Presentation1 of lucture of friday20 08-10 final


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Presentation of OB

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  • 4 Figure 1.1 illustrates how organizational behavior concepts and theories allow people to correctly understand, describe, and analyze the characteristics of individuals, groups, work situations, and the organization itself.
  • Organizational behavior can be examined at 3 levels: organizational, group, and individual. OB is particularly important to managers.
  • Figure 1.3 illustrates how the text covers the three levels of organizational behavior. Part I includes chapters 2-9. Part 2 includes chapters 10-15. Part 3 includes chapters 16-18.
  • “ Two heads are better than one” Generates more possible alternatives Fosters acceptance of the decision Increased legitimacy Group may work harder to implement decisions Groups tend to reduce cognitive biases and can call on combined skills and abilities Disadvantages of using groups to make decisions: Domination by one individual (or a minority) Time consuming Pressure for consensus Decreased or ambiguous responsibility Groupthink: biased decision making resulting from group members striving for agreement
  • Presentation1 of lucture of friday20 08-10 final

    1. 1. Organizational Behavior by Khurram Wasim Khan <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul>
    2. 2. OB is the study of individual behavior and group dynamics in organization settings Define Organizational Behavior
    3. 3. Why Study OB? <ul><li>Satisfy the need to understand and predict </li></ul><ul><li>Helps us to test personal theories </li></ul><ul><li>Influence behavior – get things done </li></ul><ul><li>OB improves an organization’s financial health </li></ul><ul><li>OB is for everyone </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is organizational behavior and why is it important? <ul><li>Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of individuals and groups in organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes high performance organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in a global context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions of individual and group behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core processes. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What is organizational behavior and why is it important? <ul><li>Organizational behavior and diversity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workforce diversity is the presence of differences based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race and ethnicity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abel-bodiedness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Organizational behavior and diversity — cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuing diversity is a core OB theme. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal and cultural sensitivity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass ceiling effect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women and minorities as managers and executives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earnings of women and minorities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational behavior and diversity — cont. </li></ul>
    7. 7. How do we learn about organizational behavior? <ul><li>Organizational behavior and the learning imperative. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational learning is the process of acquiring knowledge and utilizing information to adapt successfully to changing circumstances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessity of life-long learning. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. What is Organizational Behavior? Insert Figure 1.1 here
    9. 9. Levels of Analysis Group Level Individual Level Organizational Level
    10. 10. Components of Organizational Behavior Understanding organizational behavior requires studying Individuals in Organizations Group and Team Processes Organizational Processes
    11. 11. What are organizations like as work settings? <ul><li>Purpose, mission, and strategies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core purpose of an organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission and vision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission statements. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. What are organizations like as work settings? <ul><li>People and work systems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The sum total of knowledge, expertise, and dedication of an organization’s workforce . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material resources. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Old Perspective of Organizational Effectiveness <ul><li>Goal oriented -- Effective firms achieve their stated objectives </li></ul><ul><li>No longer accepted as indicator of org effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could set easy goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some goals too abstract to evaluate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company might achieve wrong goals </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Organizational Learning Perspective <ul><li>An organization’s capacity to acquire, share, use, and store valuable knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Need to consider both stock and flow of knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock: intellectual capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow: org learning processes of acquisition, sharing, and use </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The Science that seeks to measures, explain and sometime change the behavior of humans and other animals. Psychology Learning Motivation Personality Emotion Perception Training Leadership Effectiveness Job Satisfaction Individual decision making Performance appraisal Attitude measurement Employee Selection Work design Work stress Psychology Individuals
    16. 16. Sociology <ul><li>“The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings” </li></ul>Group Dynamics Work teams Communication Power Conflict Inter-group behavior Organization System Sociology Former Organization theory Organizational technology Organizational changes Organizational culture Group
    17. 17. Social Sociology An area with in psychology that blends concepts from the psychology and Sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. Social psychology Behavior Change Attitude Change Communication Group processes Group decision making Group
    18. 18. Anthropology The Society of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Comparative Value Comparative attitudes Cross-culture analysis Group Anthropology Organizational Culture Organizational environment Organization System
    19. 19. Political Sciences <ul><li>The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment. </li></ul>Political Science Conflict Intra-organizational Politics Power Organizational System
    20. 20. Define Psychology The Science that seeks to measures, explain and sometime change the behavior of humans and other animals. Psychology Sociology Social Psychology Anthropology Political Science Organization Group Individual Study of Organizational Behavior
    21. 21. <ul><li>Organizational Learning: Managers seek to improve member’s ability to understand the organization and environment so as to raise effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The learning organization: managers try to improve the people’s ability to behave creatively to maximize organizational learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creativity: is the ability of the decision maker to discover novel ideas leading to a feasible course of action. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A creative management staff and employees are the key to the learning organization </li></ul></ul>Organizational Learning & Creativity
    22. 22. <ul><li>Senge suggests top managers follow several steps to build in learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Mastery: managers empower employees and allow them to create and explore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Models: challenge employees to find new, better methods to perform a task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team Learning : is more important than individual learning since most decisions are made in groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a Shared Vision: a people share a common mental model of the firm to evaluate opportunities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems Thinking: know that actions in one area of the firm impacts all others. </li></ul></ul>Creating a Learning Organization
    23. 23. Individual Creativity <ul><li>Organizations can build an environment supportive of creativity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of these issues are the same as for the learning organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers must provide employees with the ability to take risks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If people take risks, they will occasionally fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus, to build creativity, periodic failures must be rewarded. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This idea is hard to accept for some managers. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Building Group Creativity <ul><li>Brainstorming: group members introduce all possible solutions before evaluating any of them </li></ul><ul><li>Four main rules of brainstorming: </li></ul><ul><li>avoid criticizing others’ ideas </li></ul><ul><li>share even wild suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>offer as many suggestions and supportive comments as possible </li></ul><ul><li>build on others’ suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Production blocking: </li></ul><ul><li>a potential problem with brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Members cannot absorb all the information being presented during the session and can forget their own alternatives </li></ul>
    25. 25. Building Group Creativity <ul><li>Nominal Group Technique: a group process where members are a group in name only - do not attempt to agree as a group on any solution </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal Group Process: </li></ul><ul><li>each member writes down his or her ideas </li></ul><ul><li>ideas are presented orally and recorded for all to see </li></ul><ul><li>ideas are discussed simultaneously for clarity </li></ul><ul><li>members individually rank and secretly vote on each proposed solution (idea) </li></ul><ul><li>the idea with the most individual votes is accepted </li></ul>
    26. 26. Building Group Creativity <ul><li>Delphi Technique: a group process where members do not actually meet - usually very time-consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi Technique Process: </li></ul><ul><li>A problem is identified </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator asks experts for solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Experts’ opinions are compiled and analyzed for common factors </li></ul><ul><li>Experts’ opinions are resubmitted for review of results and request for opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Process is continued until a consensus is reached </li></ul>
    27. 27. Group Decision Making <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Groups can accumulate more knowledge and facts </li></ul><ul><li>Groups have a broader perspective and consider more alternative solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals who participate in the decision making process are more satisfied with the decisions and are more likely to support it </li></ul><ul><li>Group decision process serves an important communication function as well as a political function </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Groups often work more slowly than individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Group decisions involve considerable compromise which may lead to less than optimal decision </li></ul><ul><li>Groups are often dominated by one individual or a small clique, thereby negating many of the virtues of group procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Over-reliance on group decisions can inhibit management’s ability to act quickly and decisively when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Groupthink –biased decision as striving for agreement </li></ul>