. 118-125 CE.<br />
    46. 46. The Baths of Caracalla<br />Caracalla  c. 211-217 CE <br />
    47. 47. The Baths of Caracalla<br />
    48. 48. The Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211 CE<br />
    49. 49. The Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211 CE<br />
    50. 50. The Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211 CE<br />
    51. 51. Calderium, The Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211 CE<br />
    52. 52. The Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211 CE<br />
    53. 53. Mosaics, The Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211 CE<br />
    54. 54. Critical Thinking Questions<br />What is the importance of construction to Roman emperorship and empire-building?<br />What were some of the major structural and material innovations of Roman engineers?<br />What are some key differences between Roman temples and Greek temples?<br />What does the term “bread and circuses” mean? How does this connect to architecture?<br />

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