Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Group dynamics by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )


Published on

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Group dynamics by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )

  1. 1. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 1 C11 Group Dynamics
  2. 2. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 2 C11Introduction We define “group” as more than two employees who have an ongoing relationship in which they interact and influence one another’s behaviour and performance. The behaviour of individuals in groups is something more than the sum total of each acting in his or her own way. In other words, when individuals are in groups, they act differently than they do when they are alone  A group is a collection of two or more interacting individuals with a stable pattern of relationships between them over a period of time who share common goals & interests Foundation of Group Behaviour
  3. 3. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 3 C11Nature / Features of Group  Two or more persons- for a group to exist, it must have at least two members. The members are all dependent on each other.  Interaction- Each member must interact with one another on a regular basis in some form or the other, ie, face to face, over the telephone etc  Reasonable size- From an organizational point of view, a group should be of a reasonable number of people, not too large neither too small  Common interest- members of the group must have some common goals or interests  Stability- there must be some stable relationships that keep group members together. Constant changes are not appreciated  Collective Identity- Each member must believe that he is a member of some specific group. There should be a sense of belongingness towards the group & a commitment towards its objectives Foundation of Group Behaviour
  4. 4. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 4 C11Nature / Features of Group (…contd)  Role Structures – levels of hierarchy are decided  Norms – rules & regulations to be followed by group members  Cohesiveness – level of attachment which group members have towards each other  Leadership – nature of the leadership style followed by the manager in charge  Status – whether the group is recognized formally or is it an informal group  Tasks – the reporting & responsibility relationship followed within the organisation Foundation of Group Behaviour
  5. 5. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 5 C11 Types of Groups  Formal Groups – set up by the organization  Command Group – consists of a manager & his subordinates, membership arises from each employee’s position in the organization  Task Group – is made up of employees who work together to complete a particular task  Informal Groups – established by individuals on their own  Friendship Groups – established due to social relationships  Interest Groups – people for attaining specific objectives  Reference Groups – co-wrkers, friends, superiors & subordinates  Membership Groups – members of certain committees etc Foundation of Group Behaviour
  6. 6. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 6 C11Reasons for Forming Groups  Performance – enhanced performance by combining different skills of people from different segments of the organization  Cooperation – several groups of people can cooperate mutually to accomplish common goals  Satisfaction – groups also helps in improving motivation levels of people as it creates a sense of belongingness towards work & organization Foundation of Group Behaviour
  7. 7. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 7 C11Why do People Join Groups? Why do People Join Groups? Security By joining a group, individuals can reduce the insecurity of standing alone. People feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group. Status Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members. Self-Esteem Groups can provide people with feelings of self-worth. That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves. Affiliation Groups can fulfill social needs. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. For many people, these on-the-job interactions are their primary source for fulfilling their needs for affiliation. Power What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. There is power in numbers. Goal Achievement There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task – there is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to get a job completed. In such instances, management will rely on the use of a formal group.Source: Stephen P Robbins “ Organizational Behavior – Concepts, Controversies, Applications” (seventh Edition) Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 (1996) page 296. Foundation of Group Behaviour
  8. 8. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 8 C11Stages of Group Development  Forming – in this stage employees are selected for different purposes after a thorough analysis of the personality of individuals selected for a group  Storming – this is a phase of brainstorming wherein different selected individuals decide on different aspects of the group for like leader, treasurer etc  Norming – In this stage group members form the norms, rules & regulations of the group which are to be followed by the group members  Performing – the group becomes fully functional at this stage. Members coordinate with each other for achieving the results so designed by the groups & they focus on goals to be achieved  Adjourning – Once objectives are achieved, the temporary groups are dissolved Foundation of Group Behaviour
  9. 9. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 9 C11External Conditions Imposed on the Group  Authority Structures – this defines who reports to whom, who makes decisions, lays down the manager-subordinate relationship  Organizational Culture – this defines standards of acceptable & unacceptable behavior of employees  Formal Regulations – organizations create rules, procedures, policies & other regulations to standardize employee behavior  Organizational Resources – limited resources limited work groups, larger the resources, higher is the productivity of the work groups  Physical Work Setting – infrastructural settings of the workplace should be conducive to performance  Reward System – higher rewards, better is the productivity of the members & vice versa Foundation of Group Behaviour
  10. 10. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 10 C11Techniques for Group Decision Making  Brainstorming- the idea is to generate as many ideas as possible until a final solution is reached & accepted by all members  Nominal Group Technique (NGT) – interpersonal communication is restricted, members list their suggestions separately, then ideas are voted in or voted out  Delphi Technique – members provide solutions through a set of questionnaires, solutions are then drafted by experts & maximum efforts are made to ensure acceptance of these solutions by all members  Electronic Meetings – participants anonymously provide suggestions online which are then discussed & finalized Foundation of Group Behaviour
  11. 11. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 11 C11Techniques for Group Decision Making  Devil’s Advocacy - a section of the group plays the role of a critic and finds problems in every suggestion given in order to avoid future mistakes  Quality Circles and Quality Teams – different teams are formed for improving the existing processes and thus improve quality of performance in the organization. The role is mainly advisory in nature  Self-Managed Teams – team members are delegated certain responsibility & authority with regard to the decision making processes Foundation of Group Behaviour
  12. 12. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 12 C11Obstacles to Group Productivity  Role Ambiguity – vagueness in the work to be performed  Role Conflict – twin reporting relationships  Role Overload – too much work is assigned to one person  Groupthink – overemphasis on consensus & agreement leads members to be unwilling to evaluate group member’s ideas critically & accept ideas even when they don’t agree to it  Social Loafing – when one or more group members rely on the efforts of other members of the group for getting the work done & thus fail to contribute their own ideas  Production Blocking – improper infrastructural facilities which hampers productivity Foundation of Group Behaviour
  13. 13. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 11 – 13 C11Increasing Group Productivity  Member Motivation  Group Goals – clearly defined group goals will provide the right direction to members  Reward Structure – performance linked pay structure should be there  Cohesiveness – attachment among team members helps them work cooperatively  Communication Structure- two way flow of communication & clarity in voicing opinions should be given due weight age Foundation of Group Behaviour