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  • Review chapter objectives.
  • Explain cause and effect.Discuss the hints for writing a cause or effect paragraph.
  • Discuss the steps to writing a cause or effect paragraph.
  • Have students freewrite about owning a pet.Have the students review their freewriting and make separate lists.Divide the class in half and have half of the class list the causes of owning a pet and the other half list the effects of owning a pet.Allow students to work together to create a topic sentence for their cause or effect paragraph.
  • Have students draft an outline for their cause or effect paragraph about owing a pet.Review the checklist for revising the outline of a cause or effect paragraph.Discuss the order of causes or effects.Allow students an opportunity to select an order for their cause or effect paragraph.
  • Direct students to write a first draft for their cause or effect paragraph about owning a pet.Review the checklist for revising the draft of a cause or effect paragraph.Discuss transitions and making the links clear.Allow students to peer review the first draft in partner groups.Have students revise their drafts.
  • In partner groups, have students proofread each other’s cause or effect paragraphon owning a pet.Review Lines of Detail, Topics for Writing, and Topics for Critical Thinking and Writing sections.

Transcript

  • 1. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 2. CHAPTER 9: CAUSE AND EFFECTCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 3. CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LEARNING OBJECTIVESIn this chapter, you will learn to: identify immediate and long-range causes and effects, devise suitable topics, and write a cause or effect paragraph that incorporates appropriate transitions and details.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 4. WHAT IS CAUSE AND EFFECT? When you explain the reasons for something, you are writing causes. When you write about the results of something, you are writing about effects. Hints for Writing a Cause or Effect Paragraph 1. Pick a topic you can handle in one paragraph. 2. Try to have at least three causes or effects in your paragraph. 3. Make your causes or effects clear and specific. 4. Write a topic sentence that indicates whether your paragraph is about causes or effects.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 5. WRITING THE CAUSE OR EFFECT PARAGRAPH IN STEPS PrewritingCause or Effect—how to generate and develop ideas for your cause or effect paragraph Planning Cause or Effect—how to organize your ideas for your cause or effect paragraph Drafting and Revising Cause or Effect—how to create, revise, and edit rough drafts of your cause or effect paragraph Proofreading Cause or Effect—how to proofread and make one final check of your cause or effect paragraphCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 6. PREWRITING CAUSE OR EFFECT Once you pick a topic, the next step is getting ideas. Freewriting on a Topic  Think about causes and effects  Review the freewriting and make separate lists of the causes and effects.  You should have at least three causes or effects. Devising a Topic Sentence  With at least three causes or effects and some details for each cause or effect, you can create a topic sentence.  With a topic sentence and a list of details, you can begin working on the planning stage.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 7. PLANNING CAUSE OR EFFECT With a topic sentence and a list of causes (or effects) and details, you can draft an outline. Checklist for Revising the Outline of a Cause or Effect Paragraph The Order of Causes or Effects  time order  emphatic order  logical orderCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 8. DRAFTING AND REVISING CAUSE OR EFFECT Once you have an outline, a sufficient number of causes or effects, and details, you can write a first draft. Checklist for Revising the Draft of a Cause or Effect Paragraph Linking Ideas in Cause or Effect  Info Box: Transitions for a Cause or Effect Paragraph Making the Links Clear  Writing phrases, clauses, or sentences that help the reader follow your point Revising the DraftCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 9. PROOFREADING CAUSE OR EFFECT Check for errors in spelling, grammar, or preparation. Lines of Detail: A Walk-Through Assignment Topics for Writing a Cause or Effect Paragraph Topics for Critical Thinking and WritingCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 10. WHAT ARE CAUSES?A. basic building block.B. Effects.C. results of somethingD. reasons for somethingCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 11. WHAT ARE CAUSES?A. basic building blocksB. Effects.C. results of somethingD. reasons for somethingwrite a cause or effect paragraph that incorporatesappropriate transitions and detailsCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 12. WHAT ARE EFFECTS?A. Causes.B. building blocks.C. results of something.D. reasons for something.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 13. WHAT ARE EFFECTS?A. Causes.B. building blocksC. results of somethingD. reasons for somethingwrite a cause or effect paragraph that incorporatesappropriate transitions and detailsCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 14. FROM THE LIST BELOW, FIND A LONG-RANGE EFFECTFOR PASSING A SCIENCE CLASS.A. Good grades.B. Positive self-concept about ability.C. Able to help struggling classmates.D. Improved GPA.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 15. FROM THE LIST BELOW, FIND A LONG-RANGE EFFECTFOR PASSING A SCIENCE CLASS. A. Good grades. B. Positive self-concept about ability. C. Able to help struggling classmates. D. Improved GPA. identify immediate and long-range causes and effects Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 16. FROM THE LIST BELOW, FIND AN IMMEDIATECAUSE FOR A CAR ACCIDENT.A. Condition of the road.B. Weather conditions.C. Vehicle conditions.D. Driver runs a stoplight.Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 17. FROM THE LIST BELOW, FIND AN IMMEDIATECAUSE FOR A CAR ACCIDENTA. Condition of the roadB. Weather conditionsC. Vehicle conditionsD. Driver runs a stoplightidentify immediate and long-rangecauses and effectsCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 18. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A SUITABLE TOPIC FOR ACAUSE OR EFFECT PARAGRAPH? A. How My Instructor’s Kindness Changed My Fate B. The Reasons I Was Accused of Plagiarism C. Why I Am Anorexic D. The Impact of Unemployment on College Students Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 19. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A SUITABLE TOPIC FOR ACAUSE OR EFFECT PARAGRAPH? A. How My Instructor’s Kindness Changed My Fate B. The Reasons I Was Accused of Plagiarism C. Why I Am Anorexic D. The Impact of Unemployment on College Students devise suitable topics Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.